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Theses/Dissertations

New Jersey Institute of Technology

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander Aug 2019

Modelling In Vitro Dissolution And Release Of Sumatriptan Succinate From Polyvinylpyrrolidone-Based Microneedles Aided By Iontophoresis, James Paul Ronnander

Dissertations

A novel dissolving microneedle array system is developed to investigate permeation of a sumatriptan succinate formulations through the skin aided by iontophoresis. Three formulations consisting of hydrophilic, positively charged drug molecules encapsulated in a water-soluble biologically suitable polymer, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), have been accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The microneedle systems are fabricated with 600 pyramid-shaped needles, each 500 µm tall, on a 0.785-cm2 circular array. In vitro transdermal studies with minipig skin and vertical Franz diffusion cells show > 68% permeation of sumatriptan over a 24-hour period. A combination of microneedle and electrical current ...


Modulation Of Corticospinal Excitability Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation Combined With Movement, Ahmad O. Alokaily Aug 2019

Modulation Of Corticospinal Excitability Induced By Paired Associative Stimulation Combined With Movement, Ahmad O. Alokaily

Dissertations

An essential feature of the brain is its capacity to undergo long-lasting morphological or functional changes in response to experiences or trauma. Advances in noninvasive brain stimulation techniques have led to increased interest in understanding neural mechanisms of neuroplasticity at the network level. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) is one of the most commonly used applications for noninvasive brain stimulation because of its clinical potential as an adjuvant rehabilitative intervention. However, the optimal method for incorporating PAS into rehabilitative activities remains unknown. This dissertation explores different approaches to combining PAS with movement and investigates the enhancement of the specificity of conventional ...


Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez Aug 2019

Developmental And Sex Modulated Neurological Alterations In Autism Spectrum Disorder, Azeezat Azeez

Dissertations

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was first described in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kranner in a case study published in The Nervous Child. It is a neurodevelopment disorder, with a range of clinical symptoms. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), used by clinicians to diagnose mental disorders, a child needs to have persistent social deficits, language impairments, and repetitive behaviors, that cannot be explained by neurological damage or intellectual disability. It is known that children diagnosed with ASD are often are developmentally delayed therefore alterations in the typical developmental trajectory should be a major factor in ...


A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran May 2019

A Multimodal Approach To Investigate Brain Reorganization After Spinal Cord Injury Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging And Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, Keerthana Deepti Karunakaran

Dissertations

Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in structural and functional neurological changes at both the brain and the level of the spinal cord. Anatomical studies indicate decreased grey matter volume in sensorimotor and non-sensorimotor regions of the cortex following SCI; whereas, neurophysiological findings mostly report altered functional activity in the sensorimotor nodes of the cortex, subcortex, and cerebellum. Therefore, it is currently unknown whether tissue atrophy observed in non-motor related areas has any concomitant functional consequences. Furthermore, the neural underpinnings of adaptive neuroplasticity after SCI is not well-defined in the current literature. Hence, this dissertation is a pioneer study investigating ...


Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki May 2019

Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional imaging modality that is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and interventional cardiology. It is highly promising for in situ characterization of tumor tissues. OCT has high spatial resolution and high imaging speed to assist clinical decision making in real-time.

OCT can be used in both structural imaging and mechanical characterization. Malignant tumor tissue alters morphology. Additionally, structural OCT imaging has limited tissue differentiation capability because of the complex and noisy nature of the OCT signal. Moreover, the contrast of structural OCT signal derived from tissue’s light scattering properties has little chemical specificity ...


Vergence Eye Movement Parameters For Pre/Post-Obvat And Sham Therapy On Binocularly Normal Controls, Joel V. Rajah May 2019

Vergence Eye Movement Parameters For Pre/Post-Obvat And Sham Therapy On Binocularly Normal Controls, Joel V. Rajah

Theses

Vergence is the disjunctive movement of the eyes to maintain single binocular vision. Vergence eye movements are necessary to maintain the object of interest on the fovea of each eye as an individual looks from one object to another. Recent studies show that office based vergence/accommodative therapy (OBVAT) is an effective treatment for the binocular dysfunction known as convergence insufficiency. This study was performed to investigate the changes in oculomotor parameters parameter data for pre- and post-therapy subjects who are binocularly normal controls. A haploscope was used to collect eye movement data pre- and post-therapy. The analysis of the ...


Interventions Of Waterjet Technology In Skin Incisions, Nadi Atalla May 2019

Interventions Of Waterjet Technology In Skin Incisions, Nadi Atalla

Dissertations

This research explores the use of waterjet (WJ) technology in performing skin incisions. The study defines the analytical relationships between the skin properties and the operating parameters of the WJ which include the skin thickness, its elastic modulus, the WJ pressure, the nozzle’s orifice diameter, its stand-off distance and the traverse speed of the WJ as well as the duration of applying the WJ pressure. An analytical model is developed to measure the depth incision of the skin, the water pressure and the water velocity, while using a WJ. Systemization and optimization models that determine the optimal operating parameters ...


Experimentally Linking Head Kinematics To Brain Deformation, Imouline Algharbi Jan 2019

Experimentally Linking Head Kinematics To Brain Deformation, Imouline Algharbi

Theses

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) research is used to study the effects of brain injuries and the rehabilitations for them. TBI contributes to major cause of disability and deaths quantifying up to 30% of all the head injuries. To mimic real world impact to understand the mechanism of injury head-surrogate models are used. This thesis describes a method to record head kinematics from acceleration and angular rate sensors of head-brain surrogate model for blast and blunt injury. This methodology is validated through experimental testing. To get a better insight of the head kinematics experienced by a real skull a drop tower ...


Longitudinal Investigation Of Disparity Vergence In Young Adult Convergence Insufficiency Patients, Patrick C. Crincoli Jan 2019

Longitudinal Investigation Of Disparity Vergence In Young Adult Convergence Insufficiency Patients, Patrick C. Crincoli

Theses

Vergence is a form of eye movement in which the eyes move in opposite directions to minimize retinal disparity. It allows an object at different distances from a viewer to appear single during binocular vision by centering the image on the fovea of each retina. Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a binocular disfunction in which blurry and double vision is a symptom. Office-based Vergence/Accommodative Therapy (OBVAT) has been shown to be effective in treating CI. A randomized clinical trial was designed to study fifty participants with CI before and after therapy using randomized therapy treatment (active and placebo), standardized clinical ...


Cardiac Regenerative Medicine: Insights From Healthy And Diseased Engineered Tissues, Pamela Grace Hitscherich Dec 2018

Cardiac Regenerative Medicine: Insights From Healthy And Diseased Engineered Tissues, Pamela Grace Hitscherich

Dissertations

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Current tissue engineering approaches have fallen short of promoting fully functional cardiovascular cells and the post-myocardial infarction microenvironment is still not well understood. These gaps in knowledge are addressed in this dissertation through the development of in vitro engineered cardiac tissues using electroactive materials to enhance the differentiation of pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes and through the development of in vitro myocardial inflammation models dedicated to understanding cardiomyocytes and macrophages interactions.

Specifically, piezoelectric poly (vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) supports the attachment and survival of mouse embryonic stem cell derived ...


Temporal And Spatial Effects Of Shock Overpressure On Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability In Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury, Matthew Joseph Kuriakose Aug 2018

Temporal And Spatial Effects Of Shock Overpressure On Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability In Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury, Matthew Joseph Kuriakose

Dissertations

Exposure to shock waves is the leading cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in military personnel and blast-induced TBI (bTBI) is considered the signature wound in recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Many researchers attempt to replicate field-relevant shock waves in laboratory settings through the use of gas-driven shock tubes in order to investigate the generation and propagation of shock waves and also explore possible mechanisms of bTBI. Among several injury mechanisms of bTBI, damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has been identified as a potential candidate and has been the focus of several clinical and experimental investigations aimed to ...


Prediction Of Forelimb Muscle Activities And Movement Phases Using Corticospinal Signals In The Rat, Sinan Gok May 2018

Prediction Of Forelimb Muscle Activities And Movement Phases Using Corticospinal Signals In The Rat, Sinan Gok

Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Submandibular Mechanical Stimulation Of Upper Airway Muscles To Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Ferhat Erdogan May 2018

Submandibular Mechanical Stimulation Of Upper Airway Muscles To Treat Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Ferhat Erdogan

Dissertations

The extrinsic tongue muscles are activated in coordination with pharyngeal muscles to keep a patent airway during respiration in wakefulness and sleep. The activity of genioglossus, the primary tongue-protruding muscle playing an important role in this coordination, is known to be modulated by several reflex pathways mediated through the mechanoreceptors of the upper airways. The main objective is to investigate the effectiveness of activating these reflex pathways with mechanical stimulations, for the long-term goal of improving the upper airway patency during disordered breathing in sleep. The genioglossus response is examined during mandibular and sub-mandibular mechanical stimulations in healthy subjects during ...


Head Impacts In The A7fl, Stephen Mcgeever May 2018

Head Impacts In The A7fl, Stephen Mcgeever

Theses

The American 7s Football League (A7FL) is a semi professional football league that does not use helmets or pads. The theory is that the game is safer without helmets and pads because players feel more vulnerable and use a different tackling technique to protect themselves. Rather than lowering and leading with their head when the players tackle, as many helmeted football players do, A7FL players primarily use their arms to wrap the opponent up. A7FL players were given Vector mouth guards designed by Athlete Intelligence to wear. These mouth guards have built in tri-axial accelerometers to record impact data, which ...


Changes In Nadph Oxidase (Nox) Protein Isoforms And Downstream Reactions As Function Of Time And Overpressure In Blast Tbi, Smit Prakash Shah Jan 2018

Changes In Nadph Oxidase (Nox) Protein Isoforms And Downstream Reactions As Function Of Time And Overpressure In Blast Tbi, Smit Prakash Shah

Theses

No abstract provided.


Carbon Fiber Electrodes For In Vivo Neural Recording, Esma Cetinkaya Dec 2017

Carbon Fiber Electrodes For In Vivo Neural Recording, Esma Cetinkaya

Theses

Multi-channel micro electrodes for neural recording is a growing field that thrives on novel materials and fabrication techniques offered by micro fabrication technology. The material and the design of microelectrodes have a critical role on the qualit


Interaction Of Voluntary Activity And Functional Electrical Stimulation In The Upper Extremity As A Method For Short-Term Alteration Of Corticospinal Excitability And Force Control, Katherine Maia Gerton Aug 2017

Interaction Of Voluntary Activity And Functional Electrical Stimulation In The Upper Extremity As A Method For Short-Term Alteration Of Corticospinal Excitability And Force Control, Katherine Maia Gerton

Theses

Repetitive movement training (RMT) is a well-established method for rehabilitating functional movement. However, many stroke survivors are not able to participate in RMT for the necessary duration to produce results due to rapid muscle fatigue or inabi


Subject And Group Level Changes And Comparison In Functional Connectivity Under Low Vs. High Cognitively Demanding Naturalistic Viewing Conditions Using Fmri, Rakibul Hafiz Aug 2017

Subject And Group Level Changes And Comparison In Functional Connectivity Under Low Vs. High Cognitively Demanding Naturalistic Viewing Conditions Using Fmri, Rakibul Hafiz

Theses

Resting State fMRI is used extensively for analysing brain regions. fMRI is also used to determine task induced activations from cerebral networks. This study involves both rest and task activation data and implements statistical methods applied on Blo


Spatial And Temporal Deformation Pattern Of The Brain From Blunt Trauma, Abdus Ali Aug 2017

Spatial And Temporal Deformation Pattern Of The Brain From Blunt Trauma, Abdus Ali

Theses

It is widely accepted that under extreme loadings the soft tissue of the brain will deform inside the skull, creating large amounts of both stress and strain on the tissue. This can result in a focal injury, or in the case of acceleration and decelerat


Experimental Study Of Bubble Rupture During Shock-Fluid Interaction, Subhalakshmi Chandrasekaran May 2017

Experimental Study Of Bubble Rupture During Shock-Fluid Interaction, Subhalakshmi Chandrasekaran

Theses

Head injuries are associated with exposure to high energy explosive detonation. There are four distinct types of blast induced neurotrauma (BINT): 1) these caused by supersonic shock waves propagating in the atmosphere (primary), 2) high velocity impac


Profiling The Neurovascular Cell Interactions In Alcohol Exposure And Hiv-1 Infection, Agnieszka Agas May 2017

Profiling The Neurovascular Cell Interactions In Alcohol Exposure And Hiv-1 Infection, Agnieszka Agas

Theses

Alcohol use is known to exacerbate the progression of human immunodeficiency virus associated acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or HIV/AIDS in the brain, known as the NeuroAIDS. The mechanisms of this accelerated progression are still poorly understoo


Measurement Of Finger Coordination During A Motor Learning Task, Robert Ebel May 2017

Measurement Of Finger Coordination During A Motor Learning Task, Robert Ebel

Theses

The focus of this study is to observe the changes in whole hand grasp strategy, in healthy subjects, over time in a series of isometric force control learning tasks. During a series of trials with real-time visual feedback of the five finger forces, su


The Use Of Audio Stimulation To Affect Sensorimotor Learning, Gregory Nicholas Ranky Jan 2017

The Use Of Audio Stimulation To Affect Sensorimotor Learning, Gregory Nicholas Ranky

Dissertations

Sensorimotor learning for the hand and fingers can be conducted using both hardware and software components, but the training regime is also important. Using repetitive sequence tapping allows measurement of defined metrics in a controlled, safe environment, and therefore statistical indications for subject improvement.

The process of entrainment, when a subject’s own movements synchronize to an external signal, has been tested in prior studies for memorization and recognition, but has not been investigated for correlation with sensorimotor learning.

This is tested with selected custom isochronic audio tones, combined with sequential finger tapping on a standard computer keyboard.

Whilst there ...


Modeling Subconcussive And Cumulative Subconcussive Impacts Using A Lateral Fluid Percusion Injury Device, Todd Long Jan 2017

Modeling Subconcussive And Cumulative Subconcussive Impacts Using A Lateral Fluid Percusion Injury Device, Todd Long

Dissertations

Repetitive mTBI and concussion are a major risk factor for developing long-term cognitive and behavioral impairments. Curiously, cumulative head injuries sustained over an individuals’ career, involving contact activities (e.g. athletes and military personnel), are beginning to be implicated in long-term consequences, such as dementia. Recently, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) has gained momentum in the science and medical community as a neurodegenerative disease of repetitive head injuries. CTE was observed at autopsy of former athletes that did not closely correlate with a clinical history of concussion. Thus, suggesting cumulative subconcussive insults may induce long-term damage.


Denoising Techniques Reveal Neural Correlates Of Modulation Masking Release In Auditory Cortex, Sahil Chaubal Dec 2016

Denoising Techniques Reveal Neural Correlates Of Modulation Masking Release In Auditory Cortex, Sahil Chaubal

Theses

Hearing aids allow hearing impaired (HI) individuals to regain auditory perception in quiet settings. However, despite advances in hearing aid technology, HI individuals do not perform as well in situations with background sound as normally hearing (NH


A Multimodal Investigation In Eye Movements, Raj Jaswal Aug 2016

A Multimodal Investigation In Eye Movements, Raj Jaswal

Dissertations

While functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has identified which regions of interest (ROIs) are functionally active during a vergence movement (inward or outward eye rotation), task-modulated coactivation between ROIs is less understood. This study tests the following hypotheses: (1) significant task-modulated coactivation would be observed between the frontal eye fields (FEFs), the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), and the cerebellar vermis (CV); (2) significantly more functional activity and task-modulated coactivation would be observed in binocularly normal controls (BNCs) compared with convergence insufficiency (CI) subjects; and (3) after vergence training, the functional activity and task-modulated coactivation would increase in CIs compared with ...


Biomimetic And Vascularized 3-D Liver Cancer Model, Derek Yip Aug 2016

Biomimetic And Vascularized 3-D Liver Cancer Model, Derek Yip

Dissertations

Anti-angiogenic drugs have failed to show significant extended mortality, except when co-administered with chemotherapy drugs in clinical trials. This should be predicted by in vitro models, and yet 2D in vitro models of liver cancer co-administered with these two types of drugs show increased cell viability, contradicting clinical trials. In vitro models should mimic clinical trials in order to accurately predict drug outcomes. 2D in vitro models fail because they lack features of the cancer environment such as presence of stromal cells and a vasculature.

In order to achieve a biomimetic and vascularized in vitro model that would better recapitulate ...


Continuum Mechanical Analysis Of Space And Time Dependent Deformation Pattern Of Brain With Blunt Injury, Chen Miao May 2016

Continuum Mechanical Analysis Of Space And Time Dependent Deformation Pattern Of Brain With Blunt Injury, Chen Miao

Theses

Deformation of human brain due to acceleration impact has been widely accepted as the direct connection to the Trauma Brain Injury (TBI). However, the limitation of obtaining deformation data of TBI is a major obstacle to understanding TBI mechanism. This experiment mainly focuses on developing a method to measure deformation pattern of brain with blunt injury. First of all, displacement data of markers on sagittal plane of an injury head model was collected using 3D reconstruction software after an impact test. Second, the displacement data was used to calculate 2D Lagrangian strain tensor and the principal strain. The temporal and ...


An Electromechanical System For Characterization Of Piezoelectric Materials, Ahmet Sait Asan May 2016

An Electromechanical System For Characterization Of Piezoelectric Materials, Ahmet Sait Asan

Theses

Piezoelectric materials have been used in medical applications for a long time due to their unique characteristics, which is to respond to mechanical stimulation by producing an electrical current and vice versa. They perform a pivotal role in medical applications both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this regard, characterizing the piezoelectric properties of these materials is crucial for their usage. In this particular study, an electromechanical system for measurement of piezoelectric output signals is designed and tested. The project is motivated by the question: can the piezoelectric properties be characterized by applying different mechanical stimulation waveforms and frequencies. Two ...


Antibacterial Efficacy Of Nanometals In Conjunction With Electrical Stimulus, Syed A. Hussain May 2016

Antibacterial Efficacy Of Nanometals In Conjunction With Electrical Stimulus, Syed A. Hussain

Theses

Hospital related infections generally result from the combined effect of preexisting bacteria on the patient and invasive devices. This demonstrates the significance in improving these medical devices to increase the quality of life of the patients that require them. This study will attempt to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of nanocopper particles and an electrical stimulus for the usage in medical device development and the hospital environment.

For devices such as catheters, infections typically result from bacteria entering the body from the outside. This is accomplished by bacteria attaching themselves to the exterior of the device and producing biofilm which allows ...