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Articles 1 - 30 of 42

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills Jan 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Fabrication and characterization nylon-6-MWCNT nanofiber as an electrochemical sensor to detect sodium ion concentrations specifically in sweat. Using contact angle to determine surface morphology and chronoamperometry testing to identify ideal sensor conditions, tests optimized parameters like weight percent of nylon or other polymers, carbon nanotube (CNT) isomer, and solution concentration to determine reproducibility of functional sensors. Utilizing the electric qualities of carbon nanotubes partnered with the sodium ion selectivity of calixarene treatment and polymers unique properties like flexibility and scalability create open an arena for optimizing sodium ion sensors for further development for functional prototypes. Morphology tests showed that the ...


Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli Jan 2019

Design And Mechanical Characterization Of 3d Printed Gradient Porosity Poly(Propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds, Andrea Felicelli

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Worldwide incidence of bone disorders and conditions, an already prevalent problem, is expected to double by 2020 from the rate in 2013 due to factors such as higher life expectancies and lower levels of physical activity. Every year in the United States, over half a million patients receive bone defect repairs, with costs greater than $2.5 billion. Current repairs are typically done with bone grafts, which are often costly and can result in added complications in the donor surgical site. Tissue engineering, a growing field that seeks to assist and enhance tissue defect repairs through the use of synthetic ...


The Second Wind, Jacob Heiss, Logan Neidert Jan 2019

The Second Wind, Jacob Heiss, Logan Neidert

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The Second Wind device is a set of sensors and a data processing unit capable of recording data necessary to conduct a simplified version of a complex cardiopulmonary stress test (CPET). This data includes VO2, VCO2, ventilation, and pulse oximetry data. VO2 and VCO2 are the percent, by volume, of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the patient's breath, spirometry is the measure of air flow, and the pulse oximetry data includes heart rate (HR) and percent oxygen in the blood (SpO2). In addition, the device was designed to be portable, so this test could be run from patients’ homes ...


Development And Exploration Of A Z-Shaped Foot And Ankle Internal Fixation Plate, Rhaz Shaghaghi Paul, Ian Hames, Sean Rich Jan 2019

Development And Exploration Of A Z-Shaped Foot And Ankle Internal Fixation Plate, Rhaz Shaghaghi Paul, Ian Hames, Sean Rich

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper will detail the design process of developing a Z-shaped foot and ankle internal fixation plating system. Group 6: Plates for the Sole was made up of 5 team members, who worked together to accommodate their client’s request to complete a biomechanical analysis of a Z-Plate design and a construct a prototype. The Z-Plate’s purpose is to provide podiatrists with a new solution that can fit nicely on the small, irregular bones of the foot, while also remaining strong enough to withstand the forces and torques of the foot.


Easy Adjustable Protective Helmet, Ryan Balash Jan 2019

Easy Adjustable Protective Helmet, Ryan Balash

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Akron Children’s Hospital and The University of Akron’s Biomedical Engineering Design Team Engineering Forward have paired together to improve medical adapted helmets for post-operative and disabled patients. An issue is the helmets are only produced in a couple of sizes. Also, it is a tedious process to constantly adjust the pressure on the patient’s cranium within a trial-and-error process. Engineering Forward plans to improve the effectiveness of this helmet by creating an adjustable helmet that can read the pressure on a patient’s head. The caregiver can then make the necessary adjustments to the helmet to accommodate ...


Quickcough: An Instrumentational Proximal Airway Clearance Technique (Act) For Select Patients With Neuromuscular Disease (Nmd), Russell Catania, Sydney E. Kandray, Madison K. Plaster, Sean X. Sullivan, Mariah Costa Jan 2019

Quickcough: An Instrumentational Proximal Airway Clearance Technique (Act) For Select Patients With Neuromuscular Disease (Nmd), Russell Catania, Sydney E. Kandray, Madison K. Plaster, Sean X. Sullivan, Mariah Costa

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) requiring tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation secondary to respiratory failure encounter increased difficulty in removing pulmonary secretions from the airways. To combat issues associated with current treatment modalities for insufficient cough efficacy (cost, poor mobility, discomfort, lack of evidence), we have developed an instrumentational proximal airway clearance technique (ACT) which augments a manual proximal ACT developed by a client with NMD. QuickCough is a 3D-printed PLA attachment to the tracheostomy apparatus which has demonstrated its ability to facilitate pressure changes necessary to increase patient’s peak cough flow (PCF) by providing a stronger exsufflation for the ...


Project "Auxilia" - Jaiden's Prosthetic Arm, Christopher Halley, Lindsay Jaros, Autumn Young Jan 2019

Project "Auxilia" - Jaiden's Prosthetic Arm, Christopher Halley, Lindsay Jaros, Autumn Young

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The main objective of this project was to create a prosthetic arm for a 15 year old boy named Jaiden Foden. Jaiden was born with only one fully developed limb as a result of a genetic disorder, Hanhart Syndrome II. His right arm becomes a residual limb below the elbow, but has two fingers which act in a “claw-like” movement. Jaiden’s left arm becomes a residual limb above the elbow, and his left leg becomes a residual limb above the knee. The goal of the arm was to increase Jaiden’s overall independence and to help in completing daily ...


The Wrist Brace Project, Nathan Nicholas Jan 2019

The Wrist Brace Project, Nathan Nicholas

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This paper outlines the engineering design process of creating a specialized wrist brace for a local child. This project was completed by a team of senior Biomedical Engineering students.


Investigating Alternative Measures Of Functional Recovery In Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury, Mariah L. Costa, Rebecca K. Willits Jan 2019

Investigating Alternative Measures Of Functional Recovery In Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury, Mariah L. Costa, Rebecca K. Willits

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

There is a pressing need for advancements in peripheral nerve repair techniques and functional recovery evaluation methods. The rat sciatic nerve injury model is a well examined model for peripheral nerve repair. One measure of functional recovery after nerve damage, the sciatic functional index (SFI), fails in the presence of self-mutilation, toe contracture, and other abnormalities in gait. In this IACUC approved study, the sciatic nerve was severed in four experimental groups (n=5). The nerves were repaired with Arginylglycylaspartic acid-poly(ε-caprolactone) (RGD-PCL) peptide functionalized nanofibers, non-functionalized PCL control nanofibers, an isograft, and a negative control empty conduit. Video walking ...


Quickcough: An Instrumentational Proximal Airway Clearance Technique (Act) For Select Patients With Neuromuscular Disease (Nmd), Sean X. Sullivan, Russell K. Catania, Madison K. Plaster, Sydney E. Kandray, Mariah Costa Jan 2019

Quickcough: An Instrumentational Proximal Airway Clearance Technique (Act) For Select Patients With Neuromuscular Disease (Nmd), Sean X. Sullivan, Russell K. Catania, Madison K. Plaster, Sydney E. Kandray, Mariah Costa

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) requiring tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation secondary to respiratory failure encounter increased difficulty in removing pulmonary secretions from the airways. To combat issues associated with current treatment modalities for insufficient cough efficacy (cost, poor mobility, discomfort, lack of evidence), we have developed an instrumentational proximal airway clearance technique (ACT) which augments a manual proximal ACT developed by a client with NMD. QuickCough is a 3D-printed PLA attachment to the tracheostomy apparatus which has demonstrated its ability to facilitate pressure changes necessary to increase patient’s peak cough flow (PCF) by providing a stronger exsufflation for the ...


Quickcough: An Instrumentational Proximal Airway Clearance Technique (Act) For Select Patients With Neuromuscular Disease (Nmd), Sydney Elizabeth Kandray, Russell Catania, Madison Plaster, Sean Sullivan, Mariah Costa Jan 2019

Quickcough: An Instrumentational Proximal Airway Clearance Technique (Act) For Select Patients With Neuromuscular Disease (Nmd), Sydney Elizabeth Kandray, Russell Catania, Madison Plaster, Sean Sullivan, Mariah Costa

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) requiring tracheostomy and mechanical ventilation secondary to respiratory failure encounter increased difficulty in removing pulmonary secretions from the airways. To combat issues associated with current treatment modalities for insufficient cough efficacy (cost, poor mobility, discomfort, lack of evidence), we have developed an instrumentational proximal airway clearance technique (ACT) which augments a manual proximal ACT developed by a client with NMD. QuickCough is a 3D-printed PLA attachment to the tracheostomy apparatus which has demonstrated its ability to facilitate pressure changes necessary to increase patient’s peak cough flow (PCF) by providing a stronger exsufflation for the ...


Effects Of Micro-Features On Cell Detachment From Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Membranes, Luke Webel Jan 2019

Effects Of Micro-Features On Cell Detachment From Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide) Coated Polydimethylsiloxane Membranes, Luke Webel

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The tested hypothesis was that features on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces coated with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/aminopropyltriethoxysilane or pNIPAAM/APTES thin film would accelerate cell detachment than the film coated on a unfeatured surface. This project tested samples with features generated by molds, wrinkling, and sandpaper roughened substrates. Surface feature generation methods were limited to mechanical means, and characterized by microscopy and strain rates. 50/50 mixtures of 1.5 wt.% pNIPAAM/ APTES were used to coat thin films (30-40 nm) on PDMS membranes by spin-coating, and the coated membranes were thermally annealed to chemically graft pNIPAAm/APTES on the membrane ...


Ergoscopetm – Ergonomic Endoscope, Drew Drum, John D'Egidio, Bethany Scarpitti, Ceara Stack, Sara Kerestman Jan 2019

Ergoscopetm – Ergonomic Endoscope, Drew Drum, John D'Egidio, Bethany Scarpitti, Ceara Stack, Sara Kerestman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Medical endoscopy is a growing industry, with a trend of chronic hand pain for gastroenterologists and flexible endoscope users. In order to address the lack of ergonomics in traditional gastrointestinal (GI) flexible endoscopes, the design team collaborated with a GI professional to design a more ergonomic endoscope interface, focusing on the more problematic controls. Two prototypes, as well as a mock-up were fabricated, which underwent verification and a user evaluation to assess the design’s benefits. As the number of endoscopies each year increase, the Ergoscope, offers an alternative to the traditional angulation controls and muchneeded relief for the issues ...


Wheelchair Modification, Taylor Verba, Stephen Conklin, Nolyn Martz, Kenneth Hutson, William Rasper Jan 2019

Wheelchair Modification, Taylor Verba, Stephen Conklin, Nolyn Martz, Kenneth Hutson, William Rasper

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This document outlines the design process for a wheelchair modification. This wheelchair modification is the Senior Capstone Project for five undergraduate students studying Biomedical Engineering at The University of Akron, Team 14. The team was directed to compose a team name, which was chosen to be EnGenious Design Solutions (EDS). The project was provided by Dr. James Keszenheimer who is a professor at The University of Akron. This document focuses on the project results as well as business conclusions.


The Production And Characterization Of Chitosan Based Microgels Using A Novel Microfluidic Device To Promote Cell Survival, Kaileen Shevchuk Jan 2019

The Production And Characterization Of Chitosan Based Microgels Using A Novel Microfluidic Device To Promote Cell Survival, Kaileen Shevchuk

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project is to synthesize and characterize perfluorocarbon modified methacrylamide chitosan (MACF) microgels produced with the use of a capillary-based microfluidic device. Since cell survival and development is highly related to particles physical properties, analysis of microgels set out to determine the particle’s physical properties. I hypothesize that the viscosity of the MACF polymer as well as the amount of photo initiator influence the physical properties of synthesized particles and as a result can generate particles with various features for cell culture in terms of shape, size, charge and swelling abilities. This hypothesis was validated through ...


Development Of Entubulation Strategies For Treating Central Nervous System Injuries, Ivy Brosch Jan 2018

Development Of Entubulation Strategies For Treating Central Nervous System Injuries, Ivy Brosch

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

According to the McKnight Brain Institute, at least 10,000 people annually in the USA suffer from a central nervous system (CNS) injury. These injuries can cause serve disabilities including paralysis. Due to the complexity of the spinal cord, it is common that potential CNS treatments are first applied to an optic nerve crush (ONC) model in rats. Two proposed treatments were employed; one where nerve growth factor (NGF) was immobilized to a chitosan substrate to stimulate axonal regeneration, and the other using pentadecafluorooctanoyl chloride modified methacrylamide chitosan (MAC(Ali15)F) hydrogel to enhance local oxygenation. The two different treatments ...


Wearable Hearing Accessory Technology, Tyler Cindea, Jaime Alcorn, Brooke Draper, Kyle Glascott, Ben Hanna, Robert Thoerner Jan 2018

Wearable Hearing Accessory Technology, Tyler Cindea, Jaime Alcorn, Brooke Draper, Kyle Glascott, Ben Hanna, Robert Thoerner

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

We set out in August 2017 to develop an active noise suppressing device that would be usable both in military and civilian activities. Due to constraints in knowledge and time, we decided our best course of action was to divide the project into two equal projects with the hope to be able to combine them into a single project at the end of the allotted time. This consisted of an active noise suppression device and a passive noise suppression device. The passive device would have no electronic components and the active device would be pure circuitry with no housing. This ...


Molded Features In Pdms For Fabricating Bacterial Cellulose For Various Geometries, Mitchell Habegger Jan 2018

Molded Features In Pdms For Fabricating Bacterial Cellulose For Various Geometries, Mitchell Habegger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of producing features on bacterial cellulose (BC) is to facilitate the elongation and alignment for cells, in this case Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF) cells. The elongated cells have applications in wound healing, tissue engineering, disease diagnostics, and many other fields. Experiments were run to test the effectiveness of transferring features to BC sheets from features induced by fracturing on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and those duplicated from molds with existing features. The features were duplicated to BC sheets by either air drying or Guided Assembly-Based Biolithography (GAB). The research results showed that fracture inducing on PDMS produced very small ...


Modification Of Bacterial Cellulose Using Organosilanes To Enhance Cell Adhesion And Growth, Kristi Ferrato Jan 2018

Modification Of Bacterial Cellulose Using Organosilanes To Enhance Cell Adhesion And Growth, Kristi Ferrato

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In this project, drying bacterial cellulose (BC) to maintain its structural integrity, and treating BC with organosilanes 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and (3-Mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) as well as with various concentration of gelatin to increase the cells per area was studied. Drying BC with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) by soaking the BC in ascending concentrations of ethanol and HMDS did not protect the structural integrity of the BC grown in lab but did for the BC grown in Dr. Siriporn Taokaew’s lab. Freeze drying also did not fully protect the structural integrity as the BC was placed in a freezer for several hours ...


Degradability Of Poly(Ethylene) Based Microgels And Methods Of Improving High Polydispersity Index, Abrar Alniemi Jan 2018

Degradability Of Poly(Ethylene) Based Microgels And Methods Of Improving High Polydispersity Index, Abrar Alniemi

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In order to improve upon the utilization of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microgel-based scaffolds in drug delivery applications, this work explores the use of degradable and non-degradable PEG for tunable scaffolds. Previously, issues concerning the required uniformity in microgel size and low polydispersity index have been encountered. As such, methods of refining polymer synthesis, microgel fabrication, and microgel size separation were explored. Overall, no solution has been found to correct the issue for the microgels were still observed to have high polydispersity index regardless of varied troubleshooting alterations.


Lighted Ear Curette, Kelsey Ashmore, Kaitlin Klotzle, Crysta Yamamoto, Katrina Elfrink, Cynthia Stoller Jan 2017

Lighted Ear Curette, Kelsey Ashmore, Kaitlin Klotzle, Crysta Yamamoto, Katrina Elfrink, Cynthia Stoller

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The ear canal is a sensitive and small part of the human body that is prone to accumulate cerumen or lodge foreign bodies. In order to clean the ear canal or remove foreign bodies, three hands are required: one to brace the patient's head, one to maneuver the curette that is used to clean the ear, and one to hold a light source in order to make the small, dark area visible. Therefore, a design is needed that can allow a doctor to safely clean an ear with an instrument that only requires two hands. Furthermore, the design must ...


Characterization Of Polyurethane For Use As Substrate In Nanofiber Sensor For Biomedical Applications, Megan Theaker Jan 2017

Characterization Of Polyurethane For Use As Substrate In Nanofiber Sensor For Biomedical Applications, Megan Theaker

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project is to begin to determine properties of polymer nanocomposites that make a suitable substrate for nanofiber sensors. In this work, sensitivity of a sodium ion selective sensor constructed with polyurethane was used as a benchmark for comparison with sensors constructed with nylon-6. The sensors were characterized using contact angle and chronoamperometry. Using an ANOVA analysis, the results showed that the multi-walled carbon nanotube type was a significant factor on sensor response both with and without additional functionalization of the polymer by calixarene. The weight percentage of polyurethane in the electrospinning solution was also statistically significant ...


Developing Afm Techniques For Testing Peg Hydrogels, Hannah L. Cebull, Jessica Stukel, Rebecca Willits Jan 2017

Developing Afm Techniques For Testing Peg Hydrogels, Hannah L. Cebull, Jessica Stukel, Rebecca Willits

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Many instruments are used to find elastic properties of biological samples using methods such as tensile and bending tests, but using the atomic force microscope (AFM) is considered a non-destructive method because it can provide repeated local stiffness information without damaging the sample. It additionally allows the sample to be tested in an aqueous environment, which is optimal for soft materials such as hydrogels. The nanoindentation is performed via cantilever, measuring the deflection of the cantilever during the contact of the sample using a laser. Compared to hard samples, testing soft materials can present more challenges when working with the ...


The Analysis Of Pediatric Sleep Lab Inefficiencies, Jessica Buehler, Autumn Barkley, Caitlin Dickerson, Andrew Fosnight, Omar Saad Jan 2017

The Analysis Of Pediatric Sleep Lab Inefficiencies, Jessica Buehler, Autumn Barkley, Caitlin Dickerson, Andrew Fosnight, Omar Saad

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this project is to develop a children’s sleep apnea test for home use. This design is to be of cost and quality improvement to what is currently on the market. It is important to fully understand the background of this sleep disorder in order to create this improvement. Knowing what sleep apnea is, as well as the different types, is what is used to create the methods such as S.C.O.P.E.R. Each letter is used to observe one portion or aspect of the human body and how it functions with regards to ...


Hydroband: The Continuous Hydration Monitoring System, Karina E. Atkinson, Catherine P. Benedict Jan 2016

Hydroband: The Continuous Hydration Monitoring System, Karina E. Atkinson, Catherine P. Benedict

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Dehydration is defined as a mild, moderate, or extreme loss of water in the body. It can result in fever, muscle cramps, headaches, dizziness, or heat stroke in athletes. Ways to determine hydration levels include analysis of the urine, blood, or sweat, body weight changes, skin elasticity tests, and increases in core temperature. Patent search, research journals, and outside studies in the health and fitness market showed that a convenient and continuous hydration monitoring system was not available. Changes in core body temperature proved to be the quickest way to measure hydration levels. The HydroBand system is geared towards athletes ...


A Software Application For Cardiac-Gated Computerized Tomography Scanning, Stephen Caldwell, Trevor Engelsman Jan 2016

A Software Application For Cardiac-Gated Computerized Tomography Scanning, Stephen Caldwell, Trevor Engelsman

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Computerized tomography (CT) scans are a common clinical imaging procedure used worldwide. Operating in the X-Ray spectrum, these machines rotate scanners around a stationary body in order to compile two-dimensional images into a unified three-dimensional image. With adjustment to scan frequency and intensity, internal features such as muscles, organs, and tendons can easily be viewed. However, the heart has long evaded CT use due to its near-constant motion. Recently, cardiac-gated scans have entered the market as a technique to image the heart at a specific moment in time when it is nearly still - the quiescent period. Occurring during rapid depolarization ...


The Smart Hard Hat, Darcy Fyffe, Connor Langenderfer, Charlton Johns Jan 2016

The Smart Hard Hat, Darcy Fyffe, Connor Langenderfer, Charlton Johns

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In a wide variety of manual labor industries, workers are often unaware that they are approaching dangerous vital thresholds until they have already overexerted themselves. According to a 2012 white paper by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), over 4,500 workers lose their lives, and more than 4 million are seriously injured each year. There is an immediate need to improve the safety and monitoring of manual workers to reduce the number of workplace injuries and fatalities. Millions of laborers around the globe go to work every day relying on basic safety devices, such as harnesses and steel ...


Emlighten, Emily Mulvany Jan 2016

Emlighten, Emily Mulvany

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This project is focused on creating a system to increase patient satisfaction in hospitals. My senior design team has been working hand in hand with the emergency department of Akron General to design this system called EMlighten. The goal is to create an experience for patients where they exit the hospital feeling more satisfied than they currently are. Patient satisfaction is a key performance indicator used by many hospitals to determine how much additional funding each hospital department is granted. If patients feel more satisfied, not only is that indicative of better care, but departments will receive extra funding. EMlighten ...


Reducing Fretting Corrosion At The Femoral Neck To Taper Junction In Total Hip Arthroplasty, Andrea M. Carly, Nicholas S. Moyer, Abel S. Pietros Jan 2016

Reducing Fretting Corrosion At The Femoral Neck To Taper Junction In Total Hip Arthroplasty, Andrea M. Carly, Nicholas S. Moyer, Abel S. Pietros

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Fretting corrosion due to micromotion between the femoral head and neck of hip implants is a growing concern of surgeons and patients. Debris from corrosion can lead to severe adverse effects for patients of total hip arthroplasty and reduce the lifespan of the product. Previous studies conducted by Zimmer Biomet show a connection between higher impaction force and reduced fretting corrosion and debris. This design project explored this issue and developed a training device using a current technology, a dynamic force sensor, and data analysis software for surgeons to obtain muscle memory of a 4kN strike on the head impactor ...


Pediatric Electrical Stimulation For Limb Lengthening: A Non-Invasive Approach, Corey J. Schurko, Sofia Chinchilla, Amanda E. Pinheiro, Jacob A. Brock Jan 2016

Pediatric Electrical Stimulation For Limb Lengthening: A Non-Invasive Approach, Corey J. Schurko, Sofia Chinchilla, Amanda E. Pinheiro, Jacob A. Brock

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD) is a problematic ailment for children as the differences in limb lengths can lead to scoliosis, hip, knee, and ankle problems, and back pain. If LLD is untreated, the symptoms will worsen as the child matures. Today LLD is corrected by using the Ilizarov Method, which uses pins that are externally attached to the broken bone for extension over time using a fixator or by using internal plates that do not require externalization. In our project we aim to use external electrical stimulation to correct the limb discrepancies. Several companies, such as Zimmer Biomet, have created ...