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Theses/Dissertations

Bone

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

The Role Of Obesity And Dietary Fatty Acid Content In Regulating Humeral Bone And Cartilage Homeostasis, Lauren Votava Apr 2018

The Role Of Obesity And Dietary Fatty Acid Content In Regulating Humeral Bone And Cartilage Homeostasis, Lauren Votava

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of different dietary fatty acids in the context of diet-induced obesity on bone and cartilage in the humerus. It is known that obesity increases the severity of injury-induced osteoarthritis in the knee, however it is not fully understood what pathological changes have occurred due to diet alone1. Additionally, while it is known that shoulder osteoarthritis has a link to obesity, the alterations in this joint are incompletely described.

Methods: In order to examine diet-induced changes in both bone and cartilage, this research utilized mice that had been previously ...


Osteon Mimetic Scaffolding, Janay Clytus Apr 2018

Osteon Mimetic Scaffolding, Janay Clytus

Senior Theses

The purpose of this research is to provide an alternative to naturally derived bone grafts. There is a gap in the supply of donors and the demand of bone tissue. Artificial scaffold creation can work as an implant and decrease the shortage of bone grafts and increase the range of injuries that can be repaired. Current research focuses on optimizing mechanical properties such as porosity, improving vascularization using cells, and generating osteoconductivity. For osteodifferentiation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into mesodermal lineages such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and tenocytes by supplementing cultures with lineage-specific soluble factors (Marchetti). Co-culturing ECFCs ...


Nanocellulose Fibers As A Potential Material For Orthopedic Implantation Application, David Gregg Holomakoff Aug 2017

Nanocellulose Fibers As A Potential Material For Orthopedic Implantation Application, David Gregg Holomakoff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The field of biomaterials is of immense importance and will continue to grow and develop in the coming years. Novel materials, as well as new approaches for use of existing materials, are sought after now more than ever. Current metal orthopedic implants have an over engineered stiffness and Young’s modulus, causing a phenomenon called stress shielding. Metal implants absorb the majority of force typically exerted on bone and the osteocytes within. When osteocytes fail to sense mechanical forces bones become less dense and weaken, causing possible fracture and other complications. A new orthopedic material is needed matching Young’s ...


Multi-Scale Assessment Of Bone Mechanics And The Mineral Phase Of Intramuscular Bone Of Atlantic Herring Fish, Svetlana Zeveleva Jan 2017

Multi-Scale Assessment Of Bone Mechanics And The Mineral Phase Of Intramuscular Bone Of Atlantic Herring Fish, Svetlana Zeveleva

Dissertations and Theses

Bone tissue is a complex composite structure made up of a soft organic phase consisting of collagen I and non-collagenous proteins, and a hard inorganic phase consisting of mineral nanoplatelets. Given it’s compositional properties, bone is a unique stiff, tough, and strong biomaterial, making it exceptionally difficult to synthesize ex vivo. While the complete hierarchical structure may change with age and population, the basic building block components of mineralized collagen fibrils, are preserved. This study uses a model of intramuscular bone of the Atlantic herring fish, which present a simple structure, and no process of remodeling.

A multi-scale approach ...


Densified Collagen-Fibril Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Lauren E. Watkins Apr 2016

Densified Collagen-Fibril Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering, Lauren E. Watkins

Open Access Theses

Millions of craniofacial bone defects occur annually as a result of trauma, congenital defects, disease, or tooth extraction. When present in the oral cavity, these defects are associated with adverse impacts on speech, mastication, and aesthetics. Thus, there is a clinical need for interventional strategies to restore and preserve alveolar bone mass to improve the success of future treatment options intended to reestablish functionality and aesthetics. Guided bone regeneration using bone grafts and a membrane represent the current standard of care for repairing alveolar bone defects, but face a number of limitations related to resorption time and structural integrity. Improvements ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie Jan 2016

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


A Fractal-Based Mathematical Model For Cancellous Bone Growth Considering The Hierarchical Nature Of Bone, Stephanie Marie Suhr Jan 2016

A Fractal-Based Mathematical Model For Cancellous Bone Growth Considering The Hierarchical Nature Of Bone, Stephanie Marie Suhr

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The hierarchical structure of bone alone is not comprehensive enough to provide morphological explanation of how the size and arrangement of the trabeculae within cancellous bone affect load distribution, particularly concerning deterioration of bone in elderly patients. The collagen network and hydroxyapatite play a large role in defining the shape of trabeculae in cancellous bone despite that the arrangement and size is seemingly random. The growth of plates and rods in cancellous bone is mainly due to loading and stress lines within the bone, but mathematical predictive models can be developed using fractal analysis to show how bone may grow ...


Analysis Of Citrate Content In Bone Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Matthew Konstantin Pysh Dec 2015

Analysis Of Citrate Content In Bone Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Matthew Konstantin Pysh

All Theses

Approximately 1.5 wt. % of bone is comprised of citrate molecules bound to the surface of apatite crystals. Furthermore, 80 to 90% of physiological citrate is contained within bone. Recently, interest in citrate has increased due to the potential of a citrate based method for estimation of postmortem intervals, time since death, of skeletal remains. The broad objective of this research was to develop and validate a High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of citrate in bone. An appropriate HPLC column and operating conditions for the detection of citrate were selected and subsequently used to analyze ...


A Finite Element Analysis On The Viscoelasticity Of Postmenopausal Compact Bone Utilizing A Complex Collagen D-Spacing Model, Austin C. Cummings Jun 2015

A Finite Element Analysis On The Viscoelasticity Of Postmenopausal Compact Bone Utilizing A Complex Collagen D-Spacing Model, Austin C. Cummings

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The nanoscale dimension known as D-spacing describes the staggering of collagen molecules, which are fundamental to the biphasic makeup of bone tissue. This dimension was long assumed to be constant, but recent studies have shown that the periodicity of collagen is variable. Given that the arrangement of collagen molecules is closely related to the degree of bone mineralization, recent studies have begun to look at D-spacing as a potential factor in the ongoing effort to battle postmenopausal osteoporosis. The theoretical models presented by previous studies have only opted to model a single collagen-hydroxyapatite period, so the creation of an intricate ...


A Local, Sustained Delivery System For Zoledronic Acid And Rankl-Inhibitory Antibody As A Potential Treatment For Metastatic Bone Disease, Rohith Jayaram Jan 2015

A Local, Sustained Delivery System For Zoledronic Acid And Rankl-Inhibitory Antibody As A Potential Treatment For Metastatic Bone Disease, Rohith Jayaram

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Cancerous solid tumors can migrate and lead to metastatic bone disease. Drugs prescribed to reduce bone resorption from metastasis, such as zoledronic acid and the RANKL-inhibitory antibody Denosumab, cause side effects such as osteonecrosis of the jaw when delivered systemically. This project used two biocompatible materials, acrylic bone cement (PMMA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), to incorporate and sustain release of anti-resorptive agents. Results showed similar mechanical properties for acrylic bone cements loaded up to 6.6% drug by weight. Results showed sustained zoledronic acid release for 8 weeks from both systems, with PMMA releasing up to 22% of loaded ...


Osteochondral Tissue Modeling Of Damage, Poroelastcity, And Remodeling In Osteoarthritis, Michael Eric Stender Jan 2015

Osteochondral Tissue Modeling Of Damage, Poroelastcity, And Remodeling In Osteoarthritis, Michael Eric Stender

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Arthritis is the most costly disability in the United States annually incurring billions of dollars in treatment costs and lost wages. Osteoarthritis, a classification of arthritis, affects articulating synovial joints (e.g., hip, knee, shoulder) and results in moderate to severe pain. In extreme cases, osteoarthritis causes loss of joint mobility. Presently, there is not a clear understanding of how osteoarthritis initiates, propagates, and ultimately degrades the mechanics of healthy synovial joints. This doctoral work uses computational modeling techniques and finite element analysis to elucidate the initiation and evolution of osteoarthritis with the ultimate goal of contributing to improved clinical ...


Human Hair Keratin Protein, Hair Fibers And Hydroxyapatite (Ha) Composite Scaffold For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Samuel Siyum Jan 2014

Human Hair Keratin Protein, Hair Fibers And Hydroxyapatite (Ha) Composite Scaffold For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Samuel Siyum

ETD Archive

The field of tissue engineering aims at promoting the regeneration of tissues or replacement of failing or malfunctioning tissue by means of combining a scaffold material, adequate cells and bioactive molecules. Different materials have been proposed for use as three-dimensional porous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering procedures. Among them, polymers of natural origin are one of the most attractive options mainly due to their similarities with the extracellular matrix (ECM), chemical versatility as well as typically good biological performance. In this study, two biocompatible composite scaffolds were developed from natural polymer by tissue engineering approach and tested in vitro. The ...


The Effects Of Variation In Collagen D-Spacing On Compact Bone Viscoelasticity: A Finite Element Analysis, Miguel A. Mendoza Aug 2013

The Effects Of Variation In Collagen D-Spacing On Compact Bone Viscoelasticity: A Finite Element Analysis, Miguel A. Mendoza

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The D-spacing that is characteristic of collagen and its structural arrangement was previously thought to be a constant value. Much research is revealing that it is actually a distribution of values in biological tissues. Recent ovine experimentation has also shown that the D-spacing distribution is significantly altered following estrogen depletion. While ewes contain some major biological differences between their human counterparts, they are an economical and robust large animal model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. So, the exploration of the possible implications that D-spacing has on the mechanical properties of the whole bone utilizing animal models and computational methods is warranted. Six ...


Modeling The Zimmer Fitmore And Ml Taper Implantation, Tyler Kazuo Franklin May 2013

Modeling The Zimmer Fitmore And Ml Taper Implantation, Tyler Kazuo Franklin

Master's Theses and Project Reports

With more young adults requiring total hip

arthroplasties the need for bone saving implants becomes

more important. The Zimmer Fitmore is a new bone saving

implant that utilizes an implantation technique that

reduces the damage to the muscle tissue allowing for

patients to have a short recovery time as well as a new

design that allows it to rest on the medial cortex. There

has been anecdotal evidence that this device leads to early

revision within six months of implantation due to failures

occurring in the medial cortex. The main goal of this

study was to computationally model the Zimmer ...


Bone Morphology And Mechanical Properties In Murine Models Of Chronic Kidney Disease, Andrew C. Cureton Jan 2013

Bone Morphology And Mechanical Properties In Murine Models Of Chronic Kidney Disease, Andrew C. Cureton

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to investigate the changes in the bone tissue of mice that occur as a result of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Due to the disruptions in mineral homeostasis and metabolism that result from loss of renal function, individuals with CKD are at a higher risk of bone fracture. In order to study the relationship between CKD and bone responses two surgical models of CKD are used herein: uninephrectomy (UNx) and 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx). In general, surgically induced CKD was accompanied with a decrease in bone quality as measured by &muCT morphological analysis, mechanical ...


Esem Analysis Of Mice Femurs With Varying Sost Levels, Patrick K. Mcclay Jun 2012

Esem Analysis Of Mice Femurs With Varying Sost Levels, Patrick K. Mcclay

Biomedical Engineering

This project’s goal was to analyze the properties of the cortical femur on 100 mice bones from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Analysis was limited to imaging which determined the ratio of bone volume to total volume (BV/TV) and osteocyte lacunae density. Mice were altered to knock out their SOST gene: a negative regulator of bone formation. Twelve groups were created to differentiate their treatment, duration, and phenotype. Transgenic (TG) mice had an overexpression of the SOST gene: they carried a bacterial artificial chromosome. Mice with limb defects (DEF) were the offspring of two TG mice and carried twice ...


Measuring The Strain Field Gradients On The Surface Of A Model Human Skull While Axially Loaded To Simulate Head-Loading, Matthew Graveley Jun 2012

Measuring The Strain Field Gradients On The Surface Of A Model Human Skull While Axially Loaded To Simulate Head-Loading, Matthew Graveley

Honors Theses

Head-loading is a means of transporting heavy loads accross rough, rural terrains practiced by many peoples in Third World countries. Years of practicing head-loading is said to result in increase spinal bone density and permantly grooved skulls. The most infamous people who practice head-loading are the porters of Nepal, who carry loads by means of a head sling straped across their foreheads, and South African women, who carry loads directly on their heads. To simulate and measure the instantaneous micro deformations occurring on the surface of the skull due to head-loading, a test procedure has been developed using a plastic ...


Mechanical Characterization Of An External Fixator For Use In A Mouse Model, Thomas Albano Jun 2012

Mechanical Characterization Of An External Fixator For Use In A Mouse Model, Thomas Albano

Honors Theses

Understanding the process of bone healing has become a fundamental part of medical research due to the approximately one million fractures which occur annually in the United States. The current methods of fracture fixation which use intramedullary rods, external fixators, and fracture plates are effective but not ideal. These fracture fixation methods can lead to mal-union or non-union due to improper callus formation stemming from inadequate fixation and support. When mal-union and non-union occur, the structural integrity of the bone becomes greatly sacrificed and the patient is left to deal with continual pain. Previous studies have suggested that the mechanical ...


Bone Tissue Quality Determination Of Mice Through A Novel Reference Point Indentation Technique, Matin Lendhey Jan 2011

Bone Tissue Quality Determination Of Mice Through A Novel Reference Point Indentation Technique, Matin Lendhey

Dissertations and Theses

"Bone strength deteriorates with age; which increases the susceptibility to fracture. Current clinical techniques for the estimation of bone strength are largely Bone Mineral Density (BMD) based. However, toughness, which is the ability to resist crack growth, plays a critical role in bones‟ fracture resistance. Traditionally, toughness measurements involve large samples, obviating their use clinically. Recent data suggest that a reference point indentation approach provides a novel, localized measure of toughness from whole bones. In the current research, we evaluated the sensitivity of this method to discriminate small known differences in fracture toughness that exist between inbred mouse strains with ...


Effects Of Estrogen Loss On The Vascular Porosity In Rat Cortical Bone, Jessica D Levy Jan 2011

Effects Of Estrogen Loss On The Vascular Porosity In Rat Cortical Bone, Jessica D Levy

Dissertations and Theses

"Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease that currently affects 10 million Americans, and is characterized by low bone mass and increased skeletal fragility (National Osteoporosis Foundation, 2011). Estrogen loss, which begins during menopause, is the leading cause of osteoporosis in women. Recent research has focused on changes in cortical bone microporosity due to estrogen loss, which is important for bone health; load-induced interstitial fluid flow within the lacunar-canalicular porosity surrounding osteocytes is thought to play an important role in bone maintenance, while the vascular porosity provides a pressure relaxation mechanism for the fluid flow in the lacunar-canalicular porosity. Recent high-resolution micro-CT ...


Mapping Trabecular Bone Fabric Tensor By In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Michael J. Wald Dec 2010

Mapping Trabecular Bone Fabric Tensor By In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Michael J. Wald

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The mechanical competence of bone depends upon its quantity, structural arrangement, and chemical composition. Assessment of these factors is important for the evaluation of bone integrity, particularly as the skeleton remodels according to external (e.g. mechanical loading) and internal (e.g. hormonal changes) stimuli. Micro magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) has emerged as a non-invasive and non-ionizing method well-suited for the repeated measurements necessary for monitoring changes in bone integrity. However, in vivo image-based directional dependence of trabecular bone (TB) has not been linked to mechanical competence or fracture risk despite the existence of convincing ex vivo evidence. The objective ...


The Development And Validation Of A Finite Element Model Of A Canine Rib For Use With A Bone Remodeling Algorithm., Scott J. Sylliaasen Dec 2010

The Development And Validation Of A Finite Element Model Of A Canine Rib For Use With A Bone Remodeling Algorithm., Scott J. Sylliaasen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Studies are currently being performed to determine the effects of bisphosphonate treatments on the structure and density of bone tissue. One of the pathways for gaining a better understanding of the effects of this and other treatments involves creating a computer simulation. Theory suggests that bone tissue structure and density are directly related to the manner in which the tissue is loaded. Remodeling is the process in which bone tissue is resorbed in areas of low stress distributions, and generated in areas of high stress distributions. Previous studies have utilized numerical methods and finite element methods to predict bone structure ...


A Biomechanical Model Of Femoral Forces During Functional Electrical Stimulation After Spinal Cord Injury In Supine And Seated Positions, Colleen Louise Mchenry Jul 2010

A Biomechanical Model Of Femoral Forces During Functional Electrical Stimulation After Spinal Cord Injury In Supine And Seated Positions, Colleen Louise Mchenry

Theses and Dissertations

Following a spinal cord injury (SCI), the paralyzed extremities undergo muscle atrophy and decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) due in part to the loss of physiological loading. It is crucial to prevent musculoskeletal deterioration so the population is less susceptible to fractures, and could take advantage of stem cell treatment if it becomes available. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been shown to advantageously train the paralyzed extremities. However, there is a risk of fracture during FES due to low BMD of individuals with SCI. Therefore, the forces generated during FES need to be modeled so researchers and clinicians safely ...


Nanoindentation Of Bio- And Geo-Mineralized Composites: Contribution Of Microstructure And Composition, Sara E. Campbell Apr 2010

Nanoindentation Of Bio- And Geo-Mineralized Composites: Contribution Of Microstructure And Composition, Sara E. Campbell

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Bio-mineralized composite tissues, such as bone and teeth, are heterogeneous in both mineral composition and crystallinity. These tissues are altered throughout life by aging, wear, microfracture, and various disease states (e.g., osteoporosis), and are then further altered geologically after death by fossilization to create geo-mineralized tissues. Bone and enamel exhibit a wide range of mechanical responses at nanometer-length scales, where large-scale porosity and macro-structural variation are not factors. Some variability seen in mineralized tissues can be attributed to the amount of mineral; where a general increase in mechanical properties occurs with increasing mineral volume fraction. However, a large range ...


Computer-Based Skeletal Age Assessment Using Hand/Wrist Radiographs In Children 8-18 Years Old, Zhihong Ni Jan 2010

Computer-Based Skeletal Age Assessment Using Hand/Wrist Radiographs In Children 8-18 Years Old, Zhihong Ni

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Children's skeletons mature at different rates, and they can be affected by a variety of factors including disease, hormone imbalance or genetics. The assessment of skeletal maturity is a frequently performed procedure that allows the detection of hormonal, growth or genetic disorders. Several methods have been developed to estimate skeletal maturity. Most methods evaluate hand/wrist radiographs using indicators such as the ratios of various bone widths, the onset of the ossification of epiphysis and epiphyseal-diaphyseal fusion. Among those methods, the FELS method differs from others in the application of different grades to each indicator and the provision of ...


The Development Of A Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Biphasic Osteochondral Tissue Engineered Construct, Scott Maxson Jan 2010

The Development Of A Mesenchymal Stem Cell Based Biphasic Osteochondral Tissue Engineered Construct, Scott Maxson

All Dissertations

The ability of human articular cartilage to respond to injury is poor. Once cartilage damage has occurred, an irreversible degenerative process can occur and will often lead to osteoarthritis (OA). An estimated 26.9 million of U.S. adults are affected by OA. Osteochondral grafting is currently used to treat OA and osteochondral defects; however, complications can develop at the donor site and defect area. Osteochondral tissue engineering provides a potential treatment option and alternative to osteochondral grafting. The long term goal of this work is to develop a tissue engineered mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) based osteochondral construct to repair ...


A Computational Model Of Apoptotic Osteocyte Correlation To Cortical Bone Remodeling Parameters, Michael Stephen Alexander Dec 2009

A Computational Model Of Apoptotic Osteocyte Correlation To Cortical Bone Remodeling Parameters, Michael Stephen Alexander

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The onset of osteoporosis caused by aging, disease states, and post-menopausal conditions significantly impacts patient quality of life, required healthcare funding, personal autonomy losses from increased fracture risk and the subsequent corrective surgery. Research has indicated that osteocyte apoptosis may be a key parameter in bone remodeling, raising the possibility of remodeling rate modulation for the mitigation of bone mass resorption. By developing therapies that target osteocyte apoptosis, it may be possible to prevent undesired bone remodeling activity while maintaining a healthy balance between damage formation in the form of microcracks induced by the strain environment and the removal of ...


Biomechanical Evaluation Of Locked And Non-Locked Constructs Under Axial And Torsion Loading, Vinit A. Patel Jan 2008

Biomechanical Evaluation Of Locked And Non-Locked Constructs Under Axial And Torsion Loading, Vinit A. Patel

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

Locking compression plates are proven to be safe for use in open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). The ORIF is a procedure performed to treat fractures. It has various combination of holes, the system provides more options for clinicians to use either locking screw or non-locking screws. This thesis investigates and determines the best construct with special locking and non-locking screws under both axial and torsion loading. Twenty femur constructs were assembled with 2 cm osteotomy gap between femur shaft and condyle, bridged with 4.5 mm - 10 holes condyle plates. Femurs were divided in to 4 groups according to ...


The Development Of An In Vivo Spinal Fusion Monitor Using Microelectromechanical (Mems) Technology To Create Implantable Microsensors, Lisa Anne Ferrara Jan 2008

The Development Of An In Vivo Spinal Fusion Monitor Using Microelectromechanical (Mems) Technology To Create Implantable Microsensors, Lisa Anne Ferrara

ETD Archive

Surgical fusion of the spine is a conventional approach, and often last alternative, to the correction of a degenerative painful spinal segment. The procedure involves the surgical removal of the intervertebral disc at the problematic site, and the placement of a bone graft that is commonly harvested from the patients iliac crest and placed within the discectomized space. The surrounding bone is expected to incorporate and remodel into the bone graft to eventually provide an immobilized site. Spinal instrumentation often accompanies the bone graft to provide further immobility to the targeted site, thus augmenting the fusion process. However, the status ...


Methodology For Quantifying Biomechanical Bone Movement Of Transtibial Amputations, Johanna C. Bell Jan 2006

Methodology For Quantifying Biomechanical Bone Movement Of Transtibial Amputations, Johanna C. Bell

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

A controversy has long existed about an alternate below knee amputation procedure that may be more beneficial than the traditional transtibial amputation. The proponents of this alternate procedure that stabilizes the distal tibia and fibula claim it reduces excessive movement of the fibula relative to the tibia that occurs with common movements, such as walking. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology for quantifying excessive movement of the fibula bone relative to the tibia bone in traditional below the knee amputations. The methodology will measure the movement and rotation of the fibula relative to the tibia. These ...