Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 36

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Quantitative Evaluation Of Geared Manual Wheelchair Mobility In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: An Integrative Approach, Omid Jahanian May 2019

Quantitative Evaluation Of Geared Manual Wheelchair Mobility In Individuals With Spinal Cord Injury: An Integrative Approach, Omid Jahanian

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to quantify the effects of using geared wheelchair wheels on upper extremity biomechanics and energy expenditure during functional mobility tasks in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The effects of using geared wheels on hand-rim biomechanics, glenohumeral joint dynamics, and shoulder muscle activity were investigated during manual wheelchair propulsion over tiled and carpeted level-floors and up a ramp in low gear (1.5:1) and standard gear (1:1) conditions. The results for the hand-rim biomechanics indicated that regardless of the terrain, using the geared wheels in the low gear condition significantly decreased the ...


A Discrete-Event Simulation Approach For Modeling Human Body Glucose Metabolism, Buket Aydas Aug 2018

A Discrete-Event Simulation Approach For Modeling Human Body Glucose Metabolism, Buket Aydas

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation describes CarbMetSim (Carbohydrate Metabolism Simulator), a discrete-event simulator that tracks the blood glucose level of a person in response to a timed sequence of diet and exercise activities. CarbMetSim implements broader aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in human beings with the objective of capturing the average impact of various diet/exercise activities on the blood glucose level. Key organs (stomach, intestine, portal vein, liver, kidney, muscles, adipose tissue, brain and heart) are implemented to the extent necessary to capture their impact on the production and consumption of glucose. Key metabolic pathways (glucose oxidation, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) are accounted for ...


Clinical Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Instrumentation: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Studies, Parvathi Kadamati Dec 2017

Clinical Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Instrumentation: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Studies, Parvathi Kadamati

Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

CLINICAL NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY INSTRUMENTATION: POSTURAL ORTHOSTATIC TACHYCARDIA SYNDROME STUDIES

by

Parvathi Kadamati

The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2017

Under the Supervision of Professor Mahsa Ranji

Aims: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a type of chronic orthostatic intolerance, annually affecting around 500,000 young Americans. Symptoms of POTS include lightheadedness and persistent increase in heart rate with upright body posture [1-3]. It requires a medical diagnosis. Impaired cerebral oxygenation of patients with POTS has been reported [4]. The pathophysiology remains unclear, and research is needed to understand the underlying conditions that lead to POTS. The aim of this research is ...


An Array Of Circular Dielectrophoresis Traps To Separate And Charaterize Individual Microparticles From Population, Hwangjae Lee Aug 2017

An Array Of Circular Dielectrophoresis Traps To Separate And Charaterize Individual Microparticles From Population, Hwangjae Lee

Theses and Dissertations

Dielectrophoretic traps have been broadly studied in light of their many advantages of high controllability, ease of operation, and high efficiency. In the previous studies, however, it was challenging to count captured particles or required work to capture particles. In the thesis, an array of circular dielectrophoresis (DEP) traps was developed and tested to manipulate population of microparticles in single particle level. The circular DEP traps enable more precise control of the force field than conventionally used interdigitated electrodes due to its omnidirectional and symmetric properties. The location of the captured microparticle inside the trap was confirmed by both of ...


A Battery-Operated Portable Standard Lead Ecg Monitor With Abnormal Heart Condition Detection System For Dogs, Zichen He Jun 2017

A Battery-Operated Portable Standard Lead Ecg Monitor With Abnormal Heart Condition Detection System For Dogs, Zichen He

Theses and Dissertations

Long term monitoring the dog's heart condition is the best way to prevent being unable to treat the dog's heart failure in time when it occurs. Although, electro-cardio activity has been discovered by French scientist Mattencci in 1842, but there hasn't been any proper device developed so far for long term ECG (electrocardiogram) monitoring of cardiac dogs. Therefore, this paper has proposed an ECG monitor specially designed for dogs to fill this gap. The ECG monitor proposed is a 3-lead ECG monitoring system with diagnosis software that can detect heart failure, tachycardia, bradycardia, and arrhythmia according to ...


Dc Line-Interactive Uninterruptible Power Supply (Ups) With Load Leveling For Constant Power And Pulse Loads, Seyed Ahmad Hamidi May 2017

Dc Line-Interactive Uninterruptible Power Supply (Ups) With Load Leveling For Constant Power And Pulse Loads, Seyed Ahmad Hamidi

Theses and Dissertations

Uninterruptable Power Supply (UPS) systems are usually considered as a backup power for electrical systems, providing emergency power when the main power source fails. UPS systems ensure an uninterruptible, reliable and high quality electrical power for systems with critical loads in which a continuous and reliable power supply is a vital requirement.

A novel UPS system topology, DC line-interactive UPS, has been introduced. The new proposed UPS system is based on the DC concept where the power flow in the system has DC characteristic. The new DC UPS system has several advantageous with respect to the on-line 3-phase UPS which ...


Quantitative Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Rodent Models Of Eye And Lung Injuries, Zahra Ghanian Dec 2016

Quantitative Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Rodent Models Of Eye And Lung Injuries, Zahra Ghanian

Theses and Dissertations

Optical imaging techniques have emerged as essential tools for reliable assessment of organ structure, biochemistry, and metabolic function. The recognition of metabolic markers for disease diagnosis has rekindled significant interest in the development of optical methods to measure the metabolism of the organ.

The objective of my research was to employ optical imaging tools and to implement signal and image processing techniques capable of quantifying cellular metabolism for the diagnosis of diseases in human organs such as eyes and lungs. To accomplish this goal, three different tools, cryoimager, fluorescent microscope, and optical coherence tomography system were utilized to study the ...


Design And Basic Verification Of A Discrete Event Simulator For Glucose Metabolism In Human Beings, Elizabeth Andrews Dec 2016

Design And Basic Verification Of A Discrete Event Simulator For Glucose Metabolism In Human Beings, Elizabeth Andrews

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the design and basic verification of a discrete event simulator for glucose metabolism in human beings. The simulator implements the glucose metabolism related behavior of various organs in the human body and tracks the blood plasma glucose level as the human body goes through a sequence of diet and exercise events. The simulator can mimic insulin resistance in various organs as well as the loss of insulin production in the pancreas and the adverse impact of these changes on the metabolic behavior of various organs. Thus, the simulator can serve as a model for people with diabetes ...


Study Of Computational Image Matching Techniques: Improving Our View Of Biomedical Image Data, Ahmadreza Baghaie Dec 2016

Study Of Computational Image Matching Techniques: Improving Our View Of Biomedical Image Data, Ahmadreza Baghaie

Theses and Dissertations

Image matching techniques are proven to be necessary in various fields of science and engineering, with many new methods and applications introduced over the years. In this PhD thesis, several computational image matching methods are introduced and investigated for improving the analysis of various biomedical image data. These improvements include the use of matching techniques for enhancing visualization of cross-sectional imaging modalities such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), denoising of retinal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), and high quality 3D reconstruction of surfaces from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) images. This work greatly improves the process of data ...


Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln Dec 2016

Sensitivity Analysis Of Geometry Changes In The Simulation Of Basilar Aneurysms, Paul Eserkaln

Theses and Dissertations

Computer simulation is a useful tool in the research and treatment of basilar aneurysms. Current technology allows researchers to create 3D models from cerebral vasculature in-vivo, allowing for the investigation of surgical options with minimal risk to the patient. The method used to construct these models overlooks smaller lateral arterial branches which are difficult to discern due to resolution limits of the imaging process. These lateral branches have minimal impact on the overall blood flow through the basilar artery, but they play a significant role in the health of the patient, so it is important to ensure sufficient blood will ...


The Effectiveness, Efficiency, And Appeal Of Pediatric Echocardiography Protocol Training For First Year Pediatric Cardiology Fellows, Lynne M. Brown May 2016

The Effectiveness, Efficiency, And Appeal Of Pediatric Echocardiography Protocol Training For First Year Pediatric Cardiology Fellows, Lynne M. Brown

Theses and Dissertations

Echocardiography training for pediatric cardiology fellows is complex and academic hospitals strive to provide high-quality training using limited resources. The purpose of this embedded single case study design was to evaluate the effectiveness, efficiency, and appeal of a newly developed 10-day echocardiography protocol learning module for first year pediatric cardiology fellows. Using blended learning methods that included didactic lectures, online learning activities, and interactive games, the learning module was the first step in the process of training pediatric cardiology fellows to perform echocardiograms independently with limited supervision during their first year of fellowship. At the end of the 10-day module ...


Design, Implementation, And Evaluation Of A Fluorescence Laminar Optical Tomography Scanner For Brain Imaging, Mahya Sheikhzadeh May 2016

Design, Implementation, And Evaluation Of A Fluorescence Laminar Optical Tomography Scanner For Brain Imaging, Mahya Sheikhzadeh

Theses and Dissertations

Implementation of new instrumentation and techniques for neuroscience research in recent years has opened new avenues in the study of the dynamics of large-scale neural networks such as the brain. In many of these techniques, including fluorescence recordings and optogenetic stimulation, a combination of photonics and molecular genetic methods are exploited to manipulate and monitor neural activities. Such techniques have been proven to be highly efficient in unraveling the mysteries of data processing in the micro circuits of the brain and as a result these techniques are widely used nowadays in most neuroscience labs.

In optogenetics, cell-types of interest are ...


Spectral And Temporal Interrogation Of Cerebral Hemodynamics Via High Speed Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging, Rex Chin-Hao Chen Dec 2015

Spectral And Temporal Interrogation Of Cerebral Hemodynamics Via High Speed Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging, Rex Chin-Hao Chen

Theses and Dissertations

Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) is a non-scanning wide field-of-view optical imaging technique specifically developed for cerebral blood flow (CBF) monitoring. In this project, a versatile Laser speckle contrast imaging system has been designed and developed to monitor CBF changes and examine the physical properties of cerebral vasculature during functional brain activation experiments.

The hardware of the system consists of a high speed CMOS camera, a coherent light source, a trinocular microscope, and a PC that does camera controlling and data storage. The simplicity of the system’s hardware makes it suitable for biological experiments.

In controlled flow experiments using ...


Simulating The Impact Of Diet And Exercise On Blood Glucose Level For People With Type 2 Diabetes, Md Abdul Halim Sarkar Aug 2015

Simulating The Impact Of Diet And Exercise On Blood Glucose Level For People With Type 2 Diabetes, Md Abdul Halim Sarkar

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis describes the design of a discrete-event simulator that tracks the blood glucose level and glycated hemoglobin level as a person goes through her daily diet and exercise activities. This thesis also reports results of simulations performed using the simulator that show the changes in blood glucose level and glycated hemoglobin level as a diabetic person makes specific changes to her diet/exercise routine.


Hyperspectral Tomographic Ftir Imaging Using Two Illumination Geometries For Polymer Phantoms, Zahrasadat Alavi May 2015

Hyperspectral Tomographic Ftir Imaging Using Two Illumination Geometries For Polymer Phantoms, Zahrasadat Alavi

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this dissertation is to carry out non-destructive 3D imaging by applying Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectro-microtomographic techniques, and develop corresponding methods of data analysis. This is done by collecting 3D synchrotron-based and lab-based (Thermal) FTIR hyper spectral data at the Synchrotron Radiation Center (SRC) for the first time. Despite other 2D imaging techniques, this does not manipulate the sample, and suppresses the need to microtome 3D biological, material or biomedical samples into slices to study by spectroscopic imaging techniques. Spectro-micro-tomography is applicable for scientific, industrial, energy, biomedical samples such as stem cell characterization and materials such as ...


Scattering Correction Methods Of Infrared Spectra Using Graphics Processing Units, Asher Imtiaz May 2015

Scattering Correction Methods Of Infrared Spectra Using Graphics Processing Units, Asher Imtiaz

Theses and Dissertations

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been used for many years as a technique that provides distinctive structure-specific infrared spectra for a wide range of materials (e.g., biological (tissues, cells, bacteria, viruses), polymers, energy related, composites, minerals). The mid-infrared radiation can strongly scatter from distinct particles, with diameters ranging between 2-20 micrometer. Transmission measurements of samples (approximately 100 micrometers x 100 micrometers x 10 micrometers) with distinct particles. will be dominated by this scattering (Mie scattering). The scattering distorts the measured spectra, and the absorption spectra appear different from pure absorbance spectra. This thesis presents development and implementation of ...


Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders Dec 2014

Role Of Sensation In Altered Phalanx Grip Force In Persons With Stroke, Leah R. Enders

Theses and Dissertations

Many individuals experience hand impairment after stroke leading to decreased ability to perform daily living activities. Previous research studies have investigated how stroke survivors' pinch grip control differs from healthy individuals, even though many individuals can only grasp with power grip after stroke. Furthermore, many stroke survivors experience tactile sensory deficit in their paretic limb in addition to motor deficit. It is currently unknown how stroke induced tactile sensory deficit affects power grip force directional control, which is important in terms of preventing object slippage and power grip normal force generation. Additionally it is unknown if power grip could be ...


An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner Dec 2014

An Optogenetic Brain-Machine Interface For Spatiotemporal Neuromodulation, Ryan Andrew Baumgartner

Theses and Dissertations

Direct neural stimulation has recently become a standard therapy for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremors, and Dystonia. Currently, deep brain electro-stimulation and neuro-pharmaceutical treatments are the dominant therapeutic options available to the public. As our understanding of brain function and neurological diseases improves, we are able to develop more advanced neuromodulation techniques. These methods could become viable treatment solutions for treating brain dysfunction. Optogenetics, first introduced by a research team led by Karl Deisseroth at Stanford University, has proved to be a versatile technique with remarkable potential to be used in treatments for brain disorders, dysfunction ...


Biomechanical Joint Demands And Functional Outcomes During Manual Wheelchair Use In Pediatric Patients With Spinal Cord Injury, Christine M. Aurit Dec 2014

Biomechanical Joint Demands And Functional Outcomes During Manual Wheelchair Use In Pediatric Patients With Spinal Cord Injury, Christine M. Aurit

Theses and Dissertations

The biomechanical demands of the upper extremities (UEs) during pediatric manual wheelchair (MWC) use have not been fully explored. Children who use MWCs for mobility engage in a range of functional activities that may place large biomechanical demands on the UEs leading to a high risk on overuse injuries. This study aims to analyze the kinematics and kinetics of pediatric manual wheelchair use during propulsion, starting, stopping and weight relief tasks. Fourteen pediatric patients with spinal cord injury were recruited and data were collected using a 14-camera Vicon MX motion analysis system (Oxford Metric Group, Oxford, UK) and a SmartWheel ...


Effect Of Junction Geometry On Monodispersed Microdroplet Generation In Microfluidic Aqueous Two-Phase Systems, Young Gyu Nam Aug 2014

Effect Of Junction Geometry On Monodispersed Microdroplet Generation In Microfluidic Aqueous Two-Phase Systems, Young Gyu Nam

Theses and Dissertations

Aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consists of two immiscible water-based solutions of polymers, which can form phase partitioning. Dextran and polyethylene glycol I used in this thesis is the one of common components of aqueous two-phase system give a reliable and incompatible environment for purification of biomedical products and cellular macromolecules. Recently, ATPS have received increasing attention as a separation method in microfluidic device due to the advantages of biocompatibility, unlimited combination, and low interfacial tension. Hence, it became an important to discover researches related to ATPS microfluidic device.

Microdroplets produced in microfluidic device are a largely interesting phenomenon for various ...


Cryoimaging-Microscopy Implementation For 3d Optical Imaging, Mohammad Masoudimotlagh Aug 2014

Cryoimaging-Microscopy Implementation For 3d Optical Imaging, Mohammad Masoudimotlagh

Theses and Dissertations

The structures and biochemistry properties of biological tissues are mostly affected by diseases. The visualization of organ structure and biochemistry helps in early detection and progression monitoring of diseases.

Although, 2D imaging has traditionally been used to gain information from the tissue, it does not accurately represent many of the structures and functions. There currently exists a need for sensitive and specific methods to show detailed information about the structure of the tissue with high resolution and in 3D. The potential advantage of the high resolution 3D images is the ability to accurately probe structural and biochemical properties of the ...


Citefinder: A System To Find And Rank Medical Citations, Seyed Soheil Moosavinasab May 2014

Citefinder: A System To Find And Rank Medical Citations, Seyed Soheil Moosavinasab

Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents CiteFinder, a system to find relevant citations for clinicians' written content. Inclusion of citations for clinical information content makes the content more reliable through the provision of scientific articles as references, and enables clinicians to easily update their written content using new information. The proposed approach splits the content into sentences, identifies the sentences that need to be supported with citations by applying classification algorithms, and uses information retrieval and ranking techniques to extract and rank relevant citations from MEDLINE for any given sentence. Additionally, this system extracts snippets from the retrieved articles. We assessed our approach ...


Monitoring Changes In Hemodynamics Following Optogenetic Stimulation, Seth Thomas Frye May 2014

Monitoring Changes In Hemodynamics Following Optogenetic Stimulation, Seth Thomas Frye

Theses and Dissertations

The brain is composed of billions of neurons, all of which connected through a vast network. After years of study and applications of different technologies and techniques, there are still more questions than answers when it comes to the fundamental functions of the brain. This project aims to provide a new tool which can be used to gain a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that govern neurological processes inside the brain. In order for neural networks to operate, blood has to be supplied through neighboring blood vessels. As such, the increase or decrease in the blood supply has been ...


Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Lung Tissue: Rodent Models, Reyhaneh Sepehr May 2014

Optical Studies Of Oxidative Stress In Lung Tissue: Rodent Models, Reyhaneh Sepehr

Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: There currently exists a need for reliable measurements of tissue metabolic state at cellular levels. The objective of this research was to study tools capable of evaluating cellular redox states in intact tissue. To meet this goal, three different instruments (cryoimager, fluorometer, and fluorescent microscope) were used to study the metabolism and functions of the mitochondria at different levels and regimes (cryo, ex vivo, in vivo and in vitro).

Introduction: Through optical monitoring of autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, as well as exogenous fluorophores, the state of mitochondria can be probed in real time in many intact organs and in ...


Patient-Oriented Evidence-Based Treatment Decision Support System (Treatquest®) For Lung Cancer, Danqing Hu Dec 2013

Patient-Oriented Evidence-Based Treatment Decision Support System (Treatquest®) For Lung Cancer, Danqing Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Involving patients in healthcare decisions makes a significant and enduring difference to healthcare outcomes. One challenge for patients is the lack of evidence-based information and tools to support their decision making. Although patients have access to significant information through internet and other sources, it is not personalized for their specific situation. This dissertation attempts to help patients acquire evidence-based information relevant to their own situation, so they can make a more informed decision in co-operation with their physicians. Lung cancer has been selected as a focus for this study because lung cancer presents very complex decision making situation and is ...


Extraction And Classification Of Drug-Drug Interaction From Biomedical Text Using A Two-Stage Classifier, Majid Rastegar-Mojarad Dec 2013

Extraction And Classification Of Drug-Drug Interaction From Biomedical Text Using A Two-Stage Classifier, Majid Rastegar-Mojarad

Theses and Dissertations

One of the critical causes of medical errors is Drug-Drug interaction (DDI), which occurs when one drug increases or decreases the effect of another drug. We propose a machine learning system to extract and classify drug-drug interactions from the biomedical literature, using the annotated corpus from the DDIExtraction-2013 shared task challenge. Our approach applies a two-stage classifier to handle the highly unbalanced class distribution in the corpus. The first stage is designed for binary classification of drug pairs as interacting or non-interacting, and the second stage for further classification of interacting pairs into one of four interacting types: advise, effect ...


Angiography And Monitoring Of Hemodynamic Signals In The Brain Via Optical Coherence Tomography, Alana Mauluidy Soehartono Dec 2013

Angiography And Monitoring Of Hemodynamic Signals In The Brain Via Optical Coherence Tomography, Alana Mauluidy Soehartono

Theses and Dissertations

The brain is a complex network of interconnected neurons with each cell functioning as a nonlinear processing unit. Neural responses to stimulus can be described by activity in neurons. While blood flow changes have been associated with neural activity and are critical to brain function, this neurovascular coupling is not well understood. This work presents a technique for neurovascular interrogation, combining optogenetics and optical coherence tomography.

Optogenetics is a recently developed neuromodulation technique to control activity in the brain using light with precise spatial neuronal control and high temporal resolution. Using this method, cells act as light-gated ion channels and ...


Extracting The Structure And Conformations Of Biological Entities From Large Datasets, Ali Dashti Dec 2013

Extracting The Structure And Conformations Of Biological Entities From Large Datasets, Ali Dashti

Theses and Dissertations

In biology, structure determines function, which often proceeds via changes in conformation. Efficient means for determining structure exist, but mapping conformations continue to present a serious challenge. Single-particles approaches, such as cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and emerging "diffract & destroy" X-ray techniques are, in principle, ideally positioned to overcome these challenges. But the algorithmic ability to extract information from large heterogeneous datasets consisting of "unsorted" snapshots - each emanating from an unknown orientation of an object in an unknown conformation - remains elusive.

It is the objective of this thesis to describe and validate a powerful suite of manifold-based algorithms able to extract ...


Continuum Deformation Model For Drug-Eluting Stent (Des) Medical Devices Using Finite Element Analysis (Fea), Solki Lee Aug 2013

Continuum Deformation Model For Drug-Eluting Stent (Des) Medical Devices Using Finite Element Analysis (Fea), Solki Lee

Theses and Dissertations

The development of coronary stent medical devices was originally considered as a major advance in the treatment of obstructive cardiovascular disease. The implantation of stent, however, involves clinical adverse effects such as re-narrowing of arterial wall after stenting. Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been developed to prevent such adverse effects by slowly delivering anti-proliferative and/or anti-inflammatory drugs from coating composites of drug-containing polymers. One of the major issues in DES implantation is, however, that the coatings comprised of drug and polymer composite phases are often fractured or delaminated during the deployment of stent, which can lead to more serious clinical ...


Fibrinogen-Conjugated Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles For Antiplatelet Therapy, Evan Schuerer Krystofiak Aug 2013

Fibrinogen-Conjugated Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles For Antiplatelet Therapy, Evan Schuerer Krystofiak

Theses and Dissertations

Ischemic stroke is the world's second leading cause of death and accounts for 2-4% of total worldwide healthcare costs. Ischemic stroke is caused by the occlusion of arteries responsible for supplying blood to the brain, which can result in disability or death. Arterial blood clots consist of aggregates of activated platelets wrapped in a mesh of fibrin. Tissue plasminogen activator, the only current FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke, functions by lysing fibrin in a blood clot. Unfortunately, tissue plasminogen activator significantly increases bleeding risks, which restricts its use. Alternatively, targeting and disrupting platelets within a clot could improve stroke ...