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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Medical Equipment Planning And Construction Of A Interventional Neuroradiology Suite, Furqan Elahi Dec 2005

Medical Equipment Planning And Construction Of A Interventional Neuroradiology Suite, Furqan Elahi

Theses

New York-Presbyterian Hospital is one of the most comprehensive university hospitals in the world, with leading specialists in every field of medicine. It is composed of two renowned medical centers, New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center and New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center. The hospital's strategic planning group identified the need to expand the Interventional Neuroradiology service that the hospital provides. This brought upon the need to form a committee to plan the construction of an Interventional Neuroradiology. The problem statement of this thesis is to prepare a best practices guideline from a clinical engineering perspective on ...


Impact Of Missed Beats On Heart Rate Variability Using Time-Frequency Analysis, Kilbrom T. Hailu Dec 2005

Impact Of Missed Beats On Heart Rate Variability Using Time-Frequency Analysis, Kilbrom T. Hailu

Theses

ECG recordings, especially during an exercise stress test, are exposed to artifacts. The source of artifacts can be due to technical problems, biological events and errors in the automatic detection. As a result missed beats, extra beats and ectopic beats can occur. In this study analysis of missed beats is performed using time-frequency analysis. Some of the patient's data had missed beats.

Fourier spectral analysis was first applied to the missed beats during the resting state. The impact of missed beats using Fourier spectral analysis is significant, especially, when the missed beats are in a row. The Fourier spectral ...


Non-Invasive Monitoring Of Bone Health Using Ultrasound, Nashit Jahan Meem Dec 2005

Non-Invasive Monitoring Of Bone Health Using Ultrasound, Nashit Jahan Meem

Theses

Bone fractures are estimated to afflict everyone at least once in his/her lifetime. Monitoring this becomes crucial especially when it comes to athletes in order for them to safely resume their regular activities as soon as possible. Technologies currently employed are either very expensive or use harmful radiation.

Ultrasound can monitor bone fractures in a non-invasive manner, as discussed in United States Patent # 5143069. Three transducers are mounted over the test specimen. A pulse generator excites the transmitting receiver. The second receiver is mounted next to the transmitter and acts as a reference receiver that displays the response across ...


Qt Variability Calculation Using A Template Matching Algorithm And Power Spectral Analysis, Theodore Sami Rizkalla Dec 2005

Qt Variability Calculation Using A Template Matching Algorithm And Power Spectral Analysis, Theodore Sami Rizkalla

Theses

ECG interval measurement and variability analysis has proven to be a useful tool in investigating autonomic nervous system function. Traditionally, the R to R interval has been the thrust of research conducted in this field. QT variability is another topic on which little research has been done.

This thesis uses an algorithm proposed by Dr. Berger, published in 2003. The algorithm stretches the template in the time domain, and composes a sum-squared error function, which is minimized to find the scaling factor for that beat. These scaling factors are compiled into an array, and an interpolated signal is generated of ...


Direct Application Of The Least Action Principle To Solve (Human) Movement Dynamics Without Using Differential Equations Of Motion, Amitha Kumar Dec 2005

Direct Application Of The Least Action Principle To Solve (Human) Movement Dynamics Without Using Differential Equations Of Motion, Amitha Kumar

Theses

This thesis explores the numerical feasibility of solving motion 2-point boundary value problems (BVPs) by direct numerical minimization of the action without using the equations of motion (EOM) as an intermediate step. The proposed direct least action (DLA) approach using the downhill simplex method (DSM) is applied to both the single and double pendulum systems as beginning test problems. The solutions so obtained are compared to numerical solutions of the corresponding Lagrange BOM solved using a first order Euler algorithm for the same mechanical problems. The output path obtained by both of the methods essentially superimpose on each other.

Future ...


Modification And Evaluation Of Continuous Roll Prediction Model For Front Drive Mowers, Xinyan Wang Dec 2005

Modification And Evaluation Of Continuous Roll Prediction Model For Front Drive Mowers, Xinyan Wang

Doctoral Dissertations

The recently approved ASAE Standard S547 “Tip-Over Protective Structure (TOPS) for Front Wheel Drive Turf and Landscape Equipment” addressed a continuous roll prediction model for Roll-Over Protective Structure (ROPS) design. The existing model described in this Standard did not take into account the influence of the mower deck on the rollover behavior. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the original model, according to the ASAE S547 requirement, a 4.05 meters long and 3.42 meters wide slope of 35 degrees was constructed at the University of Tennessee. Lateral upset tests for Deere F925 front drive mower with regular ...


Wavelet Based Feature Extraction And Dimension Reduction For The Classification Of Human Cardiac Electrogram Depolarization Waveforms, Christopher S. De Voir Oct 2005

Wavelet Based Feature Extraction And Dimension Reduction For The Classification Of Human Cardiac Electrogram Depolarization Waveforms, Christopher S. De Voir

Dissertations and Theses

An essential task for a pacemaker or implantable defibrillator is the accurate identification of rhythm categories so that the correct electrotherapy can be administered. Because some rhythms cause a rapid dangerous drop in cardiac output, it is necessary to categorize depolarization waveforms on a beat-to-beat basis to accomplish rhythm classification as rapidly as possible. In this thesis, a depolarization waveform classifier based on the Lifting Line Wavelet Transform is described. It overcomes problems in existing rate-based event classifiers; namely, (1) they are insensitive to the conduction path of the heart rhythm and (2) they are not robust to pseudo-events. The ...


Integration Of Micro Nano And Bio Technologies With Layer -By -Layer Self -Assembly, Dinesh Shankar Kommireddy Oct 2005

Integration Of Micro Nano And Bio Technologies With Layer -By -Layer Self -Assembly, Dinesh Shankar Kommireddy

Doctoral Dissertations

In the past decade, layer-by-layer (LbL) nanoassembly has been used as a tool for immobilization and surface modification of materials with applications in biology and physical sciences. Often, in such applications, LbL assembly is integrated with various techniques to form functional surface coatings and immobilized matrices. In this work, integration of LbL with microfabrication and microfluidics, and tissue engineering are explored. In an effort to integrate microfabrication with LbL nanoassembly, microchannels were fabricated using soft-lithography and the surface of these channels was used for the immobilization of materials using LbL and laminar flow patterning. Synthesis of poly(dimethyldiallyl ammonium chloride ...


Application Of Polyelectrolyte Layer-By-Layer Nano-Assembly For Surface Modification, Encapsulation And Controlled Release, Nikhil Anil Pargaonkar Oct 2005

Application Of Polyelectrolyte Layer-By-Layer Nano-Assembly For Surface Modification, Encapsulation And Controlled Release, Nikhil Anil Pargaonkar

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study, we applied the traditional Electrostatic layer-by-layer (ELBL) assembly procedure to fabricate nanothin films over flat surfaces, and modify particle surfaces to influence the drug particle size, and drug release. The ELBL assembly has previously been applied to fabricate multilayer nano-scale thin films, but its ability to instantaneously influencing particle size is unique. Other unique observations such as influence on drug release as a result of polymer complexation, and thermal changes occurring during layer fabrication are recorded.

The ELBL self-assembly process was applied to produce dexamethasone particles layered with various polyelectrolyte layer combinations. These combinations were further applied ...


Validation Of Lower Limb Surrogates As Injury Assessment Tools In Floor Impacts Due To Anti-Vehicular Landmine Explosions, Ana Barbir Sep 2005

Validation Of Lower Limb Surrogates As Injury Assessment Tools In Floor Impacts Due To Anti-Vehicular Landmine Explosions, Ana Barbir

Wayne State University Theses

The aim of this study is to assess the ability of lower limb surrogates to predict injury due to floor impact in military vehicles during anti-vehicular (AV) landmine explosions. Most such surrogates have originally been constructed for use in automotive crash applications, where footwell intrusion is the main source of lower limb injury. Land mine explosions, however, create different loading conditions on the lower leg. Comparatively, the peak loads are higher but the durations are shorter and the loading occurs axially through the tibia, instead of the axial loading combined with foot rotation that is often observed in automotive applications ...


Growth Behavior Of Fibroblasts Influenced By Small Changes In Polymer Structure, Saraswathi Doddi Aug 2005

Growth Behavior Of Fibroblasts Influenced By Small Changes In Polymer Structure, Saraswathi Doddi

Theses

Polymers are a promising class of biomaterials that can be engineered to meet specific end use requirements. The order and processing history of the polymer, which would alter the molecular orientation of the material could have a significant contribution towards cellular attachment and in turn, cell growth on the particular polymer. Surface properties of the material were considered to directly influence the properties of the adherent cells including cellular growth and reorganization. The present study is aimed at comparing cell growth on polyarylates with that of polylactic acid in their original state or by introducing small changes in the surface ...


In Vitro Evaluation Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Neural Differentiation On Tyrsine-Derived Polyarylates And Polycarbonates, Yee-Shuan Lee Aug 2005

In Vitro Evaluation Of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Neural Differentiation On Tyrsine-Derived Polyarylates And Polycarbonates, Yee-Shuan Lee

Theses

Present spinal cord injury treatments cannot restore motor and sensory functions caused by the injury. These functions can return in the hopes of repairing the neural cells with a tissue engineered designed scaffold complex. The scaffold complex will include cells to repair and replace the damaged cells.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent adult stem ells that are capable of differentiating along several lineage pathways. Neural stem cell and MSC differentiating along the neural lineage bave been investigated both in vivo and in vitro depicting its feasibility. MSC for neural differentiation can be achieved by microenvironmental signaling. Substrate surface characteristics ...


Combined Effects Of Prozac And Hypothalmic Mediated Response On Masseter Muscle Activity In The Cat, Chika P. Nwaorgu Aug 2005

Combined Effects Of Prozac And Hypothalmic Mediated Response On Masseter Muscle Activity In The Cat, Chika P. Nwaorgu

Theses

The present study tested the hypothesis that infusion of Prozac would serve to suppress defensive rage elicited from the medial hypothalamus of the cat. Cats are known to exhibit certain kind of behavior, known as the "defensive rage response" such as unsheathing of the claws, retraction of the ear and vocalization (hissing).

Three adult cats (2 males and 1 female) weighing (2.8 - 3.4 kg) were utilized during the experiments. Cannula-electrodes were implanted into the medial hypothalamus for elicitation of defensive rage behavior. EMG activity was recorded with a bipolar electrode attached to the masseter muscle to establish baseline ...


The Creation And Testing Of A Mock Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility For Pain Patients, Gladstone Vincent Reid Aug 2005

The Creation And Testing Of A Mock Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility For Pain Patients, Gladstone Vincent Reid

Theses

Unfamiliarity with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) facilities leads to unwanted stress-related disturbances in the processing of fMRI data. A mock fMRI facility was developed to increase familiarization among subjects participating in fiviRI studies and to alleviate the time and cost of familiarizing each subject in an actual fMRI facility. A decommissioned Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) unit was remodeled to visually and aurally resemble the Siemens Magnetom Allegra 3 Telsa fMRI machine currently used at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Newark, New Jersey. Instrumentation was developed using LabVIEW software which presented subjects with recreated sounds ...


Haptic Induced Motor Learning And The Extension Of Its Benefits To Stroke Patients, Adrienne M. Coppa Aug 2005

Haptic Induced Motor Learning And The Extension Of Its Benefits To Stroke Patients, Adrienne M. Coppa

Theses

In this research, the Haptic Master robotic arm and virtual environments are used to induce motor learning in subjects with no known musculoskeletal or neurological disorders. It is found in this research that both perception and performance of the subject are increased through the haptic and visual feedback delivered through the Haptic Master. These system benefits may be extended to enhance therapies for patients with loss of motor skills due to neurological disease or brain injury.

Force and visual feedback were manipulated within virtual environment scenarios to facilitate learning. In one force feedback condition, the subject is required to maneuver ...


Multifractal Analysis Of Heart Rate Variability Using Wavelet-Transform Modulus-Maxima Method, Chirag Jani Aug 2005

Multifractal Analysis Of Heart Rate Variability Using Wavelet-Transform Modulus-Maxima Method, Chirag Jani

Theses

Physiological signals are complex and carry information of human health. Recent studies reveal that under normal conditions, the heart rate time series shows multifractal behavior. In contrast, HRV in the pathological state such as congestive heart failure exhibits more monofractal-like structure. Recent advances in the assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) uses a nonlinear dynamics approach. In this study, the main objective is to use the wavelet-transform modulus-maxima method for the multifractal analysis of the heart rate time senes.

The degree of the multifractality is defined by the singularities (a point in time series where a mathematical function is not ...


Wet-Spinning And Thermal Analysis Of Collagen Fibers Incorporating Hydroxyapatite In Mixed And Coated Form, Sandesh Nathaniel Prakash Aug 2005

Wet-Spinning And Thermal Analysis Of Collagen Fibers Incorporating Hydroxyapatite In Mixed And Coated Form, Sandesh Nathaniel Prakash

Theses

The composition of natural bone comprises of collagen (Cg) as organic phase which acts as a matrix and inorganic calcium phosphate, particularly hydroxyapatite (HA), which is used as reinforcement. This study involved the wet-spinning of collagen fibers incorporating HA in mixed and coated form. The weight percent ratio of collagen and HA in the composite fibers was 95 to 5 respectively. HA coating on pure collagen fibers was achieved by immersing them in HA solution formed by mixing HA in water. With Thermomechanical analysis, the highest breaking point temperature was obtained for the composite fibers and the least with pure ...


Quantification Of Long-Range Power Law Correlations Among Healthy And Pathologic Subjects Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis And Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Hardick Raval Aug 2005

Quantification Of Long-Range Power Law Correlations Among Healthy And Pathologic Subjects Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis And Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis, Hardick Raval

Theses

The healthy heartbeat is traditionally thought to be regulated according to the classical principle of homeostasis whereby physiologic systems operate to reduce variability and achieve an equilibrium-like state. However recent studies reveal that under normal conditions, beat-to-beat fluctuation in heart rate display the kind of long-range correlations typically exhibited by the dynamical system far away from equilibrium. In contrast, heart rate time series from patients with severe congestive heart failure show a breakdown of this long-range correlation behavior. Two different non-linear dynamic methods namely Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and Multifractal (MF) DFA are used for the quantification of this correlation ...


Quantification Of Regularity In Rr-Interval Time Series Using Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy, And Multi-Scale Entropy, Nirvish Shah Aug 2005

Quantification Of Regularity In Rr-Interval Time Series Using Approximate Entropy, Sample Entropy, And Multi-Scale Entropy, Nirvish Shah

Theses

Heart rate variability (HRV) has proven to be a useful noninvasive tool to study the neuronal control of the heart. Recently, nonlinear dynamic methods based on chaos theory and fractal dynamics have been developed to uncover the nonlinear fluctuations in heart rate. Approximate Entropy (ApEn), Sample Entropy (SampEn) and Multi-scale Entropy (MSE) are measures based on chaos theory that quantify the regularity in time series. This study has been designed to examine the ability of these measures to distinguish the RR-interval time series of normal subjects (NSR) from subjects with congestive heart failure (CHF). The study was conducted on the ...


Organization And Signal Processing Of The Descending Tracts In The Cervical Spinal Cord, Yanmei Tie Jul 2005

Organization And Signal Processing Of The Descending Tracts In The Cervical Spinal Cord, Yanmei Tie

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation addresses the research for the development of spinal cord-computer interface (SCCI). The main objective of SCCI is to generate voluntary motor control signals for individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).

In the neuroscience aspect, organization of the fibers in the descending tracts of the dorsolateral funiculus of the cervical spinal cord was investigated in cats. The spinal cord was penetrated with silicon substrate microelectrodes at 400 μm intervals in the medio-lateral direction at the C5/C6 and C6/C7 segmental borders. The stimulus consisted of a 20 ms train of charge-balanced biphasic pulses at 330 Hz. The evoked ...


Modeling, Design, And Validation Of Fluorescent Spherical Enzymatic Glucose Microsensors Using Nanoengineered Polyelectrolyte Coatings, Jonathan Quincy Brown Jul 2005

Modeling, Design, And Validation Of Fluorescent Spherical Enzymatic Glucose Microsensors Using Nanoengineered Polyelectrolyte Coatings, Jonathan Quincy Brown

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, the modeling, design, and function of fluorescent spherical enzymatic microsensors for minimally-invasive diabetic monitoring are described. The devices reported herein are novel and their experimental construction and theoretical analysis have not been previously reported, thus laying the foundation for an intensive set of studies. These sensors are based on the encapsulation of an enzymatic fluorescent assay for glucose within hydrogel alginate microspheres with diameters on the order of tens of microns, which are of the appropriate size for intradermal implantation. A novel feature of these sensors is the use of multifunctional nanoengineered ultrathin multilayer polyelectrolyte coatings on ...


Characterization Of Mismatch Between Behavioral Stimuli And Frmi Data Using The Kalman Filter, Jason Steffener May 2005

Characterization Of Mismatch Between Behavioral Stimuli And Frmi Data Using The Kalman Filter, Jason Steffener

Dissertations

The advance of blood oxygen level dependent function magnetic resonance imaging, (BOLD fMRI), allows researchers to non-invasively investigate the functioning human brain. The BOLD fMRI response to brief stimuli is called the hemodynamic response function (HRF), which can vary across brain regions and across subjects.

Models of the HRF are used to increase sensitivity of statistical maps; however, they often don't account for spatial and temporal variance. Physiological effects, such as learning, fatigue or habituation, introduce mismatch between statistical models and the data. Methods that use minimal a priori information and track time varying signals are able to show ...


Relationship Between The Autonomic Nervous System And The Recovering Heart Post Exercise Using Heart Rate Variability, Pierre Asselin May 2005

Relationship Between The Autonomic Nervous System And The Recovering Heart Post Exercise Using Heart Rate Variability, Pierre Asselin

Theses

The goal of this thesis is to determine if a relationship exists between the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the speed of heart rate recovery post maximal exercise. The parasympathetic branch of the ANS was assessed during rest by obtaining the high frequency (HF) component of the heart rate variability (HRV) frequency spectrum. The recovery time was estimated by fitting an exponential curve to the heart rate post exercise where the exponent was used to calculate the time constant to indicate recovery time. A regression was then performed on the HF and recovery time in order to ...


Analysis Of Acceleration And Deceleration During Cyclic Exercise, Jeena Vadi May 2005

Analysis Of Acceleration And Deceleration During Cyclic Exercise, Jeena Vadi

Theses

The Cyclic Exercise Protocol is a novel protocol that is designed to create a series of cyclic waves of exercise and recovery. This exercise protocol involves short bursts of exercise lasting for 60 seconds or less followed by a period of complete cardio recovery. This study involves the analysis of the acceleration and the deceleration regions of the cyclic exercise sessions. The objective of this study was to develop an algorithm to quantitatively analyze the acceleration and the deceleration regions of cyclic exercise sessions. The acceleration and the deceleration regions of cycles were split into three segments and each segment ...


Non-Linear Digital Control Of A Mckibben Muscle System, Surinkumar Patel May 2005

Non-Linear Digital Control Of A Mckibben Muscle System, Surinkumar Patel

Theses

McKibben muscles are pneumatic actuators that have potential application in the rehabilitation of persons with physical impairments. These actuators have been known to exhibit similarities in human musculoskeletal systems. In order to better understand and improve the closed - loop control of these pneumatic muscles, a physical joint model was constructed with an agonist and an antagonist muscle operating under non-linear control. With the use of LabVIEW software, compliant McKibben air muscles and Flock-of-Birds sensor, the author was able to implement and compare a standard bang-bang controller and experimental non-linear digital Proportional (P) controller. The feedback mechanism is based on the ...


Ambulatory Biopotential Measurement, Lakshmi Chitra Penugonda May 2005

Ambulatory Biopotential Measurement, Lakshmi Chitra Penugonda

Theses

Biopotential signals measure the electrical activity of different parts of the body. Conventional bedside monitors only provide information about the body under restricted conditions. Observation and documentation of biopotential signal during daily activities and the relation to patient symptoms may be important factors for clinical decision-making. Ambulatory monitoring helps to monitor the biopotential signal of a patient in the natural environment. The effective ambulatory system can help a physician to diagnose the patient's abnormality.

In this project, a low cost and flexible ambulatory biopotential system, compared to the commercially available systems, was designed and tested. Concurrently a software program ...


A Numerical Method For Obtaining An Optimal Temperature Distribution In A 3d Triple-Layered Cylindrical Skin Structure, Le Zhang Apr 2005

A Numerical Method For Obtaining An Optimal Temperature Distribution In A 3d Triple-Layered Cylindrical Skin Structure, Le Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

In recent years, it has been interesting to research hyperthermia combined with radiation and cytotoxic drugs to enhance the killing of tumors. The crucial problem is that when heating the tumor tissues, one needs to keep the surrounding normal tissue below a temperature that will produce harm. Thus, it is important to obtain the temperature field of the entire treatment region. The objective of this dissertation is to develop a numerical model for obtaining an optimal temperature distribution in a 3D triple-layered cylindrical skin structure. To this end, we pre-specify the temperatures to be obtained at the center and perimeter ...


Numerical Simulation Of Nanopulse Penetration Of Biological Matter Using The Z -Transform, Shengjun Su Apr 2005

Numerical Simulation Of Nanopulse Penetration Of Biological Matter Using The Z -Transform, Shengjun Su

Doctoral Dissertations

Short duration, fast rise time ultra-wide-band (UWB) electromagnetic pulses (“nanopulses”) are generated by numerous electronic devices in use today. Moreover, many novel technologies involving nanopulses are under development and expected to become widely used soon. Study of nanopulse bioeffects is needed to probe their useful range in possible biomedical and biotechnological applications, and to ensure human safety.

Based on the well-known dispersive properties of biological matter and their expression as a summation of terms corresponding to the main polarization mechanisms, the Cole-Cole expression is commonly employed to describe the frequency dependence of the dielectric properties of a tissue. Solving the ...


Microencapsulation Techniques Towards Building A Sensor: A Study Of Factors Affecting Enzyme Encapsulation And Stability, Suman R. Nayak Apr 2005

Microencapsulation Techniques Towards Building A Sensor: A Study Of Factors Affecting Enzyme Encapsulation And Stability, Suman R. Nayak

Doctoral Dissertations

Minimally and non-invasive glucose sensing techniques are instrumental in improving the quality of life of diabetics, point-of-care testing, critical care monitoring, development of new anti-diabetic drugs or therapeutic compounds, and the study of basic physiology. The overall goal of this project was to build a fluorescent glucose sensor by incorporating relevant sensing chemistry within microcapsules. The specific aims for this research were to study various processes used for the fabrication of micro-containers, the use of these for encapsulation purposes, and the application of the encapsulated system towards glucose sensing. The following is a brief description highlighting the key areas of ...


Biosensing With Microcantilever-Based Sensors, Xiaodong Yan Apr 2005

Biosensing With Microcantilever-Based Sensors, Xiaodong Yan

Doctoral Dissertations

Microcantilevers provide an ideal platform for biosensors. The micron-sized transducer brings several advantages, such as high sensitivity, small sample quantity for analysis, portability, implantable sensor devices, and the ability to be mass produced and integrated into standard microelectronic processing technologies like complementary metal oxide seminconductors (CMOS).

The objective of this research is to investigate and develop modification methods of microcanitlevers for biosensing applications.

Two microcantilever modification methods were investigated. They are self-assembly monolayer method and layer-by-layer method. A fundamental procedure for modification of microcantilevers using the layer-by-layer approach was developed for the first time in this research. These modification methods ...