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Theses/Dissertations

Kinematics

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Development Of An Active Finger Motion Simulator: With In-Vitro Assessments Of Tendon Loads And Joint Kinematics, Mohammad Haddara Nov 2017

Development Of An Active Finger Motion Simulator: With In-Vitro Assessments Of Tendon Loads And Joint Kinematics, Mohammad Haddara

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Musculoskeletal injuries of the finger far outnumber those of other joints, and while in-vitro motion simulators are useful for studying joint biomechanics and evaluating surgical repairs, considerably less simulator development has been reported for the finger compared to other joints. Replication of active musculoskeletal movement during in-vitro testing has been shown to be more representative of in-vivo motion patterns, and closed-loop motion controllers are the current state-of-the-art for in-vitro kinematics studies. However, an in-vitro motion simulator with closed-loop tendon load control and simultaneous tendon excursion control has not yet been reported for the finger. This thesis outlines the design and ...


The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight Jun 2017

The Development Of A Platform Interface With The Use Of Virtual Reality To Enhance Upper-Extremity Prosthetic Training And Rehabilitation, Ashley D. Knight

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation focuses on the investigation and development of an effective prosthetic training and rehabilitation platform with the use of virtual reality to facilitate an effective process to return amputees to the highest level of independence and functioning possible.

It has been reported that approximately 10 million people live with a limb loss worldwide, with around 30% being an upper-extremity amputee. The sudden loss of a hand or arm causes the loss of fine, coordinated movements, reduced joint range of motion (ROM), proprioceptive feedback and aesthetic appearance, all which can be improved with the use of a prosthesis and proper ...


Six Degrees Of Freedom Kinematics Of The Healthy Ankle Syndesmosis Joint, Veronica A. Hogg-Cornejo Jan 2017

Six Degrees Of Freedom Kinematics Of The Healthy Ankle Syndesmosis Joint, Veronica A. Hogg-Cornejo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Syndesmotic injury, more commonly known as a "high ankle sprain", accounts for over 12% of all ankle sprain incidents in the US; of which, over 25% occur during a sporting activity. Typically, harm to the syndesmosis occurs in sports such as football, soccer, lacrosse, and hockey where it is common for an athlete to experience rapid and extreme dorsiflexion-external rotations of the foot. Severe syndesmotic sprains have been noted by clinicians as the most difficult ankle injury to accurately diagnose and treat, require the most recuperation time, and often results in life-long dysfunction. Even more problematic, 40% of patients suffering ...


Functional Comparison Of Conventional Afos With The Dynamic Response Afo, Mitchell Ruble Jul 2016

Functional Comparison Of Conventional Afos With The Dynamic Response Afo, Mitchell Ruble

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to provide stability and foot clearance for patients with weakened or injured musculature. The Dynamic Response AFO (DRAFO) was designed to improve proprioception at heel strike. The design includes a rigid outer shell with a cut out heel and a soft inner lining; it is typically aligned in plantarflexion and may incorporate external heel wedges. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the DRAFO design features and contrast its biomechanical function with that of conventional locked and articulating AFOs. The research hypotheses were: 1) DRAFO-assisted gait parameters (e.g ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon Apr 2016

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...


A Study Of Kinematics And Kinetics In Time-Constrained Arm Movements, Oyindamola Owoeye Dec 2015

A Study Of Kinematics And Kinetics In Time-Constrained Arm Movements, Oyindamola Owoeye

Theses

Several studies such as the equilibrium point hypothesis (EPH) purport that the motor signals that descend from the brain instead of encoding muscle torques, influence an existing relationship between muscle torque and body configuration.

In the present study, the possibility of torque depending explicitly on position was tested using a task in which subjects (N=5) moved a simulated weightless frictionless mass through a small (<8 degree) elbow extension in order to move a cursor on a screen to a target location. Each subject completed 720 trials. On ~10% of trials the simulated mass was increased unknown to the subject. The relationship between the cursor’s position and the torque applied to the system was held constant even when the simulated mass was increased. Thus, any change in torque produced was neither due the subjects’ perception of the mass nor due to their perception of the cursor. The time at which the subjects torque changed direction was seen to be significantly different (p<0.005) during trials which the mass changed. This change in torque is concluded to be position-dependent. However the possibility of this being a merely mechanical effect could not be ruled out by due to poor EMG collection.

A post-hoc analysis of different position-dependent motor control models, was done. Particularly, an exponential spring model, a linear spring model, and a linear spring with relative damping model were each tested to see how well ...


Hockey Skating Kinematics And The Effect Of Skate Design And Technique Training, Rebecca Mae Tidman Oct 2015

Hockey Skating Kinematics And The Effect Of Skate Design And Technique Training, Rebecca Mae Tidman

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of technique training and hockey skate design on hockey skating performance. Fourteen male subjects, aged 12-16 years, with no recent skate treadmill experience completed ten training sessions on a skating treadmill. Instruction emphasized maximizing stride width by pushing laterally with the skate pointed anteriorly. Subjects were randomly placed into one of two experimental groups based on initial skate type: traditional or Easton Mako. After completion of five sessions, skate type was switched so that skate design effects could be assessed. In contrast to a traditional hockey skate design, the Easton ...


Biplanar Fluoroscopic Analysis Of In Vivo Hindfoot Kinematics During Ambulation, Janelle Ann Cross Jul 2015

Biplanar Fluoroscopic Analysis Of In Vivo Hindfoot Kinematics During Ambulation, Janelle Ann Cross

Dissertations (2009 -)

The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate a biplanar fluoroscopic system and integrated software to assess hindfoot kinematics. Understanding the motion of the foot and ankle joints may lead to improved treatment methods in persons with foot and ankle pathologies. During gait analysis, skin markers are placed on the lower extremities, which are defined as four rigid-body segments with three joints representing the hip, knee and ankle. This method introduces gross assumptions on the foot and severely limits the analysis of in depth foot mechanics. Multi-segmental models have been developed, but are susceptible to skin motion ...


Assessment Of Normal Knee Kinematics Using High-Speed Stereo-Radiography System, Vasiliki Kefala Mar 2015

Assessment Of Normal Knee Kinematics Using High-Speed Stereo-Radiography System, Vasiliki Kefala

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The measurement of dynamic joint kinematics in vivo is important in order to understand the effects of joint injuries and diseases as well as for evaluating the treatment effectiveness. Quantification of knee motion is essential for assessment of joint function for diagnosis of pathology, such as tracking and progression of osteoarthritis and evaluation of outcome following conservative or surgical treatment. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an invasive treatment for arthritic pain and functional disability and it is used for deformed joint replacement with implants in order to restore joint alignment. It is important to describe knee kinematics in healthy individuals ...


The Effects Of Fatigue On Lower Extremity Kinetics And Kinematics In Subjects With Known Ankle Instability, Lindsay E. Clayton Jan 2015

The Effects Of Fatigue On Lower Extremity Kinetics And Kinematics In Subjects With Known Ankle Instability, Lindsay E. Clayton

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this study was to evaluate biomechanical differences between healthy subjects and those with ankle instability during the gradual onset of lower extremity fatigue from a landing activity. An understanding of these differences is needed in order to prevent future injury to or further debilitation in individuals with ankle instability. A functional fatiguing activity was designed to focus fatigue on the quadriceps muscles, as those are the muscles most frequently fatigued during sport. Measures were taken throughout the progression of fatigue with a force plate and a motion tracking system and included vertical ground reaction force and lower ...


Kinematic Analysis Of The Glenohumeral Joint: A Comparison Of Post-Operative Rotator Cuff Repair Patients And Controls, Ryan Richard Inawat Oct 2014

Kinematic Analysis Of The Glenohumeral Joint: A Comparison Of Post-Operative Rotator Cuff Repair Patients And Controls, Ryan Richard Inawat

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Rotator cuff (RC) repair is a standard surgical intervention used to alleviate pain and loss of function in the shoulder due to torn RC tendons, involving re-attachment of the tendon to the humerus. Quantitative evaluation of kinematics following RC repair is possible with video motion analysis techniques, yet is rarely performed. With the purpose of quantifying the effects of RC repair, a Vicon 524 (Oxford, UK) motion analysis system was used to investigate three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of the glenohumeral (GH) joint and thorax following supraspinatus repair. A validated, 18 marker, inverse dynamics model based on ISB standards was applied to ...


The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari Sep 2014

The Effect Of Fixation Plate Length On Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation For The Repair Of In Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries, Abdulaziz J. Al-Kuwari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract:

The Effect of Fixation Plate Length on Spinal Instability Following Anterior Cervical Plate Fixation for the Repair of in Vitro Flexion-Distraction Injuries

Introduction: Anterior cervical decompression and fusion with a plate (ACDFP) is a commonly performed treatment following a traumatic injury to the subaxial cervical spine. The purpose of the presented work was to determine the biomechanical effect of plate length on cervical spine kinematic stability following ACDFP stabilization for a simulated traumatic injury.

Methods: Eleven fresh-frozen cadaveric C5-C6 and C6-C7 motion segments were examined in this study. To assess kinematics, flexibility testing was performed on each specimen using ...


Markerless Analysis Of Upper Extremity Kinematics During Standardized Pediatric Assessment, Jacob R. Rammer Apr 2014

Markerless Analysis Of Upper Extremity Kinematics During Standardized Pediatric Assessment, Jacob R. Rammer

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy experience reduced motor performance in the affected upper extremity and are typically evaluated based on degree of functional impairment using activity-based assessments such as the Shriners Hospitals for Children Upper Extremity Evaluation (SHUEE), a validated clinical measure, to describe performance prior to and following rehabilitative or surgical interventions. Evaluations rely on subjective therapist scoring techniques and lack sensitivity to detect change. Objective clinical motion analysis systems are an available but time-consuming and cost-intensive alternative, requiring uncomfortable application of markers to the patient. There is currently no available markerless, low-cost system that quantitatively assesses upper extremity ...


Development Of A Computational Methodology For Evaluating In Vivo Vertebral Mechanics In Subjects Having Various Conditions Of The Lumbar Spine, Christopher Brian Carr Aug 2013

Development Of A Computational Methodology For Evaluating In Vivo Vertebral Mechanics In Subjects Having Various Conditions Of The Lumbar Spine, Christopher Brian Carr

Doctoral Dissertations

Treating and evaluating the causes of low back pain (LBP) is difficult and not fully understood. However, assessing the in vivo motions and loading characteristics in the lumbar spine may provide important data for progressing the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies linked with LBP.

This dissertation describes the development of a comprehensive approach for collecting both the kinematics and kinetics of the lumbar vertebrae under in vivo conditions. Forty-four subjects representing healthy, symptomatic, pathological, and surgically implanted (pre- and post-operative) conditions of the lumbar spine were evaluated using dynamic fluoroscopy and 3D-to-2D image registration to assess the motions of the ...


The Effect Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On The Behavioral And Neurophysiological Performance Of Healthy Subjects During Reaching, Ryan Michael Chapman May 2013

The Effect Of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation On The Behavioral And Neurophysiological Performance Of Healthy Subjects During Reaching, Ryan Michael Chapman

Theses and Dissertations

It is well established that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can decrease the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) in humans. Despite the cortical inhibition caused by cathodal tDCS, it remains unknown how this intervention alters unrestrained dynamic reaching movements qualitatively. Accordingly, we designed this study to examine how cathodal tDCS impacts unrestrained dynamic reaching as measured by qualitative kinematic features and electromyography (EMG). Ten young, healthy adult subjects were recruited to participate in a two day protocol involving repetitively reaching to two different targets (large and small) both before and following cathodal tDCS applied over the contralateral ...


Foot And Ankle Motion Analysis Using Dynamic Radiographic Imaging, Benjamin Donald Mchenry Jan 2013

Foot And Ankle Motion Analysis Using Dynamic Radiographic Imaging, Benjamin Donald Mchenry

Dissertations (2009 -)

Lower extremity motion analysis has become a powerful tool used to assess the dynamics of both normal and pathologic gait in a variety of clinical and research settings. Early rigid representations of the foot have recently been replaced with multi-segmental models capable of estimating intra-foot motion. Current models using externally placed markers on the surface of the skin are easily implemented, but suffer from errors associated with soft tissue artifact, marker placement repeatability, and rigid segment assumptions. Models using intra-cortical bone pins circumvent these errors, but their invasive nature has limited their application to research only. Radiographic models reporting gait ...


The Contact Mechanics And Kinematics Of Radial Head Implants, Hannah L. Shannon Aug 2012

The Contact Mechanics And Kinematics Of Radial Head Implants, Hannah L. Shannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A number of commercially available radial head (RH) implants are used for the management of RH fractures. The optimal shape of a RH implant to restore joint mechanics to the native state has not been established. This work compares radiocapitellar contact and kinematics for three implant designs as well as the native RH. These implants include an axisymmetric, a quasi-anatomic and a patient-specific design. When compared to the native RH, only the axisymmetric implant was significantly different in contact area (p=0.008). Active and passive forearm supination was assessed for differences in translations of the RH. Significant differences were ...


Investigation Of In-Vivo Hindfoot And Orthotic Interactions Using Bi-Planar X-Ray Fluoroscopy, Kristen M. Bushey Jun 2012

Investigation Of In-Vivo Hindfoot And Orthotic Interactions Using Bi-Planar X-Ray Fluoroscopy, Kristen M. Bushey

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A markerless RSA method was used to determine the effect of orthotics on the normal, pes planus and pes cavus populations. Computed tomography (CT) was used to create bone models that were imported into the virtual environment. Joint coordinate systems were developed to measure kinematic changes in the hindfoot during weight-bearing gait and quiet standing. The objectives of this thesis were to (1) implement a fluoroscopy-based markerless RSA system on the foot, (2) determine the effect of various orthotics at midstance of fully weight-bearing dynamic gait, and (3) determine the effect of orthotics as measured using three different techniques. Every ...


Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis Using The Xbox Kinect, Robert Matthew Wham May 2012

Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis Using The Xbox Kinect, Robert Matthew Wham

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Indication Specific Treatment Modalities For Spinal Disorders - A Comprehensive Biomechanical Investigation, Aditya Vikas Ingalhalikar Dec 2011

Indication Specific Treatment Modalities For Spinal Disorders - A Comprehensive Biomechanical Investigation, Aditya Vikas Ingalhalikar

Theses and Dissertations

The cause and best treatment option for mechanical low back pain due to disc degeneration remains unsolved, despite `spinal fusion' being the gold standard of surgical treatment, post conservative care, for a very long time. However, the potential drawbacks of spinal fusion and the ongoing evolution in the understanding of normal and symptomatic spine biomechanics, biology and mechanobiology in conjunction with the advancements in material sciences, and tissue engineering has led to a change in the clinical perspective towards treatment methodologies for spinal disorders. Clinically, a gradual shift in philosophy is being observed from a `one size fits all', i ...


Dynamics, Electromyography And Vibroarthrography As Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tools: Investigation Of The Patellofemoral Joint, Filip Leszko Aug 2011

Dynamics, Electromyography And Vibroarthrography As Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tools: Investigation Of The Patellofemoral Joint, Filip Leszko

Doctoral Dissertations

The knee joint plays an essential role in the human musculoskeletal system. It has evolved to withstand extreme loading conditions, while providing almost frictionless joint movement. However, its performance may be disrupted by disease, anatomical deformities, soft tissue imbalance or injury. Knee disorders are often puzzling, and accurate diagnosis may be challenging. Current evaluation approach is usually limited to a detailed interview with the patient, careful physical examination and radiographic imaging. The X-ray screening may reveal bone degeneration, but does not carry sufficient information of the soft tissue conditions. More advanced imaging tools such as MRI or CT are available ...


The Use Of Motion Analysis Technology As An Alternative Means Of Assessing Spinal Deformity In Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, Matthew J. Solomito May 2011

The Use Of Motion Analysis Technology As An Alternative Means Of Assessing Spinal Deformity In Patients With Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, Matthew J. Solomito

Master's Theses

Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) is a three dimensional deformity of the spine that causes abnormal curvatures in the coronal and sagittal planes and abnormal vertebral rotations. The gold standard for diagnosing and tracking the progression of the deformity is through the use of repeated radiography and a patient can receive upwards of fifteen radiographic series over the course of treatment, which exposes this population to an increased risk of radiation-dependent complications.

This thesis presents the necessary calculations and the marker set required to make the motion capture technology a viable alternative to radiographs, in an effort to reduce the patient ...


Development Of An Active Elbow Motion Simulator And Coordinate Systems To Evaluate Kinematics In Multiple Positions, Louis M. Ferreira Jan 2011

Development Of An Active Elbow Motion Simulator And Coordinate Systems To Evaluate Kinematics In Multiple Positions, Louis M. Ferreira

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elbow disorders are common as a consequence of both traumatic and degenerative conditions. Relative to disorders of the lower limb, there is comparatively little evidence to direct the treatment of many elbow disorders. Biomechanical studies are required to develop and validate the optimal treatment of elbow disorders prior to their application in patients. Clinically relevant simulation of elbow motion in the laboratory can be a powerful tool to advance our knowledge of elbow disorders. This work was undertaken with the rationale that simulation and quantification of elbow motion could be improved significantly. This treatise includes the development and evaluation of ...


Upper Extremity Kinetics During Lofstrand Crutch-Assisted Gait In Children, Neha Bhagchandani Apr 2010

Upper Extremity Kinetics During Lofstrand Crutch-Assisted Gait In Children, Neha Bhagchandani

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Complete biomechanical analysis helps evaluate the motion during various gait patterns for the upper and lower extremities. Extensive studies have been performed to evaluate unassisted gait patterns, but very little has been accomplished for studying assisted motion. Children with pathologies such as osteogenesis imperfecta, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy use assistive devices such as anterior and posterior walkers, canes, Lofstrand and axillary crutches for ambulation purposes.

Statistics show that there are currently about 566,000 crutch users in the United States. The long-term crutch users in this population can suffer various upper limb pathologies associated with extensive upper extremity ...