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Theses/Dissertations

Electrophysiology

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe Apr 2018

Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Millions of people suffer from tinnitus, a disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment or cure. My dissertation work provides insight into the neural correlates of this pervasive hearing disorder and examines how a newly emerging therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), affects the central auditory system in the generation of the tinnitus percept. This work has a multifold focus of: i) developing and modeling the function of a miniature magnetic coil that can be used for TMS in rodents, ii) establishing a reliable mouse model of tinnitus that can be used for assessing TMS treatment-induced changes, iii) measuring ...


Stabilization Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor By Cobalt Chloride Can Alter Renal Transepithelial, Subhra Sankar Nag Jan 2018

Stabilization Of Hypoxia Inducible Factor By Cobalt Chloride Can Alter Renal Transepithelial, Subhra Sankar Nag

ETD Archive

Kidney cyst expansion, stagnant fluid accumulation, and insufficient vascular supply can result in localized chronic ischemia-hypoxia in kidney cysts, as well as in normal renal epithelia adjacent to a cyst. We hypothesize that in normal epithelia near a cyst, the stabilization of Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1a (HIF1a), a major regulator of cellular response to hypoxia, can cause altered paracellular and transcellular transport, transforming a normal absorptive phenotype to a secretory and paracellularly leaky phenotype, leading to cyst expansion. Using 100 µmol/L cobalt chloride (CoCl2), HIF1a was stabilized in cellular nucleus of a mouse cortical collecting duct cell line (mCCD ...


Interfacing A Hirudo Medicinalis Retzius Cell With Insulated Gate Of Mosfet, Rachel M. Smith Dec 2017

Interfacing A Hirudo Medicinalis Retzius Cell With Insulated Gate Of Mosfet, Rachel M. Smith

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Much work has been done to study the external stimulation of nervous tissue as well as the transmission of neural signals to electronics. Peter Fromherz was one of the pioneers in this area of electrophysiology, with a series of experiments in the 1990s that aimed to characterize and optimize the interface between neural tissue and transistors. In this thesis, Kurt Sjoberg and I interfaced a Retzius cell isolated from a Hirudo medicinalis ganglion with the insulated gate of a MOSFET. The goal was to see change in membrane potential that could be related Fromherz’s original 1991 work. Our experimental ...


Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht Apr 2017

Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The auditory temporal processing deficits associated with age-dependent hearing decline have been increasingly attributed to issues beyond peripheral hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also known as presbycusis, is linked with changes in the expression of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. There are also age-related changes in the expression and function of the ion channels which mediate action potential firing. The slow, Ca2+ activated, K+ channels of the BK-type are essential in controlling both neurotransmitter release and neural communication via alteration of action potential durations, firing frequency, and neural adaptation. There are many subsets ...


Assessing Dprestin & Nadc1 (Indy) Interaction On Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation In A Drosophila Model Of Kidney Stones, Jessica Lin Jan 2017

Assessing Dprestin & Nadc1 (Indy) Interaction On Calcium Oxalate Crystal Formation In A Drosophila Model Of Kidney Stones, Jessica Lin

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) accounts for >70%of kidney stones, yet why CaOx stones form is poorly understood. While several factors contribute to the stone aggregation and growth, elucidating the roles of oxalate transporters can help demystify this phenomenon. Using a Drosophila model to study the formation and inhibition of CaOx crystals in the fly Malpighian tubule (MT), oxalate transport via dPrestin—the fly Slc26a6 Cl-/Ox2- exchanger was studied using both electrophysiology and MT dissection with CaOx birefringence assays. Here, the fly model suffices as it recapitulates renal oxalate excretion. Additionally, the mammalian dicarboxylate transporter NaDC1 (Indy in Drosophila ...


Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash Jan 2017

Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Myotonia congenita is a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by a reduced chloride channel (ClC-1) current, which results in debilitating muscle hyperexcitability, prolonged contractions, and transient episodes of weakness. The excitatory events that trigger myotonic action potentials in the absence of stabilizing ClC-1 current are not fully understood. My in vitro intracellular recordings from a mouse homozygous knockout of ClC-1 revealed a slow after-depolarization (AfD) that triggers myotonic action potentials. The AfD is well-explained by a tetrododoxin-sensitive and voltage-dependent Na+ persistent inward current (NaPIC). Notably, this NaPIC undergoes slow inactivation over seconds, thus providing the first mechanistic explanation for the ...


Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash Jan 2017

Persistent Inward Currents Play A Role In Muscle Dysfunction Seen In Myotonia Congenita, Ahmed Alaa Hawash

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Myotonia congenita is a rare skeletal muscle channelopathy caused by a reduced chloride channel (ClC-1) current, which results in debilitating muscle hyperexcitability, prolonged contractions, and transient episodes of weakness. The excitatory events that trigger myotonic action potentials in the absence of stabilizing ClC-1 current are not fully understood. My in vitro intracellular recordings from a mouse homozygous knockout of ClC-1 revealed a slow after-depolarization (AfD) that triggers myotonic action potentials. The AfD is well-explained by a tetrododoxin-sensitive and voltage-dependent Na+ persistent inward current (NaPIC). Notably, this NaPIC undergoes slow inactivation over seconds, thus providing the first mechanistic explanation for the ...


A Mechanistically Guided Approach To Treatment Of Multi-Wavelet Reentry: Experiments In A Computational Model Of Cardiac Propagation, Richard T. Carrick Jan 2016

A Mechanistically Guided Approach To Treatment Of Multi-Wavelet Reentry: Experiments In A Computational Model Of Cardiac Propagation, Richard T. Carrick

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the United States today. However, treatment options remain limited despite the enormous magnitude of both AF prevalence and the associated economic cost. Of those treatment options that are available, ablation-based interventional methods have demonstrated the highest rates of long-term cure. Unfortunately, these methods have substantially lower efficacy in patients with heavier burdens of disease, thus leaving the most affected individuals with the least hope for successful treatment.

The focus of this research is to develop a mechanistically guided approach towards the treatment of multi-wavelet reentry (MWR), one of the primary ...


Device, Method, And Algorithm To Assess Changes In Cardiac Output Via Intracardiac Impedance Monitoring, Geoffrey Fredrick Schau Jun 2015

Device, Method, And Algorithm To Assess Changes In Cardiac Output Via Intracardiac Impedance Monitoring, Geoffrey Fredrick Schau

Dissertations and Theses

Cardiac output, the volume of blood pumped by the heart over time, is a powerful clinical metric used by physicians to assess overall cardiac health and patient well-being. However, current cardiac output estimation methods are typically invasive, time-consuming, expensive, or some combination of all three. Patients that receive artificial cardiac pacemaker devices are particularly susceptible to cardiac dysfunction and often require long-term cardiac monitoring support.

This thesis proposes a novel cardiac output monitoring solution which leverages an implantable intracardiac medical device. The principles of traditional impedance cardiography, an established cardiac output monitoring technique in practice for over fifty years, have ...


Resting-State Functional Network Disruptions In A Rodent Model Of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Tle), Ravnoor Singh Gill Jan 2015

Resting-State Functional Network Disruptions In A Rodent Model Of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (Tle), Ravnoor Singh Gill

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of drug-refractory epilepsy. The clinical application of non-invasively mapped networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) in humans has been rather limited due to heterogeneous (varying etiology, drugs, onset, latent period, etc.) patient groups. We employed a pharmacological (kainic acid) rodent model of TLE to measure the extent of functional network disruptions using rsfMRI, and study selected behaviors and olfactory to hippocampus transmission. Graph theoretical network modelling and analysis revealed significant increase in functional connectivity connectivity to the temporal lobe (hippocampus) in epileptic-rats compared to controls in the limbic ...


An Improved Adaptive Filtering Approach For Removing Artifact From The Electroencephalogram, Justin Ronald Estepp Jan 2015

An Improved Adaptive Filtering Approach For Removing Artifact From The Electroencephalogram, Justin Ronald Estepp

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The biophysics of volume conduction that enable electrophysiological data acquisition also result in the mixing of data sources including possible, undesirable noise sources at the electrode interface. This work specifically focuses on improving the performance of the recursive least-squares (RLS) adaptive filtering method for removing eye movement artifact from the electroencephalogram. In biophysically-inspired simulated data, the RLS algorithm is verified to produce results that are inferior to extended infomax independent component analysis (ICA), the most widely used artifact correction approach in this problem space, due to its non-linear filter phase response and the presence of bidirectional contamination, or cross-talk, resultant ...


Monitoring Of Cerebellar Injury Using Micro Ecog Signals In Ketamine/Xylazine Treated Rats, Gokhan Ordek Dec 2014

Monitoring Of Cerebellar Injury Using Micro Ecog Signals In Ketamine/Xylazine Treated Rats, Gokhan Ordek

Dissertations

Much of the cerebellar research has been conducted in anesthetized animals, particularly using ketamine/xylazine combination in rats, and yet the absolute impact of the anesthesia on the neural circuit remains unanswered . In the current study, spontaneous electrical activity and sensory evoked potentials from the cerebellar surface with chronically implanted, flexible-substrate, multielectrode arrays in rats were collected and analyzed with the motor cortex signals. The power spectra and the intercontact coherence plots of the spontaneous activity in the awake-quiet animals extended up to 800 Hz in the cerebellum and only up to 200 Hz in the motor cortex. Ketamine/xylazine ...


From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao Jan 2014

From Cardiac Optical Imaging Data To Body Surface Ecg: A Three Dimensional Ventricle Model, Yihua Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Understanding the mechanisms behind unexplained abnormal heart rhythms is important for diagnosis and prevention of arrhythmias. Many studies have investigated the mechanisms at organ, tissue, cellular and molecular levels. There is considerable information available from tissue level experiments that investigate local action potential properties and from optical imaging to observe activity propagation properties at an organ level. By combining those electrophysiological properties together, in the present study we developed a simulation model that can help in estimation of the resulting body surface potentials from a specific electrical activity pattern within the myocardium. Some of the potential uses of our model ...


Action Potential Simulation Of The Hirudo Medicinalis's Retzius Cell In Matlab, Zechari Ryan Tempesta Dec 2013

Action Potential Simulation Of The Hirudo Medicinalis's Retzius Cell In Matlab, Zechari Ryan Tempesta

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Modification of Hodgkin and Huxley’s experimentally derived set of nonlinear differential equations was implemented to accurately simulate the action potential of the Hirudo Medicinalis’s Retzius cell in MATLAB under analogous conditions to those found in the Retzius cell environment. The voltage-gated sodium and potassium channel responses to changes in membrane potential, as experimentally determined by Hodgkin and Huxley, were manipulated to suit simulation parameters established by electrophysiological Retzius cell recordings. Application of this methodology permitted additional accurate simulation of the Hirudo Medicinalis’s P cell under analogous conditions to those found in the P cell environment. Further refinement ...


A Novel Visual Stimulation Paradigm: Exploiting Individual Primary Visual Cortex Geometry To Boost Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (Ssvep), Marta Isabel Vanegas Arroyave Jan 2013

A Novel Visual Stimulation Paradigm: Exploiting Individual Primary Visual Cortex Geometry To Boost Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (Ssvep), Marta Isabel Vanegas Arroyave

Dissertations and Theses

The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is an electroencephalographic response to flickering stimuli generated in significant part by activity in primary visual cortex (V1). SSVEP signal-to-noise ratio is generally low for stimuli that are located in the visual periphery, at frequencies higher than 20 Hz, or at low contrast. Because of the typical "cruciform" geometry of V1, large stimuli tend to excite neighboring cortical regions of opposite orientation, likely resulting in electric field cancellation. In Study 1, we explored ways to exploit V1 geometry in order to boost scalp SSVEP amplitude via oscillatory summation, by manipulating flicker-phase offsets among angular ...


The Role Of Ca2+ In Central Respiratory Control Neurons Of The Locus Coeruleus: Development Of The Chemosensitive Brake, Ann Nicole Imber Jan 2012

The Role Of Ca2+ In Central Respiratory Control Neurons Of The Locus Coeruleus: Development Of The Chemosensitive Brake, Ann Nicole Imber

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Chemosensitive LC neurons increase their firing rate in response to increased CO2 (hypercapnia) in part via inhibition of K+ channels. This increase gets smaller during the first two postnatal weeks (neonatal rats aged P3-P16). Alterations of this "accelerating" pathway may account for the developmental changes in the magnitude of the chemosensitive response in LC neurons. Alternatively, Ca2+ and Ca2+ channels may play a role in the response to hypercapnia, but little is known about the role of Ca2+ in central chemosensitivity. Whole cell patch clamp and fluorescence imaging microscopy were used to study a different basis ...


Implementation Of Medicinal Leech Preparation To Investigate The Connection Between The Motor Neuron And Muscle Fiber Via Sharp Electrode Electrophysiology, Chandra Nikole Miller Dec 2011

Implementation Of Medicinal Leech Preparation To Investigate The Connection Between The Motor Neuron And Muscle Fiber Via Sharp Electrode Electrophysiology, Chandra Nikole Miller

Master's Theses and Project Reports

There are forty registered organophosphates in the United States and they range from pesticides and insecticides to nerve agents or neurotoxins such as sarin. Organophosphates (OP’s) have been used in chemical warfare for years and tend to lead to death due to an attack on the nervous system. Chemical assays and mass microscopy have been used to assess the concentration of OP’s in the environment, but both methods require the body to metabolize the OP first, which can be detrimental to the victim. It is crucial to come up with a method to investigate and detect these neurotoxins ...


Application Of Signal Advance Technology To Electrophysiology, Chris M. Hymel Aug 2010

Application Of Signal Advance Technology To Electrophysiology, Chris M. Hymel

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Medical instrumentation used in diagnosis and treatment relies on the accurate detection and processing of various physiological events and signals. While signal detection technology has improved greatly in recent years, there remain inherent delays in signal detection/ processing. These delays may have significant negative clinical consequences during various pathophysiological events. Reducing or eliminating such delays would increase the ability to provide successful early intervention in certain disorders thereby increasing the efficacy of treatment.

In recent years, a physical phenomenon referred to as Negative Group Delay (NGD), demonstrated in simple electronic circuits, has been shown to temporally advance the detection of ...


Electrophysiological Analysis In An Animal Model Of Dystonia, Kunal Chaniary Apr 2010

Electrophysiological Analysis In An Animal Model Of Dystonia, Kunal Chaniary

Theses and Dissertations

Dystonia is a movement disorder characterized by patterned, repetitive, and sustained muscle contractions that cause ineffective and often painful movements. The overall goal of this project was to understand the physiological mechanisms of dystonia in a rodent model as a basis for developing innovative treatments for secondary dystonias. The first half of the project was focused at developing essential techniques for systematically investigating the movement disorder in these animals. For achieving this, an innovative, multi-faceted approach was pursued starting with electromyographic (EMG) analysis for animal model validation, gait analysis for dystonia quantification, and development of a novel stereotaxic apparatus for ...


The Effects Of Chronic Hypoxia And Substance P On The Chemosensitive Response Of Individual Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Nts) Neurons From Adult Rats, Nicole L. Nichols Jan 2008

The Effects Of Chronic Hypoxia And Substance P On The Chemosensitive Response Of Individual Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (Nts) Neurons From Adult Rats, Nicole L. Nichols

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The chemosensitive responses of individual nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) neurons from neonatal rats have been extensively studied, but few studies have examined the chemosensitive responses of NTS neurons from adult rats. In addition, environmental conditions have been used to mimic respiratory diseases/disorders in rats to study how the cellular responses of individual neurons change to regulate breathing during pathological conditions. Lastly, it has been shown that substance P release increases in response to hypoxia from peripheral afferents that primarily terminate in the caudal NTS. We studied the effect of chronic hypoxia (CHx) and substance P on the response to ...


Information Processing From Chemoreceptors , Jack Peter Landolt Jan 1968

Information Processing From Chemoreceptors , Jack Peter Landolt

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.