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City University of New York (CUNY)

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Translational Modeling Of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation, Dennis Quangvinh Truong Jan 2019

Translational Modeling Of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation, Dennis Quangvinh Truong

Dissertations and Theses

Seminal work in the early 2000’s demonstrated the effect of low amplitude non-invasive electrical stimulation in people using neurophysiological measures (motor evoked potentials, MEPs). Clinical applications of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have since proliferated, though the mechanisms are not fully understood. Efforts to refine the technique to improve results are on-going as are mechanistic studies both in vivo and in vitro. Volume conduction models are being applied to these areas of research, especially in the design and analysis of clinical montages. However, additional research on the parameterization of models remains.

In this dissertation, Finite Element Method (FEM) models ...


Neuron-Glial (Ng) Interactions: A Microfluidic Examination Of Ng Emergent Responses For Repair, Tanya Singh Jan 2019

Neuron-Glial (Ng) Interactions: A Microfluidic Examination Of Ng Emergent Responses For Repair, Tanya Singh

Dissertations and Theses

Neuron-glia communication is crucial to the development, plasticity, and repair of the nervous system (NS). While neurons are well known to conduct electrical impulses that transfer biological information and stimuli throughout the NS, our understanding of the roles of glia continues to evolve from when the cells were largely believed to act solely for neuronal support. Recent decades of research has shown that glia can alter metabolism, conduct impulses and change phenotype for NS repair. NG interactions have, thereby, become heavily researched in varied areas of biomedical engineering, including embryogenesis, neural regeneration, growth, and intracellular synaptic activity. However, while NG ...


Modification Of Lipid Microenvironments On Solid Support Structures For Use In Transmembrane Protein Assays, William J. Houlihan Jan 2019

Modification Of Lipid Microenvironments On Solid Support Structures For Use In Transmembrane Protein Assays, William J. Houlihan

Dissertations and Theses

Gamma-Secretase (γ-secretase) is a transmembrane protease of increasing interest, which has been shown to have significant connections to both cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. γ-secretase cleaves both Notch-1, a transmembrane signaling protein, and Amyloid precursor protein (APP), a transmembrane protein whose cleavage may result in the formation of β-amyloid plaques in the brain. Notch-1 and APP are widely studied proteins that have substantial impacts on the development and proliferation of cancer and Alzheimer’s disease, respectively. Notch-1 partakes in the signaling of apoptosis in damaged and mutated cells, thus its cleavage by γ-secretase within the plasma membrane has ramifications on ...


Controlled Migration Of Retinal Progenitor Cells Within Electro-Chemotactic Fields, Shawn Mishra Jan 2019

Controlled Migration Of Retinal Progenitor Cells Within Electro-Chemotactic Fields, Shawn Mishra

Dissertations and Theses

Vision loss in retinal degenerative diseases is overwhelmingly attributed to damage and death of retinal photoreceptor cells. Studies in mouse retina have suggested that transplantation of isolated post-natal or stem cell-derived retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) to replace apoptotic or damaged photoreceptors may be a novel approach to restore vision. Thus far, outcomes project that the amount of restored visual response depends upon the migration of transplanted cells from insertion in the sub-retinal space to the outer nuclear layer (ONL). However, transplantation efficiency is exceedingly low – ~5% cells transplanted enter the retina – directly limiting the efficacy of the treatments. Additionally, the ...


Mutagenesis Of Human Alpha-Galactosidase A For The Treatment Of Fabry Disease, Erin Stokes Sep 2017

Mutagenesis Of Human Alpha-Galactosidase A For The Treatment Of Fabry Disease, Erin Stokes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme, α-galactosidase A, which results in the accumulation of the lipid substrate. This accumulation results in obstruction of blood flow in patients and early demise at approximately 40-60 years of age. There is currently only one FDA approved treatment (Fabrazyme) classified as an enzyme replacement therapy. However, approximately 88% of patients experience a severe immune response that, rarely, can be fatal and is a huge cost burden at average $250,000 a year per patient. The structure of α-galactosidase A has been previously determined to be ...


Influence Of Fibroblasts On Metastatic Cancer Cell Drug Resistance In A 3d Microfluidic Cell Array, Elizabeth C. Benoy Jan 2017

Influence Of Fibroblasts On Metastatic Cancer Cell Drug Resistance In A 3d Microfluidic Cell Array, Elizabeth C. Benoy

Dissertations and Theses

Modeling an accurate depiction of the tumor microenvironment, (TME), is essential to observe the effect external factors might have on the tumor in vivo. In cancer therapy specifically, the outcomes of clinical treatments are heavily dependent on drug testing methods despite the cytotoxic effects these methods might have on the patient. Our lab has previously developed a three layered microfluidic cell array (3D μFCA) to reconstruct the relevantly spatial configuration of tumor and microvasculature found in vivo in order to develop a more efficient tool of high throughput drug discovery and screening. In this study, we optimized this device to ...


Design Development And Performance Study Of A Novel Assistive Device For Mobility Of Toddlers And Children With Visual Impairments, Joowon Jun Jan 2017

Design Development And Performance Study Of A Novel Assistive Device For Mobility Of Toddlers And Children With Visual Impairments, Joowon Jun

Dissertations and Theses

Being able to see allows mankind tremendous access to learn about the world, and because so much learning comes visually, children with visual impairments are delayed in developing range of skills: learning own languages, doing activities, socializing with peers, and etc. While children with vision can do virtually all the activities and tasks for granted, children with visual impairment require different types of tools or materials to do same tasks most of time. Amongst all the disadvantages that children with visual impairment have, one of the most critical disadvantageous area that visual impairment brings to toddler is learning to walk ...


Automatic Optimum Atlas Selection For Multi-Atlas Image Segmentation Using Joint Label Fusion, Kofi Agyeman Jan 2017

Automatic Optimum Atlas Selection For Multi-Atlas Image Segmentation Using Joint Label Fusion, Kofi Agyeman

Dissertations and Theses

Multi-atlas image segmentation using label fusion is one of the most accurate state of the art image segmentation techniques available for biomedical imaging applications. Motivated to achieve higher image segmentation accuracy, reduce computational costs and a continuously increasing atlas data size, a robust framework for optimum selection of atlases for label fusion is vital. Although believed not to be critical for weighted label fusion techniques by some works (Sabuncu, M. R. et al., 2010, [1]), others have shown that appropriate atlas selection has several merits and can improve multi-atlas image segmentation accuracy (Aljabar et al., 2009, [2], Van de Velde ...


Multi-Scale Assessment Of Bone Mechanics And The Mineral Phase Of Intramuscular Bone Of Atlantic Herring Fish, Svetlana Zeveleva Jan 2017

Multi-Scale Assessment Of Bone Mechanics And The Mineral Phase Of Intramuscular Bone Of Atlantic Herring Fish, Svetlana Zeveleva

Dissertations and Theses

Bone tissue is a complex composite structure made up of a soft organic phase consisting of collagen I and non-collagenous proteins, and a hard inorganic phase consisting of mineral nanoplatelets. Given it’s compositional properties, bone is a unique stiff, tough, and strong biomaterial, making it exceptionally difficult to synthesize ex vivo. While the complete hierarchical structure may change with age and population, the basic building block components of mineralized collagen fibrils, are preserved. This study uses a model of intramuscular bone of the Atlantic herring fish, which present a simple structure, and no process of remodeling.

A multi-scale approach ...


Mechanotransduction Modulates The Effect Of Mechanical Forces (Fluid Shear Stress And Cyclic Strain) On Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Toward Vascular Endothelial Cells, Maria Nikmanesh Sep 2016

Mechanotransduction Modulates The Effect Of Mechanical Forces (Fluid Shear Stress And Cyclic Strain) On Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Toward Vascular Endothelial Cells, Maria Nikmanesh

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The isolation of human ES cells (hES) in 1998 remarkably elevated the interest in the cell therapy capability of ES cells and moved this concept one step closer to reality. Embryonic stem cells with their potential for both self-renewal and directed differentiation have received increasing attention in applications in tissue engineering and repair, cell therapy, and regenerative medicine.

The differentiation of embryonic stem cells into desired lineages depends on the chemical environment of the “niche”, and for certain lineages such as the vascular lineage that must function in a mechanical environment, the timely imposition of mechanical forces is critical. In ...


Effect Of Temporal Onset Of Mechanical Loading On Tendon To Bone Healing, Determined With A Novel In-Vivo Device, Mark E. Stasiak Feb 2016

Effect Of Temporal Onset Of Mechanical Loading On Tendon To Bone Healing, Determined With A Novel In-Vivo Device, Mark E. Stasiak

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Exposure to tensile loading has been shown to maintain tendon/ligament homeostasis, with the tensile modulus of the tissue increasing in response to greater loading frequency, and even decreasing in the absence of load. However after injury or surgical repair the effect of tensile load is controversial, with many studies implicating mechanical loading with impaired healing. It is currently unknown when the tensile loading imparted during rehabilitation exercise, can be safely reintroduced after surgical tendon repair or ligament reconstruction, and at what time point it can most benefit the remodeling process. To investigate the effect of tensile loading protocols ...


Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Ltp And Ltd: Activity-Dependence And Dendritic Effects, Gregory Kronberg Jan 2016

Direct Current Stimulation Modulates Ltp And Ltd: Activity-Dependence And Dendritic Effects, Gregory Kronberg

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been reported to improve various forms of learning in humans. Stimulation is often applied during training, producing lasting enhancements that are specific to the learned task. These learning effects are thought be mediated by altered synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of DCS during the induction of endogenous synaptic plasticity remain largely unexplored. To model endogenous plasticity I induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateral synapses in CA1 of rat hippocampal slices. When induction was paired with concurrent DCS, the resulting plasticity was biased towards potentiation, such that LTP was enhanced and ...


Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging – Technical Development And Translational Applications, Judy Alper Jan 2016

Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging – Technical Development And Translational Applications, Judy Alper

Dissertations and Theses

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to provide detailed images of the human body with excellent soft tissue contrast. Alongside its current widespread clinical applications for diagnosis and treatment, MRI allows researchers to measure structure and function of different tissue types in order to advance our understanding of human biology and enable new medical applications of MRI. In particular, diseases affecting nerves and vessels, such as trigeminal neuralgia, with uncertain etiology can be studied using multiple MRI modalities so that treatment planning can we more effective and patient outcomes can be improved. Ultrahigh field MRI scanners, such as those ...


Chemotaxis Of Central Nervous System-Derived Tumor Cells Within Controlled Microenvironments, Jennifer Rico Varela Jan 2015

Chemotaxis Of Central Nervous System-Derived Tumor Cells Within Controlled Microenvironments, Jennifer Rico Varela

Dissertations and Theses

Medulloblastoma (MB) is a malignant pediatric brain tumor known for its aggressive metastatic potential. Despite the well-documented migration of MB cells to other parts of the brain and spinal column, MB chemotaxis is poorly understood. Herein, we examined the in vitro migratory and cellular responses of MB-derived cells to external signaling of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB), and the stromal cell-derived factors 1-alpha (SDF-1). Experiments utilized transwell assays and immunocytochemistry to identify receptor activation in MB migration, and used a microfluidic platform to examine directionality, trajectory, and gradient- dependence of motile cells. Data ...


Calibration And Validation Of An In Vitro Ultrasound Device To Deliver Targeted Thermal Enhancement Of Hmsc Osteogenesis, Dionne Dawkins Jan 2015

Calibration And Validation Of An In Vitro Ultrasound Device To Deliver Targeted Thermal Enhancement Of Hmsc Osteogenesis, Dionne Dawkins

Dissertations and Theses

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that affects millions of people annually, often the elderly, and limits their physical abilities. Current methods of treating OA are often very invasive, and expensive, costing the Medicare system billions of dollars annually. A minimally invasive therapy that can be localized to the affected area that provides both relief and a short recovery time is optimal for treating the disease. For targeted therapy and clinical use, therapeutic ultrasound in the 0.7 MHz to 3 MHz frequency range can provide relief and is convenient, portable and localized. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) has been proven in ...


The Synthesis And Characterization Of Dual-Modified Carboxymethylcellulose For Bioadhesive Applications, Fabrice Bernard Jan 2015

The Synthesis And Characterization Of Dual-Modified Carboxymethylcellulose For Bioadhesive Applications, Fabrice Bernard

Dissertations and Theses

Reparative medical techniques, in conjunction with existing and emerging tissue adherents and sealants, offer practicing physicians a wide variety of tools to improve the functionality, performance, and safety of surgical interventions. Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is a plant-derived polymer that is cytocompatible, biocompatible, biodegradable, and inexpensive. The need for a non-toxic but strongly adherent material motivated the development of an injectable bioadhesive system containing CMC modified with functional methacrylate and aldehyde groups that could potentially be used as an annulus fibrosus sealant or as a supplement to existing wound closure materials. After modification, the polymer was characterized via NMR spectroscopy, Schiff’s ...


Pre-Saccadic Modulation Of The Visually Evoked Potential, Leslie Guadron Jan 2014

Pre-Saccadic Modulation Of The Visually Evoked Potential, Leslie Guadron

Dissertations and Theses

Saccades are rapid eye movements that allow us to focus the fovea on different parts of our visual environment. Many psychophysical studies have shown that subjects can discriminate stimuli presented at the saccadic target better than at any other location before an eye movement is made. It is believed that covert attention allotted to the intended destination of a saccade, called pre-saccadic attention, accounts for the improved discrimination of stimuli. Covert top-down attention, which consists of orienting your attention, and not your gaze, to an object in your visual periphery, is known to facilitate behavioral performance in a manner similar ...


A Comprehensive View Of Electrosleep: The History, Finite Element Models And Future Directions, Berkan Guleyupoglu Jan 2014

A Comprehensive View Of Electrosleep: The History, Finite Element Models And Future Directions, Berkan Guleyupoglu

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES) encompasses all methods of non-invasive current application to the brain used in research and clinical practice. We present the first comprehensive and technical review, explaining the evolution of tES in both terminology and dosage over the past 100 years of research to present day. Current transcranial Pulsed Current Stimulation (tPCS) approaches such as Cranial Electrotherapy Stimulation (CES) descended from Electrosleep (ES) through Cranial Electro-stimulation Therapy (CET), Transcerebral Electrotherapy (TCET), and NeuroElectric Therapy (NET) while others like Transcutaneous Cranial Electrical Stimulation (TCES) descended from Electroanesthesia (EA) through Limoge, and Interferential Stimulation. Prior to a contemporary resurgence in ...


A Novel Biomaterial Enables Chemotactic Study Of Motile Central Nervous System-Derived Tumor Cells, Tanya Singh Jan 2013

A Novel Biomaterial Enables Chemotactic Study Of Motile Central Nervous System-Derived Tumor Cells, Tanya Singh

Dissertations and Theses

"The local cell microenvironment plays an important role in maintaining the dynamics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the cell-ECM relationship. ECM is a complex network of macromolecules with distinct mechanical and biochemical characteristics [1]. The multifaceted interactions that occur between cells and the ECM are crucial to the regulation of processes that maintain homeostasis. These mechanisms are often deregulated during cancer onset and progression, which cause the ECM to become highly disorganized, alter the cell-matrix interactions, and promote increased hypervascularity and metastasis as these components are indicative of cancer progression. Medulloblastoma (MB) is one of the most common, malignant ...


Finite Element Study Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Customization Of Models And Montages, Dennis Q. Truong Jan 2013

Finite Element Study Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Customization Of Models And Montages, Dennis Q. Truong

Dissertations and Theses

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique that applies low amplitude current via electrodes placed on the scalp. Rather than directly eliciting a neuronal response, tDCS is believed to modulate excitability – encouraging or suppressing activity in regions of the brain depending on the polarity of stimulation. The particular application of tDCS is often determined by the electrode configuration and intensity of stimulation. MRI-derived finite element models have been developed to analyze the effect of these parameters allowing novel electrode configurations to be tested in subject specific models. By creating a subject specific model of an obese subject ...


Transport Pathway Across Hcaecs Uncer Convective Condtitions And The Role Of Apoptosis In Ldl Transport Through Hcaecs, Janpen Phupeerasupong Jan 2013

Transport Pathway Across Hcaecs Uncer Convective Condtitions And The Role Of Apoptosis In Ldl Transport Through Hcaecs, Janpen Phupeerasupong

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


Application Of Computational Fluid Dynamics As A Simulation-Based Design Guide In A Microfluidic 3d Living Cell Array (3d Lca) Device, A.H. Rezwanuddin Ahmed Jan 2013

Application Of Computational Fluid Dynamics As A Simulation-Based Design Guide In A Microfluidic 3d Living Cell Array (3d Lca) Device, A.H. Rezwanuddin Ahmed

Dissertations and Theses

The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool in the aerodynamics and oil industry provides a reinforcement to efficiency in the design of aircrafts or for understanding the flow through pipes. A similar approach can be taken towards microfluidics, where traditionally devices have been designed based on experience or physiological replication, and a CFD simulation is shown post-manufacture to show the flow and diffusion patterns present. In this study, a reverse approach is suggested, by designing the device first in CFD and perform simulations on variations of alterable parameters to get insight on how the changing parameters affect ...


Effect Of Rolling On Viscoelastic Fluids Using A Novel Testing Device, Aswini Mangadu Jan 2013

Effect Of Rolling On Viscoelastic Fluids Using A Novel Testing Device, Aswini Mangadu

Dissertations and Theses

The purpose of this research thesis project was to develop a mechanical testing device that could enable us to load articular cartilage with a rolling/sliding motion. This novel device was then used to observe the effect of a rolling motion on the fluid film thickness of different lubricants (motor oil, synovial fluid and Hyaluronic Acid (HA)) to varying loads (1kg, 2,kg, 3kg and 4kg) and speeds (10, 25, 48 and 91 mm/s) applied on the sample fluids for 10 cycles. We were able to examine the effect of different speeds within each load for each of the ...


A Novel Visual Stimulation Paradigm: Exploiting Individual Primary Visual Cortex Geometry To Boost Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (Ssvep), Marta Isabel Vanegas Arroyave Jan 2013

A Novel Visual Stimulation Paradigm: Exploiting Individual Primary Visual Cortex Geometry To Boost Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (Ssvep), Marta Isabel Vanegas Arroyave

Dissertations and Theses

The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) is an electroencephalographic response to flickering stimuli generated in significant part by activity in primary visual cortex (V1). SSVEP signal-to-noise ratio is generally low for stimuli that are located in the visual periphery, at frequencies higher than 20 Hz, or at low contrast. Because of the typical "cruciform" geometry of V1, large stimuli tend to excite neighboring cortical regions of opposite orientation, likely resulting in electric field cancellation. In Study 1, we explored ways to exploit V1 geometry in order to boost scalp SSVEP amplitude via oscillatory summation, by manipulating flicker-phase offsets among angular ...


Design, Product Development And Risk Assessment Of Tin (Sn) Ring Electrodes As A Substitute To Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag Agci) Ring Electrodes For High Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Hd-Tdcs), Linford Leitch Jan 2013

Design, Product Development And Risk Assessment Of Tin (Sn) Ring Electrodes As A Substitute To Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag Agci) Ring Electrodes For High Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (Hd-Tdcs), Linford Leitch

Dissertations and Theses

The objective of this research thesis is to test the viability of Tin (Sn) ring electrodes as an inexpensive alternative to sintered Silver-Silver Chloride (Ag|AgCl) ring electrodes for High Definition – transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS). Throughout our initial bench top testing of tin electrodes in combination with a ‘conductive electrode gel’, the passing of a 2mA direct current on agar block showed the formation of white cloud around the anode electrode and a cluster of air bubbles on the cathode. The analysis of pertinent literature indicates that the white milky substance produced during the stimulation at the anode is ...


Design, Implementation, And Performance Study Of An Open Source Eye-Control System To Pilot A Parrot Ar.Drone Quadrocopter, John M. Ettikkalayil Jan 2013

Design, Implementation, And Performance Study Of An Open Source Eye-Control System To Pilot A Parrot Ar.Drone Quadrocopter, John M. Ettikkalayil

Dissertations and Theses

Natural user interface is a fairly new concept in the field of human-computer interaction. It is the idea of using every day natural human behaviors and actions to control a device. An example of a natural user interface is touch control technology in smartphones, tablets, and new laptops. The interaction is more direct when compared to artificial input devices like a keyboard and mouse. Though natural user interface devices might not perform as well as standard input devices for certain applications, for other applications they are now the de facto standard. A new user interface that is poised to be ...


Neural Correlates Of Phantom Auditory Perception, Paul Joseph S. Deguzman Jan 2012

Neural Correlates Of Phantom Auditory Perception, Paul Joseph S. Deguzman

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


Feasibility Analysis Of Estrification Systems With Entrainers, Kang Wook Lee Jan 2012

Feasibility Analysis Of Estrification Systems With Entrainers, Kang Wook Lee

Dissertations and Theses

(Ethyl Acetate) and IPA (Isopropyl Acetate) production systems are studied in terms of the feasibility analysis. It is not feasible to retrieve pure products by a simple reactive distillation for IPA production system because CCR (Critical Composition Region) covers the entire desired binary edge for IPA system. On the other hand, even though CCR does not cover the entire desired binary edge of the EA system completely, internal reflux ratio (IRR) analysis does not allow the production of the pure product via reactive distillation for EA production system. To overcome the restraints, external entrainers are utilized to take advantage of ...


Chemotaxis Of Drosophila Glia With Controlled Microenvironments, Cade Beck Jan 2012

Chemotaxis Of Drosophila Glia With Controlled Microenvironments, Cade Beck

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Rugose, A Drosophila Akap And Loco, A Rgs Protein In Synaptogenesis And Development, Kemeh Georgina Jan 2012

The Role Of Rugose, A Drosophila Akap And Loco, A Rgs Protein In Synaptogenesis And Development, Kemeh Georgina

Dissertations and Theses

No abstract provided.