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Theses/Dissertations

2013

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Construction And Assessment Of A Computer Graphics-Based Model For Wheelchair Propulsion, Brooke Marie Odle Dec 2013

Construction And Assessment Of A Computer Graphics-Based Model For Wheelchair Propulsion, Brooke Marie Odle

Dissertations

Upper limb overuse injuries are common in manual wheelchair using persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially those with tetraplegia. Biomechanical analyses involving kinetics, kinematics, and muscle mechanics provide an opportunity to identify modifiable risk factors associated with wheelchair propulsion and upper limb overuse injuries that may be used toward developing prevention and treatment interventions. However, these analyses are limited because they cannot estimate muscle forces in vivo. Patient-specific computer graphics-based models have enhanced biomechanical analyses by determining in vivo estimates of shoulder muscle and joint contact forces. Current models do not include deep shoulder muscles. Also, patient-specific models have ...


The Effect Of Mechanical Vestibular Stimulation On Muscle Tone And Spasticity In Individuals With Neurological Impairment, Ghaith J. Androwis Dec 2013

The Effect Of Mechanical Vestibular Stimulation On Muscle Tone And Spasticity In Individuals With Neurological Impairment, Ghaith J. Androwis

Dissertations

In the desire to better understand spasticity mainly in Cerebral Palsy (CP) and to examine vestibular stimulation as a future intervention for .muscle tone reduction, and to be able to describe the change in level of spasticity in subjects with disability and describe interventions effects, a series of experiments are done on children with spasticity. In addition to understanding the otoliths in the vestibular system and their projections, properties and pathways a more important major objective of this work is to validate the changes in otoliths signal caused by vestibular stimulation based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis and the inclusion ...


Mathematically Modeling The Mechanical Constants Of Thoracolumbar Fascia Under Compression, In Vivo, Vrajeshri Patel Dec 2013

Mathematically Modeling The Mechanical Constants Of Thoracolumbar Fascia Under Compression, In Vivo, Vrajeshri Patel

Theses

The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) is a complex structure made of many interconnecting aponeurosis and muscle fascia. It plays a role in posture, stabilizing the lumbosacral spine, load transfer, and respiration. Its complex structure and connections have mostly been observed through cadaveric studies while its mechanical properties have been addressed in only a few studies. Recently, new advances in ultrasound imaging have made it possible to move towards measuring tissue strain. Since this is an in vivo method, mechanical data of tissues in their natural environment allows a more accurate representation of tissue strain. However, many different methods of analyzing ultrasound ...


Using The Piezoelectric Backscatter Signal For Remote Sensing Of Neural Signals, Eren Alay Dec 2013

Using The Piezoelectric Backscatter Signal For Remote Sensing Of Neural Signals, Eren Alay

Theses

In recent studies, various methods to sense neural signals are used and new methods for remote sensing of neural signals are being developed. However, there are still major difficulties in building long-term implantable neural interface systems that can reliably record neural activity and serve as the basis of brain-machine interfaces (BMI). Therefore, this research is conducted to design a remote neural sensing system that is based on modulation of the backscatter signal from a piezoelectric element by the neural signals. The hypothesis is that if the neural signal is detected with a simple amplifier and the output of this amplifier ...


Differentiating Schizophrenic Patients From Healthy Control; Application Of Machine Learning To Resting State Fmri, Hossein Ebrahimi Nezhad Dec 2013

Differentiating Schizophrenic Patients From Healthy Control; Application Of Machine Learning To Resting State Fmri, Hossein Ebrahimi Nezhad

Theses

In recent years, one analysis approach that has grown in popularity is the use of machine learning algorithms to train classifiers to decode stimuli, mental states, behaviors and other variables of interest from fMRI data. Most of these studies focus on fMRI low frequency oscillations. This study focuses on the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF). A Voxel-wise analysis is performed on the whole brain for two groups of subjects. A machine learning algorithm is applied to two independent groups of subjects (a total of 160 healthy control and schizophrenic subjects) to classify Schizophrenia ...


Developing A Labview Based Thermally Stimulated Current (Tsc) Controller To Measure Residual Charge In Electrospinning, Jai Abhishekh Veezhinathan Dec 2013

Developing A Labview Based Thermally Stimulated Current (Tsc) Controller To Measure Residual Charge In Electrospinning, Jai Abhishekh Veezhinathan

Theses

Electrospinning is an electrohydrodynamic process for the fabrication of nanofibers which are widely used in therapeutical tissue engineering approaches. It utilizes the potential difference of an electrostatic field to overcome the surface tension of the polymer solution to extrude a fine jet of fluid which deposits on the grounded collector as a nanofiber mat. Using this process, nanofibers with diameters less than a micron can be produced.

Previous studies have shown the presence of residual charge in electrospun nanofibers. The presence and decay of residual charge during cell culture media is still unknown. In an attempt to clarify the presence ...


Rate Alterable Traumatic Brain Injury Device For Rodent Models, Radia Abdul Wahab Dec 2013

Rate Alterable Traumatic Brain Injury Device For Rodent Models, Radia Abdul Wahab

Dissertations

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a physical impact to the head resulting in functional deficits in memory and motor systems. TBI is a prevalent problem occurring in 1.7 million people annually in the United States (Faul et al. 2010). TBIs can differ greatly in terms of the biomechanics of the impact such as magnitude, direction and rate. Indeed, it is likely that the wide range of TBI outcomes may be due to the physical characteristics of the trauma. Studies to date on impact have used injury devices with limited alterable parameters. Therefore, the existing impact studies have considered the ...


Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad Dec 2013

Under-Sampled Reconstruction Techniques For Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Mohammad H. Kayvanrad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to physical and biological constraints and requirements on the minimum resolution and SNR, the acquisition time is relatively long in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Consequently, a limited number of pulse sequences can be run in a clinical MRI session because of constraints on the total acquisition time due to patient comfort and cost considerations. Therefore, it is strongly desired to reduce the acquisition time without compromising the reconstruction quality. This thesis concerns under-sampled reconstruction techniques for acceleration of MRI acquisitions, i.e., parallel imaging and compressed sensing.

While compressed sensing MRI reconstructions are commonly regularized by penalizing the decimated ...


The Development Of A New Dry Powder Inhaler, Xi Zhang Dec 2013

The Development Of A New Dry Powder Inhaler, Xi Zhang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A new dry powder inhaler (DPI) for respiratory drug delivery was developed. This novel device is characterized by a micro-dose, passive delivery and multiple doses individually sealed in one replaceable disk. The micro-dose delivery system uses only a small amount of excipient, such as 2-3mg lactose, thereby improving the drug delivery efficiency. The passive delivery method eliminates the need for coordination between breath and device actuation such as the pressure metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Finally, 14 doses on a disk reduce the need to frequently change dosage disks. In addition, each dose is effectively protected by a blister package to ...


Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui Dec 2013

Production Of Lignin-Based Phenolic Resins Using De-Polymerized Kraft Lignin And Process Optimization, Homaira Siddiqui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Commercialization of Lignin-based phenol formaldehyde resins (LPF) has been limited due to the increase in curing temperatures and decrease in adhesive strength of LPF compared to conventional phenolic resins. Lignin depolymerization can increase the reactivity of lignin; however, the effect of lignin molecular weight on curing performance of LPF resins has yet to be investigated. This research work examined the optimization of synthesis parameters including percent substitution of phenol with lignin, formaldehyde- to-phenol ratio (F/P), and Mw of lignin to reduce the curing temperature and increase the adhesive strength of LPF. DSC analysis indicated that lignin with Mw ~1200g ...


New Technology And Techniques For Needle-Based Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Prostate Focal Therapy, Jeremy Cepek Dec 2013

New Technology And Techniques For Needle-Based Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Prostate Focal Therapy, Jeremy Cepek

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The most common diagnosis of prostate cancer is that of localized disease, and unfortunately the optimal type of treatment for these men is not yet certain. Magnetic resonance image (MRI)-guided focal laser ablation (FLA) therapy is a promising potential treatment option for select men with localized prostate cancer, and may result in fewer side effects than whole-gland therapies, while still achieving oncologic control. The objective of this thesis was to develop methods of accurately guiding needles to the prostate within the bore of a clinical MRI scanner for MRI-guided FLA therapy.

To achieve this goal, a mechatronic needle guidance ...


The Design And Validation Of A Computational Rigid Body Model For Study Of The Radial Head, Cassandra Woodcock Dec 2013

The Design And Validation Of A Computational Rigid Body Model For Study Of The Radial Head, Cassandra Woodcock

Theses and Dissertations

Rigid body modeling has historically been used to study various features of the elbow joint including both physical and computational models. Computational modeling provides an inexpensive, easily customizable, and effective method by which to predict and investigate the response of a physiological system to in vivo stresses and applied perturbations. Utilizing computer topography scans of a cadaveric elbow, a virtual representation of the joint was created using the commercially available MIMICS(TM) and SolidWorks(TM) software packages. Accurate 3D articular surfaces, ligamentous constraints, and joint contact parameters dictated motion. The model was validated against two cadaveric studies performed by Chanlalit ...


Localization Of Auditory Spatial Targets In Sighted And Blind Subjects, Richard Nuckols Dec 2013

Localization Of Auditory Spatial Targets In Sighted And Blind Subjects, Richard Nuckols

Theses and Dissertations

This research was designed to investigate the fundamental nature in which blind people utilize audible cues to attend to their surroundings. Knowledge on how blind people respond to external spatial stimuli is expected to assist in development of better tools for helping people with visual disabilities navigate their environment. There was also interest in determining how blind people compare to sighted people in auditory localization tasks. The ability of sighted individuals, blindfolded individuals, and blind individuals in localizing spatial auditory targets was assessed. An acoustic display board allowed the researcher to provide multiple sound presentations to the subjects. The subjects ...


Examination Of The Effect Of Different Training Metrics On Performance Of A Minimally Invasive Surgery Transfer Task, Cristofer Madera Dec 2013

Examination Of The Effect Of Different Training Metrics On Performance Of A Minimally Invasive Surgery Transfer Task, Cristofer Madera

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this experiment was to determine if there existed techniques to more efficiently train prospective surgeons the skills necessary to capably perform minimally invasive surgical procedures. Also, we wanted to know if trainees could be pushed to cognitively define a laparoscopic environment with a novel hand-eye relationship. To explore these questions, a simulation was setup wherein subjects would perform a laparoscopic transfer task and receive active feedback during training. Different subjects would receive different metrics as feedback and a comparison would be made between subjects with respect to standard metrics. Results of this experiment show that all subjects ...


Patient-Specific Modeling Of Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity Before And After Surgery, Edward Meade Spratley Dec 2013

Patient-Specific Modeling Of Adult Acquired Flatfoot Deformity Before And After Surgery, Edward Meade Spratley

Theses and Dissertations

The use of computational modeling is an increasingly commonplace technique for the investigation of biomechanics in intact and pathological musculoskeletal systems. Moreover, given the robust and repeatable nature of computer simulation and the prevalence of software techniques for accurate 3-D reconstructions of tissues, the predictive power of these models has increased dramatically. However, there are no patient-specific kinematic models whose function is dictated solely by physiologic soft-tissue constraints, articular shape and contact, and without idealized joint approximations. Moreover, very few models have attempted to predict surgical effects combined with postoperative validation of those predictions. Given this, it is not surprising ...


Biomimetic Poly(Ester Amide) Biomaterials For Vascular Tissue Engineering, Darryl K. Knight Dec 2013

Biomimetic Poly(Ester Amide) Biomaterials For Vascular Tissue Engineering, Darryl K. Knight

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The focus of this research was to develop a biomimetic, degradable vascular scaffold that could be considered as part of a tissue-engineered vascular graft strategy. A family of degradable poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) derived from naturally occurring α-amino acids, aliphatic diols and diacids were synthesized to yield PEAs with glass transition temperatures below physiologic temperature ensuring their pliability. Tri-functional amino acids l-lysine or l-aspartic acid were incorporated into the polymer backbone yielding complementary functional handles for subsequent conjugation of growth factors. Higher molecular weight PEAs were obtained using an interfacial polycondensation technique compared with a solution polymerization approach.

Human ...


Patient-Oriented Evidence-Based Treatment Decision Support System (Treatquest®) For Lung Cancer, Danqing Hu Dec 2013

Patient-Oriented Evidence-Based Treatment Decision Support System (Treatquest®) For Lung Cancer, Danqing Hu

Theses and Dissertations

Involving patients in healthcare decisions makes a significant and enduring difference to healthcare outcomes. One challenge for patients is the lack of evidence-based information and tools to support their decision making. Although patients have access to significant information through internet and other sources, it is not personalized for their specific situation. This dissertation attempts to help patients acquire evidence-based information relevant to their own situation, so they can make a more informed decision in co-operation with their physicians. Lung cancer has been selected as a focus for this study because lung cancer presents very complex decision making situation and is ...


Extraction And Classification Of Drug-Drug Interaction From Biomedical Text Using A Two-Stage Classifier, Majid Rastegar-Mojarad Dec 2013

Extraction And Classification Of Drug-Drug Interaction From Biomedical Text Using A Two-Stage Classifier, Majid Rastegar-Mojarad

Theses and Dissertations

One of the critical causes of medical errors is Drug-Drug interaction (DDI), which occurs when one drug increases or decreases the effect of another drug. We propose a machine learning system to extract and classify drug-drug interactions from the biomedical literature, using the annotated corpus from the DDIExtraction-2013 shared task challenge. Our approach applies a two-stage classifier to handle the highly unbalanced class distribution in the corpus. The first stage is designed for binary classification of drug pairs as interacting or non-interacting, and the second stage for further classification of interacting pairs into one of four interacting types: advise, effect ...


Angiography And Monitoring Of Hemodynamic Signals In The Brain Via Optical Coherence Tomography, Alana Mauluidy Soehartono Dec 2013

Angiography And Monitoring Of Hemodynamic Signals In The Brain Via Optical Coherence Tomography, Alana Mauluidy Soehartono

Theses and Dissertations

The brain is a complex network of interconnected neurons with each cell functioning as a nonlinear processing unit. Neural responses to stimulus can be described by activity in neurons. While blood flow changes have been associated with neural activity and are critical to brain function, this neurovascular coupling is not well understood. This work presents a technique for neurovascular interrogation, combining optogenetics and optical coherence tomography.

Optogenetics is a recently developed neuromodulation technique to control activity in the brain using light with precise spatial neuronal control and high temporal resolution. Using this method, cells act as light-gated ion channels and ...


Reconstruction Of Patient-Specific Bone Models From X-Ray Radiography, Hatem Amin Abdel Fattah El Dakhakhni Dec 2013

Reconstruction Of Patient-Specific Bone Models From X-Ray Radiography, Hatem Amin Abdel Fattah El Dakhakhni

Doctoral Dissertations

The availability of a patient‐specific bone model has become an increasingly invaluable addition to orthopedic case evaluation and planning [1]. Utilized within a wide range of specialized visualization and analysis tools, such models provide unprecedented wealth of bone shape information previously unattainable using traditional radiographic imaging [2]. In this work, a novel bone reconstruction method from two or more x‐ray images is described. This method is superior to previous attempts in terms of accuracy and repeatability. The new technique accurately models the radiological scene in a way that eliminates the need for expensive multi‐planar radiographic imaging systems ...


Extracting The Structure And Conformations Of Biological Entities From Large Datasets, Ali Dashti Dec 2013

Extracting The Structure And Conformations Of Biological Entities From Large Datasets, Ali Dashti

Theses and Dissertations

In biology, structure determines function, which often proceeds via changes in conformation. Efficient means for determining structure exist, but mapping conformations continue to present a serious challenge. Single-particles approaches, such as cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and emerging "diffract & destroy" X-ray techniques are, in principle, ideally positioned to overcome these challenges. But the algorithmic ability to extract information from large heterogeneous datasets consisting of "unsorted" snapshots - each emanating from an unknown orientation of an object in an unknown conformation - remains elusive.

It is the objective of this thesis to describe and validate a powerful suite of manifold-based algorithms able to extract ...


The Advancement Of Bacterial Cellulose As A Bone And Vascular Scaffolds, Ryan Lee Hammonds Dec 2013

The Advancement Of Bacterial Cellulose As A Bone And Vascular Scaffolds, Ryan Lee Hammonds

Doctoral Dissertations

Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a natural hydrogel made of nanofibers. This material has been used in commercial products, including wound dressings. BC can be modified and optimized for improved performance in multiple applications. This work will focus on producing and characterizing resorbable cellulose, a composite for bone applications, and a composite for a synthetic venous valve leaflet.

BC can be produced and modified to perform as a degradable tissue scaffold. This is achieved by an oxidation procedure after the initial production and purification of native BC. A material characterization of oxidized BC was performed to identify the changes in properties ...


Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson Dec 2013

Analysis, Segmentation And Prediction Of Knee Cartilage Using Statistical Shape Models, Joseph Michael Johnson

Doctoral Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is one of the leading causes of chronic disability (along with the hip). Due to rising healthcare costs associated with OA, it is important to fully understand the disease and how it progresses in the knee. One symptom of knee OA is the degeneration of cartilage in the articulating knee. The cartilage pad plays a major role in painting the biomechanical picture of the knee. This work attempts to quantify the cartilage thickness of healthy male and female knees using statistical shape models (SSMs) for a deep knee bend activity. Additionally, novel cartilage segmentation from ...


Cuda K-Nn: Application To The Segmentation Of The Retinal Vasculature Within Sd-Oct Volumes Of Mice, Wenxiang Deng Dec 2013

Cuda K-Nn: Application To The Segmentation Of The Retinal Vasculature Within Sd-Oct Volumes Of Mice, Wenxiang Deng

Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Novel Adaptive Reconstruction Schemes For Accelerated Myocardial Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sajan Goud Lingala Dec 2013

Novel Adaptive Reconstruction Schemes For Accelerated Myocardial Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Sajan Goud Lingala

Theses and Dissertations

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death in the world. In the United States alone, it is estimated that approximately every 25 seconds, a new CAD event will occur, and approximately every minute, someone will die of one. The detection of CAD during in its early stages is very critical to reduce the mortality rates. Magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial perfusion (MR-MPI) has been receiving significant attention over the last decade due to its ability to provide a unique view of the microcirculation blood flow in the myocardial tissue through the coronary vascular network. The ...


Modeling Of The Human Larynx With Application To The Influence Of False Vocal Folds On The Glottal Flow, Mehrdad Hosnieh Farahani Dec 2013

Modeling Of The Human Larynx With Application To The Influence Of False Vocal Folds On The Glottal Flow, Mehrdad Hosnieh Farahani

Theses and Dissertations

Human phonation is a complex phenomenon produced by multiphysics interaction of the fluid, tissue and acoustics fields. Despite recent advancement, little is known about the effect of false vocal folds on the fluid dynamics of the glottal flow. Recent investigations have hypothesized that this pair of tissue can affect the laryngeal flow during phonation. This hypothesis was tested both computationally and experimentally in this dissertation. The computations were performed using an incompressible solver developed in fixed Cartesian grid with a second order sharp immersed-boundary formulation while the experiments were carried out in a low-speed wind tunnel with physiologic speeds and ...


Machine-Learning Based Automated Segmentation Tool Development For Large-Scale Multicenter Mri Data Analysis, Eun Young Kim Dec 2013

Machine-Learning Based Automated Segmentation Tool Development For Large-Scale Multicenter Mri Data Analysis, Eun Young Kim

Theses and Dissertations

Background: Volumetric analysis of brain structures from structural Mag- netic Resonance (MR) images advances the understanding of the brain by providing means to study brain morphometric changes quantitatively along aging, development, and disease status. Due to the recent increased emphasis on large-scale multicenter brain MR study design, the demand for an automated brain MRI processing tool has increased as well. This dissertation describes an automatic segmentation framework for subcortical structures of brain MRI that is robust for a wide variety of MR data.

Method: The proposed segmentation framework, BRAINSCut, is an inte- gration of robust data standardization techniques and machine-learning ...


Interstitial Cell Seeding And Dynamic Conditioning Of Aortic Heart Valve Scaffolds, Allison Kennamer Dec 2013

Interstitial Cell Seeding And Dynamic Conditioning Of Aortic Heart Valve Scaffolds, Allison Kennamer

All Theses

In 2011, U.S. Markets for Heart Valve Repair and Replacement Products estimated that roughly four million people in the United States are diagnosed with a heart valve disorder annually. And in the following year, the American Heart Association reported that approximately 35,000 deaths in the US were either directly or indirectly attributed to heart valve disease. Diseases of the heart valve are degenerative in nature and therefore progressively worsen unbeknownst to the patient until symptoms become clinically relevant. By this time, the valve is in such poor condition that complete replacement is often the only effective treatment. Current ...


Identification Of Novel Genes Regulating Elastic Fiber Formation Through Expression Profiling Analysis Of Elastogenic Models, Erin Sproul Dec 2013

Identification Of Novel Genes Regulating Elastic Fiber Formation Through Expression Profiling Analysis Of Elastogenic Models, Erin Sproul

All Dissertations

Background: Particularly important to the mechanical performance of native arterial blood vessels is elastin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein deposited by VSMCs in the form of elastic fibers, arranged in concentric lamellae in the media of the vessel wall. In addition to serving as major structural elements of arterial walls, providing extensibility and elastic recoil, elastic fibers also influence vascular cell behaviors. For these reasons tissue engineers are attempting to exploit elastic fiber biology to enhance vascular graft design and patency. Therefore, developing a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms of elastogenesis may offer opportunities to control elastogenesis in tissue ...


In Vitro Simulation Of Pathological Bone Conditions To Predict Clinical Outcome Of Bone Tissue Engineered Materials, Duong Nguyen Dec 2013

In Vitro Simulation Of Pathological Bone Conditions To Predict Clinical Outcome Of Bone Tissue Engineered Materials, Duong Nguyen

All Dissertations

According to the Centers for Disease Control, the geriatric population of ≥65 years of age will increase to 51.5 million in 2020; 40% of white women and 13% of white men will be at risk for fragility fractures or fractures sustained under normal stress and loading conditions due to bone disease, leading to hospitalization and surgical treatment. Fracture management strategies can be divided into pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant ...