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Theses/Dissertations

Bioimaging and Biomedical Optics

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Design, Construction And Application Of A Home-Built, Two-Photon Microscope, William P. Breeding Aug 2019

Design, Construction And Application Of A Home-Built, Two-Photon Microscope, William P. Breeding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a powerful, versatile imaging modality for the study of biological systems. This thesis overviews the relevant physics involved in TPM, design considerations and process of constructing a home-built, two-photon microscope, and provides a set of procedures to operate the system. Furthermore, this work explores several applications of TPM through the study of single-cell metabolism and imaging the cellular-material interface. Explored in particular depth was the imaging of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) materials, with the goal of understanding the three-dimensional nature of fibroblast cell growth when embedded within the materials. This work uncovered several optical properties of CNF ...


Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Effect Of Age On Regenerative Outcomes Following Treatment Of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injuries, John Taehwan Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a traumatic injury in skeletal muscle resulting in the bulk loss of more than 20% of the muscle’s volume. Included in the bulk loss of muscle is the skeletal muscle niche comprised of nerve bundles, vasculature, local progenitor cells, basal lamina, and muscle fibers, overwhelming innate repair mechanisms. The hallmark of VML injury is the excessive accumulation of non-contractile, fibrotic tissue and permanent functional deficits. Though predominant in the younger demographic, the elderly population is also captured within VML injuries. There are many factors that change with aging in skeletal muscle that may further ...


Designing A Low-Cost Ultrasound Pulser, Andrea Huey Jun 2019

Designing A Low-Cost Ultrasound Pulser, Andrea Huey

Honors Theses

Ultrasound imaging allows for those studying living beings to see inside a subject without causing it harm. This allows for real-time images to be taken, leading to ease of observational research. However, while this technology is beneficial to those who utilize it, the devices used to create and receive ultrasound pulses can be incredibly complex, allowing for precise adjustment of the output signal and various other functions, and therefore expensive. The focus of this senior project is the design of a low-cost pulser for use with an ultrasound transducer. While it does not have all the high-level functions of the ...


A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran May 2019

A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran

Dissertations

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in structural and functional neurological changes at both the brain and the level of the spinal cord. Anatomical studies indicate decreased grey matter volume in sensorimotor and non-sensorimotor regions of the cortex following SCI; whereas, neurophysiological findings mostly report altered functional activity in the sensorimotor nodes of the cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether tissue atrophy observed in non-motor related areas has any concomitant functional consequences. Furthermore, the neural underpinnings of adaptive neuroplasticity after SCI is not well-defined in the current literature. Hence, this dissertation is a pioneer study investigating ...


Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki May 2019

Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional imaging modality that is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and interventional cardiology. It is highly promising for in situ characterization of tumor tissues. OCT has high spatial resolution and high imaging speed to assist clinical decision making in real-time.

OCT can be used in both structural imaging and mechanical characterization. Malignant tumor tissue alters morphology. Additionally, structural OCT imaging has limited tissue differentiation capability because of the complex and noisy nature of the OCT signal. Moreover, the contrast of structural OCT signal derived from tissue’s light scattering properties has little chemical specificity ...


Investigation Of Acute Radiation-Induced Changes In Oxygenation In A Murine Breast Tumor Model, Alaa Abdelgawad May 2019

Investigation Of Acute Radiation-Induced Changes In Oxygenation In A Murine Breast Tumor Model, Alaa Abdelgawad

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Around 50-60% of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy. Although some patients show complete response with no recurrence, a significant proportion of the population still develop radiation resistance. It is important to identify tumor resistance at early stages of therapy in order to adjust treatment protocol and avoid extra exposure to radiation. Current methods to assess treatment response are only limited to anatomical measurements of tumor volume after therapy. Novel approaches that shed the light on any functional information during the course of radiotherapy could significantly improve our ability to identify patients who do not respond to radiation therapy. Diffuse ...


Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening May 2019

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Quantify In Vivo Tissue Optical Properties: Applications In Human Epithelium And Subcutaneous Murine Colon Cancer, Gage Joseph Greening

Theses and Dissertations

Colorectal cancer is the 4th most common and 2nd deadliest cancer. Problems exist with predicting which patients will respond best to certain therapy regimens. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been suggested as a candidate to optically monitor a patient’s early response to therapy and has been received favorably in experimentally managing other cancers such as breast and skin. In this dissertation, two diffuse reflectance spectroscopy probes were designed: one with a combined high-resolution microendoscopy modality, and one that was optimized for acquiring data from subcutaneous murine tumors. For both probes, percent errors for estimating tissue optical properties (reduced scattering coefficient ...


Tissue Equivalent Gellan Gum Gel Materials For Clinical Mri And Radiation Dosimetry, Pawel Brzozowski Apr 2019

Tissue Equivalent Gellan Gum Gel Materials For Clinical Mri And Radiation Dosimetry, Pawel Brzozowski

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hydrogels contain high amount of water allowing their use as surrogates to human tissues with specific properties that can be tuned by additives. Gellan gum is a gel-forming material of interest and is a replacement for other common gelling agent with limited use as a tissue phantom. Therefore, this thesis examines the application of gellan gum gels as a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phantom with a design of experiments model to obtain tunable properties. The analysis was extended to include mechanical and electrical properties with a separate design of experiment. Gels doped with synthesized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs ...


Automated Microscope Stage, Corin Nishimoto, Alison Flesch, Theo Anastos Mar 2019

Automated Microscope Stage, Corin Nishimoto, Alison Flesch, Theo Anastos

Biomedical Engineering

This document seeks to describe the background information, customer requirements, design specifications, indications for use, selected materials, proposed budget, prototypes, final design, manufacturing processes, and testing methods regarding the CellOptimizer automated microscope stage product.


Noninvasive Multimodal Diffuse Optical Imaging Of Vulnerable Tissue Hemodynamics, Mingjun Zhao Jan 2019

Noninvasive Multimodal Diffuse Optical Imaging Of Vulnerable Tissue Hemodynamics, Mingjun Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Measurement of tissue hemodynamics provides vital information for the assessment of tissue viability. This thesis reports three noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical systems for spectroscopic measurements and tomographic imaging of tissue hemodynamics in vulnerable tissues with the goal of disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. A hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy/diffuse correlation spectroscopy (NIRS/DCS) instrument with a contact fiber-optic probe was developed and utilized for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism in exercising gastrocnemius. Results measured by the hybrid NIRS/DCS instrument in 37 subjects (mean age: 67 ± 6) indicated that vitamin D supplement plus ...


Calibrated Short Tr Recovery Mri For Rapid Measurement Of Brain-Blood Partition Coefficient And Correction Of Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow, Scott William Thalman Jan 2019

Calibrated Short Tr Recovery Mri For Rapid Measurement Of Brain-Blood Partition Coefficient And Correction Of Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow, Scott William Thalman

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The high prevalence and mortality of cerebrovascular disease has led to the development of several methods to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in vivo. One of these, arterial spin labeling (ASL), is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with the advantage that it is completely non-invasive. The quantification of CBF using ASL requires correction for a tissue specific parameter called the brain-blood partition coefficient (BBPC). Despite regional and inter-subject variability in BBPC, the current recommended implementation of ASL uses a constant assumed value of 0.9 mL/g for all regions of the brain, all subjects, and even all ...


Quantification Of Myocardial Mechanics In Left Ventricles Under Inotropic Stimulation And In Healthy Right Ventricles Using 3d Dense Cmr, Zhan-Qiu Liu Jan 2019

Quantification Of Myocardial Mechanics In Left Ventricles Under Inotropic Stimulation And In Healthy Right Ventricles Using 3d Dense Cmr, Zhan-Qiu Liu

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Statistical data from clinical studies indicate that the death rate caused by heart disease has decreased due to an increased use of evidence-based medical therapies. This includes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is one of the most common non-invasive approaches in evidence-based health care research. In the current work, I present 3D Lagrangian strains and torsion in the left ventricle of healthy and isoproterenol-stimulated rats, which were investigated using Displacement ENcoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. With the implementation of the 12-segment model, a detailed profile of regional cardiac mechanics was reconstructed for ...


Textured Contact Lens Based Iris Presentation Attack In Uncontrolled Environment, Daksha Yadav Jan 2019

Textured Contact Lens Based Iris Presentation Attack In Uncontrolled Environment, Daksha Yadav

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The widespread use of smartphones has spurred the research in mobile iris devices. Due to their convenience, these mobile devices are also utilized in unconstrained outdoor conditions. At the same time, iris recognition in the visible spectrum has developed into an active area of research. These scenarios have necessitated the development of reliable iris recognition algorithms for such an uncontrolled environment. Additionally, iris presentation attacks such as textured contact lens pose a major challenge to current iris recognition systems.

Motivated by these factors, in this thesis, a detailed analysis of the effect of textured contact lenses on iris recognition in ...


Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar Jan 2019

Optical Vortex And Poincaré Analysis For Biophysical Dynamics, Anindya Majumdar

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Coherent light - such as that from a laser - on interaction with biological tissues, undergoes scattering. This scattered light undergoes interference and the resultant field has randomly added phases and amplitudes. This random interference pattern is known as speckles, and has been the subject of multiple applications, including imaging techniques. These speckle fields inherently contain optical vortices, or phase singularities. These are locations where the intensity (or amplitude) of the interference pattern is zero, and the phase is undefined.

In the research presented in this dissertation, dynamic speckle patterns were obtained through computer simulations as well as laboratory setups involving scattering ...


Radiolabeled Nanohydroxyapatite As A Platform For The Development Of New Pet Imaging Agents, Stacy Lee Queern Dec 2018

Radiolabeled Nanohydroxyapatite As A Platform For The Development Of New Pet Imaging Agents, Stacy Lee Queern

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging utilizes drugs labeled with positron emitters to target and evaluate different biological processes occurring in the body. Tailoring medicine to the individual allows for higher quality of care with better diagnosis and treatment and is a key purpose for advancing research into developing new platforms for PET imaging agents. A PET nuclide of high interest for the development of these agents is 89Zr. This can be attributed to the long half-life of 3.27 days and low positron energy of 89Zr.

In this work, we developed a production method for 89Zr using Y sputtered coins ...


Morphological Features Of Dysplastic Progression In Epithelium: Quantification Of Cytological, Microendoscopic, And Second Harmonic Generation Images, Sandra Patricia Gordon Dec 2018

Morphological Features Of Dysplastic Progression In Epithelium: Quantification Of Cytological, Microendoscopic, And Second Harmonic Generation Images, Sandra Patricia Gordon

Theses and Dissertations

Advances in imaging technology have led to a variety of available clinical and investigational systems. In this collection of studies, we tested the relevance of morphological image feature quantification on several imaging systems and epithelial tissues. Quantification carries the benefit of creating numerical baselines and thresholds of healthy and abnormal tissues, to potentially aid clinicians in determining a diagnosis, as well as providing researchers with standardized, unbiased results for future dissemination and comparison.

Morphological image features in proflavine stained oral cells were compared qualitatively to traditional Giemsa stained cells, and then we quantified the nuclear to cytoplasm ratio. We determined ...


In Vivo Vascular Imaging With Photoacoustic Microscopy, Hsun-Chia Hsu Aug 2018

In Vivo Vascular Imaging With Photoacoustic Microscopy, Hsun-Chia Hsu

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) has received extensive attention in the last decade for its capability to provide label-free structural and functional imaging in biological tissue with highly scalable spatial resolution and penetration depth. Compared to modern optical modalities, PAT offers speckle-free images and is more sensitive to optical absorption contrast (with 100% relative sensitivity). By implementing different regimes of optical wavelength, PAT can be used to image diverse light-absorbing biomolecules. For example, hemoglobin is of particular interest in the visible wavelength regime owing to its dominant absorption, and lipids and water are more commonly studied in the near-infrared regime.

In ...


Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora Jul 2018

Developing Droplet Based 3d Cell Culture Methods To Enable Investigations Of The Chemical Tumor Microenvironment, Jacqueline A. De Lora

Biomedical Sciences ETDs

Adaptation of cancer cells to changes in the biochemical microenvironment in an expanding tumor mass is a crucial aspect of malignant progression, tumor metabolism, and drug efficacy. In vitro, it is challenging to mimic the evolution of biochemical gradients and the cellular heterogeneity that characterizes cancer tissues found in vivo. It is well accepted that more realistic and controllable in vitro 3D model systems are required to improve the overall cancer research paradigm and thus improve on the translation of results, but multidisciplinary approaches are needed for these advances. This work develops such approaches and demonstrates that new droplet-based cell-encapsulation ...


New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney Jun 2018

New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most accurate imaging techniques that can be used to detect several diseases, where other imaging methodologies fail. MRI data takes a longer time to capture. This is a pain taking process for the patients to remain still while the data is being captured. This is also hard for the doctor as well because if the images are not captured correctly then it will lead to wrong diagnoses of illness that might put the patients lives in danger. Since long scanning time is one of most serious drawback of the MRI modality, reducing ...


Submandibular Mechanical Stimulation Of Upper Airway Muscles To Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Ferhat Erdogan May 2018

Submandibular Mechanical Stimulation Of Upper Airway Muscles To Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Ferhat Erdogan

Dissertations

The extrinsic tongue muscles are activated in coordination with pharyngeal muscles to keep a patent airway during respiration in wakefulness and sleep. The activity of genioglossus, the primary tongue-protruding muscle playing an important role in this coordination, is known to be modulated by several reflex pathways mediated through the mechanoreceptors of the upper airways. The main objective is to investigate the effectiveness of activating these reflex pathways with mechanical stimulations, for the long-term goal of improving the upper airway patency during disordered breathing in sleep. The genioglossus response is examined during mandibular and sub-mandibular mechanical stimulations in healthy subjects during ...


Developing Photoacoustic Tomography Devices For Translational Medicine And Basic Science Research, Tsz Wai Wong May 2018

Developing Photoacoustic Tomography Devices For Translational Medicine And Basic Science Research, Tsz Wai Wong

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Photoacoustic (PA) tomography (PAT) provides volumetric images of biological tissue with scalable spatial resolutions and imaging depths, while preserving the same imaging contrast—optical absorption. Taking the advantage of its 100% sensitivity to optical absorption, PAT has been widely applied in structural, functional, and molecular imaging, with both endogenous and exogenous contrasts, at superior depths than pure optical methods. Intuitively, hemoglobin has been the most commonly studied biomolecule in PAT due to its strong absorption in the visible wavelength regime.

One of the main focuses of this dissertation is to investigate an underexplored wavelength regime—ultraviolet (UV), which allows us ...


Developing Wavefront Shaping Techniques For Focusing Through Highly Dynamic Scattering Media, Ashton Hemphill May 2018

Developing Wavefront Shaping Techniques For Focusing Through Highly Dynamic Scattering Media, Ashton Hemphill

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

One of the prime limiting factors of optical imaging in biological applications is the diffusion of light by tissue, which prevents focusing at depths greater than the optical diffusion limit of ~1 mm in soft tissue. This greatly restricts the utility of optical diagnostic and therapeutic techniques, such as optogenetics, microsurgery, optical tweezing, and phototherapy of deep tissue, which require focused light in order to function. Wavefront shaping extends the depth at which optical focusing may be achieved by compensating for phase distortions induced by scattering, allowing for focusing through constructive interference.

However, due to physiological motion, scattering of light ...


Fluorescence Guided Tumor Imaging: Foundations For Translational Applications, Jessica P. Miller May 2018

Fluorescence Guided Tumor Imaging: Foundations For Translational Applications, Jessica P. Miller

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Optical imaging for medical applications is a growing field, and it has the potential to improve medical outcomes through its increased sensitivity and specificity, lower cost, and small instrumentation footprint as compared to other imaging modalities. The method holds great promise, ranging from direct clinical use as a diagnostic or therapeutic tool, to pre-clinical applications for increased understanding of pathology. Additionally, optical imaging uses non-ionizing radiation which is safe for patients, so it can be used for repeated imaging procedures to monitor therapy, guide treatment, and provide real-time feedback. The versatile features of fluorescence-based optical imaging make it suited for ...


Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett May 2018

Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vector flow imaging (VFI) is a new ultrasound technology that provides real time, angle-independent visualization of flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. Thus far, VFI has been used for superficial applications due to the limited penetration depth of available transducer probes; however, this depth in smaller pediatric patients enables adequate aortic views. In this project, VFI was used to study pediatric aortic stenosis (PAS)—a congenital heart defect that results in the narrowing of the aorta and/or aortic valve. The decision to refer PAS patients for surgical or catheter-based intervention is initially based on Doppler ultrasound. VFI ...


Quantification Of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Following Immunomodulation Therapy In A Murine Allograft Model Of Colorectal Carcinoma, Caroline Spainhour May 2018

Quantification Of Tumor-Associated Macrophages Following Immunomodulation Therapy In A Murine Allograft Model Of Colorectal Carcinoma, Caroline Spainhour

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Colorectal Carcinoma (CRC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world, with 150,000 new cases annually in the United States. Traditional treatments include chemotherapy and invasive surgery; however, research has shown that only 25% of patients that undergo traditional treatment have a positive result. Immunotherapy is an emerging form of cancer treatment that utilizes the patients’immune system to fight cancer cells by targeting inflammation, which plays a large role in the proliferation and metastasis of cancer cells.

Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are immune cells that affect the inflammatory microenvironment of tumors. TAMs are M1 in the early stages ...


Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes May 2018

Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Histology often requires a tissue specimen to be embedded so that it may be sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide for viewing. One common method of tissue embedding for rapid histology is freezing, since freezing allows tissue to be stored without the need for fixing. Frozen tissue is often embedded in a medium such as Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) compound so that it can be sectioned using a cryostat. However, factors such as ice-crystal formation during the freezing process can cause damage to the tissue. As such, the protocol used to freeze the tissue can affect the quality ...


Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan Apr 2018

Characterization Of Computed Tomography Radiomic Features Using Texture Phantoms, Muhammad Shafiq Ul Hassan

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Radiomics treats images as quantitative data and promises to improve cancer prediction in radiology and therapy response assessment in radiation oncology. However, there are a number of fundamental problems that need to be solved in order to potentially apply radiomic features in clinic. The first basic step in computed tomography (CT) radiomic analysis is the acquisition of images using selectable image acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Radiomic features have shown large variability due to variation of these parameters. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to address these variability issues in radiomic features due to each CT parameter. To this end ...


Optimization Of Microfluidic Chip Fabrication Via Femtosecond Laser Ablation, Kenneth Aycock Apr 2018

Optimization Of Microfluidic Chip Fabrication Via Femtosecond Laser Ablation, Kenneth Aycock

Senior Theses

Microfluidic devices have become staple tools in biomedical research and have a promising future as low cost, point-of-care (POC) diagnostic devices. Despite the advancements in microfluidic device technology, the manipulation and fabrication of these systems can be tedious and expensive. Repeatable techniques in which computer-aided designs are translated into microfluidic systems in a matter of minutes are highly desirable both for researchers and manufacturers. Laser ablation of tape substrates has shown promise in producing cost-effective, rapidly manipulable devices, but the work done thus far has utilized continuous wave lasers that perform suboptimally due to the relatively short wavelengths used and ...


Automatic Brain Tumor Segmentation By Deep Convolutional Networks And Graph Cuts, Zhenyi Wang Jan 2018

Automatic Brain Tumor Segmentation By Deep Convolutional Networks And Graph Cuts, Zhenyi Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Brain tumor segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is helpful for diagnostics, growth rate prediction, tumor volume measurements and treatment planning of brain tumor. The difficulties for brain tumor segmentation are mainly due to high variation of brain tumors in size, shape, regularity, location, and their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., contrast, intensity and texture variation for different tumors). Due to recent advances in deep convolutional neural networks for semantic image segmentation, automatic brain tumor segmentation is a promising research direction.

This thesis investigates automatic brain tumor segmentation by combining deep convolutional neural network with regularization by a graph cut. We ...


Multimodal Noncontact Diffuse Optical Reflectance Imaging Of Blood Flow And Fluorescence Contrasts, Daniel Irwin Jan 2018

Multimodal Noncontact Diffuse Optical Reflectance Imaging Of Blood Flow And Fluorescence Contrasts, Daniel Irwin

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

In this study we design a succession of three increasingly adept diffuse optical devices towards the simultaneous 3D imaging of blood flow and fluorescence contrasts in relatively deep tissues. These metrics together can provide future insights into the relationship between blood flow distributions and fluorescent or fluorescently tagged agents. A noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) device was firstly developed to recover flow by mechanically scanning a lens-based apparatus across the sample. The novel flow reconstruction technique and measuring boundary curvature were advanced in tandem. The establishment of CCD camera detection with a high sampling density and flow recovery by speckle ...