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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran May 2019

A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran

Dissertations

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in structural and functional neurological changes at both the brain and the level of the spinal cord. Anatomical studies indicate decreased grey matter volume in sensorimotor and non-sensorimotor regions of the cortex following SCI; whereas, neurophysiological findings mostly report altered functional activity in the sensorimotor nodes of the cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether tissue atrophy observed in non-motor related areas has any concomitant functional consequences. Furthermore, the neural underpinnings of adaptive neuroplasticity after SCI is not well-defined in the current literature. Hence, this dissertation is a pioneer study investigating ...


Final Design Report For The Bioburden Pre-Cleaning Device And Dr. Mark Rasnake At The University Of Tennessee Medical Center, Katherine Elizabeth Stiles, Megan Pitz, Kayla Franklin, Simran Dayal, Austin Bullock May 2019

Final Design Report For The Bioburden Pre-Cleaning Device And Dr. Mark Rasnake At The University Of Tennessee Medical Center, Katherine Elizabeth Stiles, Megan Pitz, Kayla Franklin, Simran Dayal, Austin Bullock

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Translational Modeling Of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation, Dennis Quangvinh Truong Jan 2019

Translational Modeling Of Non-Invasive Electrical Stimulation, Dennis Quangvinh Truong

Dissertations and Theses

Seminal work in the early 2000’s demonstrated the effect of low amplitude non-invasive electrical stimulation in people using neurophysiological measures (motor evoked potentials, MEPs). Clinical applications of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) have since proliferated, though the mechanisms are not fully understood. Efforts to refine the technique to improve results are on-going as are mechanistic studies both in vivo and in vitro. Volume conduction models are being applied to these areas of research, especially in the design and analysis of clinical montages. However, additional research on the parameterization of models remains.

In this dissertation, Finite Element Method (FEM) models ...


Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin Nov 2018

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) provide a communication pathway between the electrical conducting units of the brain (neurons) and external devices. BMI technology may provide improved neurological and physiological functions to patients suffering from disabilities due to damaged nervous systems. Unfortunately, microelectrodes used in Intracortical Neural Interfaces (INI), a subset of the BMI device family, have yet to demonstrate long-term in vivo performance due to material, mechanical and electrical failures. Many state-of-the-art INI devices are constructed using stacks of multiple materials, such as silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt), parylene C, and polyimide. Not only must each material tolerate the biological ...


Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts: Recellularisation And Surface Functionalisation With Hybrid Magnetic Nanomedicine Developed With Theranostic Potential, Tatiane Eufrásio Da Silva Jul 2018

Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts: Recellularisation And Surface Functionalisation With Hybrid Magnetic Nanomedicine Developed With Theranostic Potential, Tatiane Eufrásio Da Silva

PhD theses

Cardiovascular Disease is the number one cause of death in the world, with a mortality rate, globally of 35.1% representing 17.6 million lives lost annually. The majority of these deaths are related to vascular diseases, such as atherosclerotic plaques, which can obstruct blood flow perfusion of organs and tissue causing serious injuries or even death. In the heart, in order to prevent heart failure, blood flow to the tissue must be restored as quickly as possible, ideally via minimally invasive interventions such as stenting or other types of angioplasty as the gold standard. However, this is not always ...


Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi Jul 2018

Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...


Submandibular Mechanical Stimulation Of Upper Airway Muscles To Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Ferhat Erdogan May 2018

Submandibular Mechanical Stimulation Of Upper Airway Muscles To Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Ferhat Erdogan

Dissertations

The extrinsic tongue muscles are activated in coordination with pharyngeal muscles to keep a patent airway during respiration in wakefulness and sleep. The activity of genioglossus, the primary tongue-protruding muscle playing an important role in this coordination, is known to be modulated by several reflex pathways mediated through the mechanoreceptors of the upper airways. The main objective is to investigate the effectiveness of activating these reflex pathways with mechanical stimulations, for the long-term goal of improving the upper airway patency during disordered breathing in sleep. The genioglossus response is examined during mandibular and sub-mandibular mechanical stimulations in healthy subjects during ...


In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia May 2018

In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a condition that involves the occlusion of a blood vessel within the brain, effectively preventing the passage of oxygen and nutrients. AIS is highly prevalent in the United States, where nearly 795,000 strokes happen per year and 87% of those are ischemic. From a medical standpoint, the obstructing clot can be removed with the use of a stroke retrieval device. However, a need arises for testing the aforementioned devices on a patient’s specific vascular geometries in order to increase the likelihood of a successful procedure. Outlined is a process for developing a physical ...


Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes May 2018

Comparison Of Varying Tissue Freezing Methods On Murine Colonic Tissue, James Hughes

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Histology often requires a tissue specimen to be embedded so that it may be sectioned, stained, and mounted on a microscope slide for viewing. One common method of tissue embedding for rapid histology is freezing, since freezing allows tissue to be stored without the need for fixing. Frozen tissue is often embedded in a medium such as Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) compound so that it can be sectioned using a cryostat. However, factors such as ice-crystal formation during the freezing process can cause damage to the tissue. As such, the protocol used to freeze the tissue can affect the quality ...


Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe Apr 2018

Neural Mechanisms Of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation In The Treatment Of Tinnitus, Andrea S. Lowe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Millions of people suffer from tinnitus, a disorder for which there is currently no effective treatment or cure. My dissertation work provides insight into the neural correlates of this pervasive hearing disorder and examines how a newly emerging therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), affects the central auditory system in the generation of the tinnitus percept. This work has a multifold focus of: i) developing and modeling the function of a miniature magnetic coil that can be used for TMS in rodents, ii) establishing a reliable mouse model of tinnitus that can be used for assessing TMS treatment-induced changes, iii) measuring ...


The Coordination Of Movement From Motor Units To Muscle Synergies, Daniel Francis Feeney Jan 2018

The Coordination Of Movement From Motor Units To Muscle Synergies, Daniel Francis Feeney

Integrative Physiology Graduate Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation comprises computational and experimental studies that examined the neuromuscular factors underlying differences in manual dexterity and mobility in health and disease.

The first two studies developed models of motor unit force production. The first model used a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control algorithm to activate a pool of motor units to simulate the force trajectory during force-matching tasks. The second model comprised a probabilistic state-space model to estimate the common synaptic input to motor neurons based on the discharge times of action potentials by activated motor units. The state-space model demonstrated superior sensitivity compared with previous models.

The next three ...


Development Of Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Methods And Instrumentation For Biological Applications, Laura A. Buchanan Jan 2018

Development Of Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Methods And Instrumentation For Biological Applications, Laura A. Buchanan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

EPR is a powerful biophysical tool that can be used to measure tumor physiology. With the addition of magnetic field gradients, the spectral properties of paramagnetic species can be mapped. To facilitate EPR imaging, methods and instrumentation at frequencies between 250 MHz and 1 GHz were developed.

At low spin concentrations, the rapid scan background signal is often many times larger than the EPR signal of interest. To help remove the background contribution, a data acquisition procedure that takes advantage of a cross-loop resonator and bipolar power supplies was developed at 250 MHz. In this procedure, two scans are collected ...


The Effects Of Emerging Technology On Healthcare And The Difficulties Of Integration, Skyler J. Pavlish-Carpenter Jan 2018

The Effects Of Emerging Technology On Healthcare And The Difficulties Of Integration, Skyler J. Pavlish-Carpenter

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Background: Disruptive technology describes technology that is significantly more advanced than previous iterations, such as: 3D printing, genetic manipulation, stem cell research, innovative surgical procedures, and computer-based charting software. These technologies often require extensive overhauls to implement into older systems and must overcome many difficult financial and societal complications before they can be widely used. In a field like healthcare that makes frequent advancements, these difficulties can mean that the technology will not be utilized to its full potential or implemented at all.

Objective: To determine the inhibiting factors that prevent disruptive technology from being implemented in conventional healthcare.

Methods ...


Characterization Of Language Cortex Activity During Speech Production And Perception, Hassan Baker Jan 2018

Characterization Of Language Cortex Activity During Speech Production And Perception, Hassan Baker

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Millions of people around the world suffer from severe neuromuscular disorders such as spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and others. Many of these individuals cannot perform daily tasks without assistance and depend on caregivers, which adversely impacts their quality of life. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is technology that aims to give these people the ability to interact with their environment and communicate with the outside world. Many recent studies have attempted to decode spoken and imagined speech directly from brain signals toward the development of a natural-speech BCI. However, the current progress has not reached practical ...


The Design, Fabrication, And Characterization Of Nanoparticle-Protein Interactions For Theranostic Applications, Wai Hei Tse Aug 2017

The Design, Fabrication, And Characterization Of Nanoparticle-Protein Interactions For Theranostic Applications, Wai Hei Tse

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Theranostics, a combination of therapeutics and diagnostics, spans a spectrum of research areas to provide new opportunities in developing new healthcare technologies and medicine at affordable prices. Through employing a personalized medicine approach, biotechnology can be tailored to the needs of an individual. Applications of theranostics include drug delivery carriers capable of sustained drug release and targeted delivery, biosensors with high sensitivity and selectivity, and diagnostic relevant entities that can be incorporated into the former technologies. Nanotechnology provides a suitable foundation for theranostics to build upon due to material-based properties; magnetism, biocompatibility, and quantum effects to name a few. Purpose ...


Markerless Kinematics Of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility, Jacob Robert Rammer Jul 2017

Markerless Kinematics Of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility, Jacob Robert Rammer

Dissertations (2009 -)

Pediatric manual wheelchair users face substantial risk of orthopaedic injury to the upper extremities, particularly the shoulders, during transition to wheelchair use and during growth and development. Propulsion strategy can influence mobility efficiency, activity participation, and quality of life. The current forefront of wheelchair biomechanics research includes translating findings from adult to pediatric populations, improving the quality and efficiency of care under constrained clinical funding, and understanding injury mechanisms and risk factors. Typically, clinicians evaluate wheelchair mobility using marker-based motion capture and instrumentation systems that are precise and accurate but also time-consuming, inconvenient, and expensive for repeated assessments. There is ...


Force Compensation And Recreation Accuracy In Humans, Benjamin Rigsby Jun 2017

Force Compensation And Recreation Accuracy In Humans, Benjamin Rigsby

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As industry becomes increasingly reliant on robotic assistance and human-computer interfaces, the demand to understand the human sensorimotor system’s characteristics intensifies. Although this field of research has been going on for over a century, new technologies push the limits of the human motor system and our knowledge of it. With new technologies come new abilities, and, in the area of medical care and rehabilitation, the need to expand our knowledge of the sensorimotor system comes from both the patient and physician.

Two studies relating to human force interaction are presented in this thesis. The first study

focuses on humans ...


Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier May 2017

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Optical Imaging Of Metabolic Adaptability As A Biomarker For Metastatic Potential In Breast Cancer Cells, Mason G. Harper May 2017

Optical Imaging Of Metabolic Adaptability As A Biomarker For Metastatic Potential In Breast Cancer Cells, Mason G. Harper

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer metastasis is the main cause for mortality in breast cancer patients. However, knowledge of metastatic recurrence is limited, and there is a need to understand metastatic recurrence in order to treat breast cancer patients more effectively. Highly invasive metastatic breast cancer has shown to exhibit metabolic adaptability, transitioning from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in the presence of microenvironmental stress. NADH and FAD are naturally occurring cofactor products during glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively, and they are of particular importance during these metabolic processes due to their endogenous fluorescence. Measuring the ratio of fluorescence intensities of these cofactors through ...


Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht Apr 2017

Neuropeptide Modulation Of The Large Conductance Potassium (Bk) Channel In The Auditory System: Therapeutic Implications For Age-Related Hearing Loss, Ellliott James Brecht

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The auditory temporal processing deficits associated with age-dependent hearing decline have been increasingly attributed to issues beyond peripheral hearing loss. Age-related hearing loss (ARHL), also known as presbycusis, is linked with changes in the expression of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the central auditory system. There are also age-related changes in the expression and function of the ion channels which mediate action potential firing. The slow, Ca2+ activated, K+ channels of the BK-type are essential in controlling both neurotransmitter release and neural communication via alteration of action potential durations, firing frequency, and neural adaptation. There are many subsets ...


Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji Jan 2017

Brain Connectivity After Concussion, Armin Iraji

Wayne State University Dissertations

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for over one million emergency visits in the United States each year. While most mTBI patients have normal findings in clinical neuroimaging, alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity have frequently been reported. In this study, we investigated the large-scale brain structural and functional connectivity using diffusion MRI and resting-state fMRI data. Data from 40 mTBI patients was acquired at the acute stage (within 24 hrs after injury). 35 patients returned for data acquisition at a follow-up (4-6 weeks after injury). Data was also collected from a cohort of 58 healthy subjects, 36 of ...


Intraocular Pressure Sensing And Control For Glaucoma Research, Simon Antonio Bello Nov 2016

Intraocular Pressure Sensing And Control For Glaucoma Research, Simon Antonio Bello

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Animal models of ocular hypertension are important for glaucoma research but come with experimental costs. Available methods of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation are not always successful, the amplitude and time course of IOP changes are unpredictable and irreversible, and IOP measurement by tonometry is laborious. This dissertation focuses on the development and implementation of two novel systems for monitoring and controlling IOP without these limitations. The first device consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye, a pressure sensor that continually measures IOP, and a bidirectional pump driven by control circuitry that can infuse or withdraw ...


Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson May 2016

Micellular Electrokinetic Chromatography For Studying Amyloid Beta Oligomer Membrane Affinity, Andrew Bryson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Amyloid Beta (Aβ) was the major focus of this study. It is a peptide that is present in the brain with a high tendency to self-aggregate. When this protein aggregates, it forms oligomers and protofibrils which in turn are deposited as senile plaques in the brain. The reason for the concern with these plaques is their association with the neurological disorder Alzheimer’s disease. It has been found that the most dangerous oligomers are formed in a portion of the plasma membrane known as lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to understand how micelles affect the aggregation properties ...


Multiphoton Imaging Of Labeled Breast Cancer Cells To Quantify Intra And Extracellular Receptors, Sydney C. Wiggins May 2016

Multiphoton Imaging Of Labeled Breast Cancer Cells To Quantify Intra And Extracellular Receptors, Sydney C. Wiggins

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Every year 200,000 women in the United States are diagnosed with breast cancer. Of the cases diagnosed, 10% -15% are classified as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) due to the absence of estrogen, progesterone, and HER-2/Neu receptors. This breast cancer sub-type is markedly more aggressive and twice as likely to develop in premenopausal women. TNBC is resistant to endocrine therapies and current targeted agents, making clinical need for the development of validated therapeutics for TNBC a pressing matter. To initiate drug development, the internalization of directly immunolabeled epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in SK-BR-3 human breast adenocarcinoma cells ...


Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon Apr 2016

Markerless Radiostereogammetry Of The Shoulder Joint In Humans: Comparisons Of Scapulohumeral Kinematics Between Individuals With Healthy And Supraspinatus-Impaired Shoulders, Ashley N. Hannon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The purpose of this collection of studies was to further develop the knowledge of shoulder motion in order to better understand joint function through direct measurement of 3D scapulohumeral joint kinematics using a technique of high accuracy. Markerless, bi-planar fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis using a generic shoulder model was developed in this thesis, reducing the amount of radiation exposure to subjects. The studies compared kinematic data of the scapulohumeral joint in six degrees of freedom with a precise, in-vivo measuring technique. Data were collected on young and older healthy individuals, individuals with a torn supraspinatus and post-surgical intervention.

Although this generic ...


An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park Apr 2016

An In Vivo Study Of The Effects Of Perinatal Caffeine Exposure On Synaptic Efficacy In The Hippocampus Of Freely Moving Adult Rats, Jee Eun Park

Senior Theses and Projects

The synapse from the perforant path to the dentate gyrus has been widely used successfully to demonstrate long-term potentiation, a cellular model underlying learning and memory. Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed psychoactive stimulants in the world. Caffeine consumption increases in alertness, improvements in motor skills, and neurological functions, and these effects have promoted its use throughout history. Although the many short term cognitive benefits of caffeine intake are well understood, the long term effects of caffeine exposure have been widely disputed. Despite this, it is estimated that over 80% of women continue to consume caffeine throughout pregnancy ...


Modulation Of Whole Cell Currents In Human Neuroblastoma Cells Via The Hormone Aldosterone: An In Vitro Study, Harish Kumar Chittam Mar 2016

Modulation Of Whole Cell Currents In Human Neuroblastoma Cells Via The Hormone Aldosterone: An In Vitro Study, Harish Kumar Chittam

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Ion channels play a critical role in maintaining homeostasis by moving various ions in and out of cells. The Na+-K+-2Cl- or NKCC1 ion channel is involved in the regulation of Na+, K+, and Cl- across cell membranes, and plays a key role in many forms of cellular physiology. In the cochlea, NKCC1 is involved in endolymph production and maintenance of the endocochlear potential. Our hypothesis is that blocking NKCC1 channels should directly impact auditory sensitivity causing hearing loss. Our lab has also shown that the hormone aldosterone (ALD) can upregulate NKCC1 protein expression in vitro and in vivo ...


Enzymatically Degradable Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels For Diverse Tissue Engineering Applications And For The Study Of The Foreign Body Response, Luke Daniel Amer Jan 2016

Enzymatically Degradable Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Hydrogels For Diverse Tissue Engineering Applications And For The Study Of The Foreign Body Response, Luke Daniel Amer

Chemical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The field of tissue engineering aims to create replacements for diseased or damaged tissues which restore function and integrate with the host. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels are promising materials for the delivery of cells for tissue engineering applications, however, as with all synthetic materials, they elicit a foreign body response (FBR) upon implantation. Generally, the FBR begins with an initial inflammatory response and ends with the encapsulation of the implant in an avascular fibrous capsule. The harsh environment present during the FBR may harm encapsulated cells and impair integration into the host, ultimately reducing the efficacy of tissue engineering ...


Sensorimotor Adaptation In Whole-Body Postural Control, Alison Pienciak-Siewert Jan 2016

Sensorimotor Adaptation In Whole-Body Postural Control, Alison Pienciak-Siewert

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The ability to maintain stable, upright standing is a critical component of our daily activities. This ability requires that we generate appropriate postural control when making voluntary movements and when responding to perturbations, and appropriately adapt that control to compensate for changing conditions. Despite this, adaptation of whole-body postural control is not well understood.

This dissertation investigates the control strategies involved in the adaptation of whole-body postural control and how well this learning transfers to different environments. We used an experimental paradigm in which subjects made reaching movements while standing and holding the handle of a force-generating robotic arm that ...


A Mechanistically Guided Approach To Treatment Of Multi-Wavelet Reentry: Experiments In A Computational Model Of Cardiac Propagation, Richard T. Carrick Jan 2016

A Mechanistically Guided Approach To Treatment Of Multi-Wavelet Reentry: Experiments In A Computational Model Of Cardiac Propagation, Richard T. Carrick

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia in the United States today. However, treatment options remain limited despite the enormous magnitude of both AF prevalence and the associated economic cost. Of those treatment options that are available, ablation-based interventional methods have demonstrated the highest rates of long-term cure. Unfortunately, these methods have substantially lower efficacy in patients with heavier burdens of disease, thus leaving the most affected individuals with the least hope for successful treatment.

The focus of this research is to develop a mechanistically guided approach towards the treatment of multi-wavelet reentry (MWR), one of the primary ...