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Theses/Dissertations

Marquette University

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Articles 1 - 30 of 99

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich Apr 2019

Computational Characterization Of The Cellular Origins Of Electroencephalography, Shane Hesprich

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive technique used to measure brain activity. Despite its near ubiquitous presence in neuroscience, very little research has gone into connecting the electrical potentials it measures on the scalp to the underlying network activity which generates those signals. This results in most EEG analyses being more macroscopically focused (e.g. coherence and correlation analyses). Despite the many uses of macroscopically focuses analyses, limiting research to only these analyses neglects the insights which can be gained from studying network and microcircuit architecture. The ability to study these things through non-invasive techniques like EEG depends upon the ability ...


Control Design And Implementation Of An Active Transtibial Prosthesis, Joseph Klein Jul 2018

Control Design And Implementation Of An Active Transtibial Prosthesis, Joseph Klein

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Prior work at Marquette University developed the Marquette Prosthesis, an active transtibial prosthesis that utilized a torsional spring and a four-bar mechanism. The controls for the Marquette Prosthesis implemented a finite state control algorithm to determine the state of gait of the amputee along with two lower level controllers, a PI moment controller to control the moment during stance and a PID position controller to control the position during stance. The Marquette Prosthesis was successful in mimicking the gait profile presented by Winter. However, after completing human subject testing, the Marquette Prosthesis was insufficient in trying to match the gait ...


A Biomechanical Simulation Of Musculoskeletal Kinematics During Ambulation, Alex Thomas Jul 2018

A Biomechanical Simulation Of Musculoskeletal Kinematics During Ambulation, Alex Thomas

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to validate a 3D musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and assess OpenSim’s ability to determine muscle-length variation during ambulation. An 18 camera motion capture system was used to analyze 20 healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 35. Following data collection, the data was processed through OpenSim and Visual3D. The kinematic output processed through the OpenSim model was then compared to the kinematic output of the validated Visual3D model to validate the OpenSim model. Muscle fiber length data obtained from the same experimental data was compared to control data to assess OpenSim’s ...


Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of 99mtc-Hmpao Images Of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs, Katherine C. Barry Apr 2018

Pharmacokinetic Modeling Of 99mtc-Hmpao Images Of Isolated Perfused Rat Lungs, Katherine C. Barry

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) imaging biomarker technetium-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) exists in two forms, the oxidized, cell-permeable form and the reduced, cell-impermeable form. Recent studies revealed that the lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO increases early in rat models of human acute lung injury. Lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO is the net result of multiple cellular and vascular processes, many of which can vary with acute illness. Thus, when a change in the lung uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO is detected, it is unclear how much of this change is due to alteration in the activity of the targeted cellular process versus alteration of ...


Investigation Of The Effects Of Prosthetic Knee Condition On Novice Transfemoral Amputee Runners, Natalie Nelson Apr 2018

Investigation Of The Effects Of Prosthetic Knee Condition On Novice Transfemoral Amputee Runners, Natalie Nelson

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Some unilateral transfemoral amputees (TFAs) run in a prosthesis with an articulating prosthetic knee, others choose to run without a knee (prosthetic socket and foot are linked via a straight, non-articulating pylon) to increase stability. Research regarding unilateral TFA running with an unlocked versus locked prosthetic knee (approximately equivalent to the no-knee condition) with respect to energy cost and temporal metrics is limited; no studies have investigated the impact of knee condition on kinematic metrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prosthetic knee of a running-specific prosthesis (RSP) should be unlocked or locked for unilateral TFAs ...


Investigation Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production In The Rat Lung Using Optical Imaging, Nina Friedly Apr 2018

Investigation Of Reactive Oxygen Species Production In The Rat Lung Using Optical Imaging, Nina Friedly

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Oxidative stress, the imbalance between production of oxidants or reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant activity, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic lung diseases. The objective of this thesis was to develop a robust protocol for measuring the rate of H2O2 production in isolated perfused rat lungs and to determine the cellular sources of that rate using Amplex Red (AR). For a given lung, AR (25 mM) along with horseradish peroxidase (5 U/ml) and ascorbate oxidase (1U/ml) were added to a perfusate reservoir that was recirculated through the lungs and sampled at 5 ...


Collapsible Silicone Tubes: An In Vitro Model For Tracheal Traction, Kevin D. Garman Oct 2017

Collapsible Silicone Tubes: An In Vitro Model For Tracheal Traction, Kevin D. Garman

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent episodes of airway collapse and airflow limitation during sleep. Fragmented sleep and reductions in blood oxygen saturation lead to several comorbidities, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Longitudinal forces (tracheal traction) acting on the soft tissues surrounding the upper airway have been proposed to play a significant role in stabilizing the airway and preventing collapse. However, the relative contribution of longitudinal forces as compared to other factors that affect airway stability (airway geometry, tissue properties, muscle activity) remains unclear. This in-vitro study aimed to investigate to what extent longitudinal forces can ...


Effects Of Random Oscillations On Balance Control In Healthy Young Adults, Jacob Van Dehy Oct 2017

Effects Of Random Oscillations On Balance Control In Healthy Young Adults, Jacob Van Dehy

Master's Theses (2009 -)

In human walking, balance control is managed through proactive changes in spatio-temporal parameters of stepping [1]. It has been suggested that continuous disruptions to healthy young adult balance cause greater changes to overall variability of these parameters than a shift in the mean stepping parameters [2]. This suggests that walking may be occurring in a more reactive manner, modulating to maintain balance without increasing the mean significantly. Work using continuous oscillations to treadmill walking suggest there is an interplay between the predictability of a signal used to disrupt subject balance and the degree to which compensation occurs [3]. To determine ...


Markerless Kinematics Of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility, Jacob Robert Rammer Jul 2017

Markerless Kinematics Of Pediatric Manual Wheelchair Mobility, Jacob Robert Rammer

Dissertations (2009 -)

Pediatric manual wheelchair users face substantial risk of orthopaedic injury to the upper extremities, particularly the shoulders, during transition to wheelchair use and during growth and development. Propulsion strategy can influence mobility efficiency, activity participation, and quality of life. The current forefront of wheelchair biomechanics research includes translating findings from adult to pediatric populations, improving the quality and efficiency of care under constrained clinical funding, and understanding injury mechanisms and risk factors. Typically, clinicians evaluate wheelchair mobility using marker-based motion capture and instrumentation systems that are precise and accurate but also time-consuming, inconvenient, and expensive for repeated assessments. There is ...


Evaluating Wall Shear Stress Indices To Uncover Stimuli For Restenosis And Malapposition In Stented Coronary Arteries, Ali A. Aleiou Jul 2017

Evaluating Wall Shear Stress Indices To Uncover Stimuli For Restenosis And Malapposition In Stented Coronary Arteries, Ali A. Aleiou

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The cause of coronary artery neointimal thickening leading to restenosis in ~10% of drug-eluting stents is unknown. Although research suggests adverse values of traditional wall shear stress (WSS) indices may contribute, studies to date have not accounted for stent geometry, which dictates local WSS patterns influencing drug concentration. Recently proposed WSS indices such as WSS variability and WSS exposure time (WSSET) may shed further light on restenosis or, the opposite effect, resorption. The objective of this investigation was to locally evaluate traditional and recently proposed post-stenting metrics and their respective impact on restenosis or resorption. This study used de-identified data ...


Developing An Imaging Biomarker To Detect Aberrant Brain Connectivity In Individual Patients, Esther Cox Apr 2017

Developing An Imaging Biomarker To Detect Aberrant Brain Connectivity In Individual Patients, Esther Cox

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) has been proven to be a valuable tool in clinical applications such as pre-surgical mapping, but there is not yet a functional and usable algorithm that can be used by physicians in a clinical setting to evaluate an individual patient for diseases and aberrant brain connectivity. If a physician wants to evaluate a patient in this way, the rsfMRI data must be looked at “by hand,” i.e. the physician must manually evaluate the data and identify the functional ICN’s and whether they are normal or aberrant. An algorithm that would automate this process ...


A Fourier Description Of Covariance, And Separation Of Simultaneously Encoded Slices With In-Plane Acceleration In Fmri, Mary C. Kociuba Oct 2016

A Fourier Description Of Covariance, And Separation Of Simultaneously Encoded Slices With In-Plane Acceleration In Fmri, Mary C. Kociuba

Dissertations (2009 -)

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies aim to identify localized neural regions associated with a cognitive task performed by the subject. An indirect measure of the brain activity is the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations observed within the complex-valued spatial frequencies measured over time. The standard practice in fMRI is to discard the phase information after image reconstruction, even with evidence of biological task-related change in the phase time-series. In the first aim of this dissertation, a complex-valued time-series covariance is derived as a linear combination of second order temporal Fourier frequency coefficients. As opposed to magnitude-only analysis ...


Cortical Oscillations During A Lateral Balance Perturbation While Walking, Joseph Lee Oct 2016

Cortical Oscillations During A Lateral Balance Perturbation While Walking, Joseph Lee

Dissertations (2009 -)

The role of sensory systems in the cortical control of dynamic balance was examined using electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during balance perturbations while walking. Specifically, we examined the impact of sensory deficits on cortical oscillations using vibratory stimuli to suppress sensory feedback and by comparing cortical oscillations during balance perturbations while walking in people with sensory deficits associated with cervical myelopathy and neurologically intact controls. Balance during walking provides a rich framework for investigating cortical control using EEG during a functionally relevant task. While this approach is promising, substantial technical challenges remain in recording and processing EEG in the noisy, artifact ...


Engineering Synthetic Feedback To Promote Recovery Of Self-Feeding Skills In People With Sensory Deficits Due To Stroke, Alexis Krueger Oct 2016

Engineering Synthetic Feedback To Promote Recovery Of Self-Feeding Skills In People With Sensory Deficits Due To Stroke, Alexis Krueger

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Kinesthesia refers to sensations of limb position and movement, and deficits of upper limb kinesthetic feedback are common after stroke, impairing stroke survivors’ ability to perform the fundamental reaching and stabilization behaviors needed for daily functions like self-feeding. I attempt to mitigate the negative impact of post-stroke kinesthesia deficits by evaluating the utility of vibrotactile sensory substitution to restore closed-loop kinesthetic feedback of the upper limb. As a first step, this study evaluated performance in healthy individuals during fundamental reaching, stabilization, and tracking behaviors while using supplemental vibrotactile feedback encoding either limb state information or goal-aware error information. First, I ...


Characterization Of Histological Changes In The Microvasculature Of Rat Skeletal Muscle After Spinal Cord Injury, Sally Lin Oct 2016

Characterization Of Histological Changes In The Microvasculature Of Rat Skeletal Muscle After Spinal Cord Injury, Sally Lin

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are histological changes in the microvasculature of rat skeletal muscle following chronic spinal cord injury both above and below the level of injury. This study is important because microvascular structure likely impacts muscle performance and cardiovascular health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the only study to investigate microvascular structure within rat skeletal muscle after spinal cord injury. We hypothesized structural remodeling would occur in both the myofibers and microvasculature, which would then manifest in differences in myofiber cross sectional area and microvascular diameter, wall thickness, wall to ...


Evaluation Of An Actuated Wrist Orthosis For Use In Assistive Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Devon Holley Oct 2016

Evaluation Of An Actuated Wrist Orthosis For Use In Assistive Upper Extremity Rehabilitation, Devon Holley

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a neurological condition caused by damage to motor control centers of the brain. This leads to physical and cognitive deficiencies that can reduce an individual’s quality of life. Specifically, motor deficiencies of the upper extremity can make it difficult for an individual to complete everyday tasks, including eating, drinking, getting dressed, or combing their hair. Physical therapy, involving repetitive tasks, has been shown to be effective in training normal motion of the limb by invoking the neuroplasticity of the brain and its ability to adapt in order to facilitate motor learning. Creating a device for ...


Functional Comparison Of Conventional Afos With The Dynamic Response Afo, Mitchell Ruble Jul 2016

Functional Comparison Of Conventional Afos With The Dynamic Response Afo, Mitchell Ruble

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to provide stability and foot clearance for patients with weakened or injured musculature. The Dynamic Response AFO (DRAFO) was designed to improve proprioception at heel strike. The design includes a rigid outer shell with a cut out heel and a soft inner lining; it is typically aligned in plantarflexion and may incorporate external heel wedges. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the DRAFO design features and contrast its biomechanical function with that of conventional locked and articulating AFOs. The research hypotheses were: 1) DRAFO-assisted gait parameters (e.g ...


Injury Risk Assessment Of The Femur In Children With Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Jessica Marie Fritz Apr 2016

Injury Risk Assessment Of The Femur In Children With Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Jessica Marie Fritz

Dissertations (2009 -)

Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and decreased bone mass, which leads to high rates of bone fracture. OI has a prevalence of 1/5,000 to 1/10,000 in the United States. About 90% of persons with OI have a genetic mutation in the coding for collagen type I, which is the major protein of connective tissues, including bone. While its prevalence classifies it as a rare disease, it is the most common disorder of bone etiology. Until recently, little was known about the mechanics and materials of OI bone or their ...


Structural-Functional Brain Connectivity Underlying Integrative Sensorimotor Function After Stroke, Benjamin Thomas Kalinosky Apr 2016

Structural-Functional Brain Connectivity Underlying Integrative Sensorimotor Function After Stroke, Benjamin Thomas Kalinosky

Dissertations (2009 -)

In this dissertation research project, we demonstrated the relationship between the structural and functional connections across the brain in stroke survivors. We used this information to predict arm function in stroke survivors, suggesting that the tools developed through this research will be useful for prescribing individualized rehabilitation strategies in people after stroke. Current clinical methods for rehabilitating sensorimotor function after stroke are not based on the locus of injury in the brain. Instead, therapies are generalized, treating symptoms such as weakness and spasticity. This results in outcomes that are highly variable, with severity of impairment immediately following stroke as the ...


A Principal Component Analysis Investigation Of Drop Landings For Defining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors, Emily Schaefer Apr 2016

A Principal Component Analysis Investigation Of Drop Landings For Defining Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Risk Factors, Emily Schaefer

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been widely investigated through observational video analysis and laboratory based cadaveric, motion capture and computer simulation models. With the greater incidence of injury in the female population, recent emphasis has been placed on understanding ACL injury mechanisms in females. By using our understanding of injury mechanisms and prospective studies, injury prediction methods can be created. Once injury can be reliably predicted, training methods can be implemented to reduce likelihood of injury and avoid devastating consequences. There is a need for a reliable way to reduce motion capture data obtained in a laboratory ...


Noninvasive Assessment Of Photoreceptor Structure And Function In The Human Retina, Robert Francis Cooper Oct 2015

Noninvasive Assessment Of Photoreceptor Structure And Function In The Human Retina, Robert Francis Cooper

Dissertations (2009 -)

The human photoreceptor mosaic underlies the first steps of vision; thus, even subtle defects in the mosaic can result in severe vision loss. The retina can be examined directly using clinical tools; however these devices lack the resolution necessary to visualize the photoreceptor mosaic. The primary limiting factor of these devices is the optical aberrations of the human eye. These aberrations are surmountable with the incorporation of adaptive optics (AO) to ophthalmoscopes, enabling imaging of the photoreceptor mosaic with cellular resolution. Despite the potential of AO imaging, much work remains before this technology can be translated to the clinic. Metrics ...


Computational Approaches For Remote Monitoring Of Symptoms And Activities, Ferdaus Kawsar Oct 2015

Computational Approaches For Remote Monitoring Of Symptoms And Activities, Ferdaus Kawsar

Dissertations (2009 -)

We now have a unique phenomenon where significant computational power, storage, connectivity, and built-in sensors are carried by many people willingly as part of their life style; two billion people now use smart phones. Unique and innovative solutions using smart phones are motivated by rising health care cost in both the developed and developing worlds. In this work, development of a methodology for building a remote symptom monitoring system for rural people in developing countries has been explored. Design, development, deployment, and evaluation of e-ESAS is described. The system’s performance was studied by analyzing feedback from users. A smart ...


Biomechanical Characerization And Evaluation Of Conservative Clubfoot Correction, Tamara Loren Cohen Oct 2015

Biomechanical Characerization And Evaluation Of Conservative Clubfoot Correction, Tamara Loren Cohen

Dissertations (2009 -)

Congential talipes equinovarus, or clubfoot, affects approximately 200,000 newborns worldwide each year and presents with equinovarus of the hindfoot, as well as cavus and adduction of the midfoot. In addition to bone malformation and displacement, soft tissue contractures encapsulate the medial and posterior aspects of the affected foot. The Ponseti method is a conservative treatment that progressively repositions the clubfoot through weekly casting, followed by bracing. Concerns exist regarding the variability in outcomes, resistance to treatment, and risk of relapse, which occur in approximately 10% of the population. Potential factors contributing to variability and resistant clubfoot include cast material ...


Lpcoms: Towards A Low Power Wireless Smart-Shoe System For Gait Analysis In People With Disabilities, Ishmat Zerin Oct 2015

Lpcoms: Towards A Low Power Wireless Smart-Shoe System For Gait Analysis In People With Disabilities, Ishmat Zerin

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Gait analysis using smart sensor technology is an important medical diagnostic process and has many applications in rehabilitation, therapy and exercise training. In this thesis, we present a low power wireless smart-shoe system (LPcomS) to analyze different functional postures and characteristics of gait while walking. We have designed and implemented a smart-shoe with a Bluetooth communication module to unobtrusively collect data using smartphone in any environment. With the design of a shoe insole equipped with four pressure sensors, the foot pressure is been collected, and those data are used to obtain accurate gait pattern of a patient. With our proposed ...


Hockey Skating Kinematics And The Effect Of Skate Design And Technique Training, Rebecca Mae Tidman Oct 2015

Hockey Skating Kinematics And The Effect Of Skate Design And Technique Training, Rebecca Mae Tidman

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of technique training and hockey skate design on hockey skating performance. Fourteen male subjects, aged 12-16 years, with no recent skate treadmill experience completed ten training sessions on a skating treadmill. Instruction emphasized maximizing stride width by pushing laterally with the skate pointed anteriorly. Subjects were randomly placed into one of two experimental groups based on initial skate type: traditional or Easton Mako. After completion of five sessions, skate type was switched so that skate design effects could be assessed. In contrast to a traditional hockey skate design, the Easton ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Carbon Fiber And Thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthoses, Amanda Wach Oct 2015

Mechanical Characterization Of Carbon Fiber And Thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthoses, Amanda Wach

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The needs of an increasingly young and active orthotic patient population has led to advancements in ankle foot orthosis (AFO) design and materials to enable higher function. The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO) is a custom energy-storing carbon fiber AFO that has demonstrated improved clinical function, allowing patients to return to high-intensity activities such as sports and military service. An improved understanding of AFO mechanical function will aid prescription and fitting, as well as assist in design modifications for different patient populations. This study investigated the mechanical properties of AFOs, specifically structural stiffness, rotational motion, and strut deflection, to discern ...


Integrating Meal And Exercise Into Personalized Glucoregulation Models: Metabolic Dynamics And Diabetic Athletes, Sofie Schunk Oct 2015

Integrating Meal And Exercise Into Personalized Glucoregulation Models: Metabolic Dynamics And Diabetic Athletes, Sofie Schunk

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Diabetes affects nearly 26 million Americans, according to the American Diabetes Association, with as many as three million Americans who have Type 1 Diabetes (ADA, 2015). Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is autoimmune and characterized by little to no insulin production whereas Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) concerns insulin resistance and inability to use produced insulin. Factors contributing to current diabetes management and regulation include exercise type, daily movement activities, and distinct tissue compartment metabolism, each challenging to model in a robust and comprehensive manner. Past models are highly limited in regard to exercise and varying glucose fluctuations dependent on type, intensity ...


Biplanar Fluoroscopic Analysis Of In Vivo Hindfoot Kinematics During Ambulation, Janelle Ann Cross Jul 2015

Biplanar Fluoroscopic Analysis Of In Vivo Hindfoot Kinematics During Ambulation, Janelle Ann Cross

Dissertations (2009 -)

The overall goal of this project was to develop and validate a biplanar fluoroscopic system and integrated software to assess hindfoot kinematics. Understanding the motion of the foot and ankle joints may lead to improved treatment methods in persons with foot and ankle pathologies. During gait analysis, skin markers are placed on the lower extremities, which are defined as four rigid-body segments with three joints representing the hip, knee and ankle. This method introduces gross assumptions on the foot and severely limits the analysis of in depth foot mechanics. Multi-segmental models have been developed, but are susceptible to skin motion ...


Identification And Retraining Of Sensorimotor Deficits To Reduce Intention Tremor In Multiple Sclerosis, Megan Heenan Apr 2015

Identification And Retraining Of Sensorimotor Deficits To Reduce Intention Tremor In Multiple Sclerosis, Megan Heenan

Dissertations (2009 -)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects approximately 1 in 1000 Americans and is a significant cause of disability in the United States. One significant contributor to disability in MS is intention tremor, which manifests as an oscillation about the endpoint of a goal-directed movement. A major challenge of treating intention tremor is that the underlying causes of tremor in MS are unknown. In this study, we describe a systems-level computational model and an experimental technique that parameterizes subject-specific deficits in sensory feedback control during goal-directed movements. We used this approach to characterize sensorimotor control and examine how sensory and motor processes are ...


Multimodal Sensory Integration For Perception And Action In High Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Nicole Marie Gregor Salowitz Apr 2015

Multimodal Sensory Integration For Perception And Action In High Functioning Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Nicole Marie Gregor Salowitz

Dissertations (2009 -)

Movement disorders are the earliest observed features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) present in infancy. Yet we do not understand the neural basis for impaired goal-directed movements in this population. To reach for an object, it is necessary to perceive the state of the arm and the object using multiple sensory modalities (e.g. vision, proprioception), to integrate those sensations into a motor plan, to execute the plan, and to update the plan based on the sensory consequences of action. In this dissertation, I present three studies in which I recorded hand paths of children with ASD and typically developing ...