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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Investigation Of The Electrode Polarization Effect For Biosensor Applications, Anil Koklu Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Electrode Polarization Effect For Biosensor Applications, Anil Koklu

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

My research focuses on electrokinetic transport. Particularly, in this dissertation, we focus on fabrication and testing of micro electrodes with nanostructured surfaces to minimize the electrode polarization (EP) effects for biosensor applications. In the first study, electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on to planar gold electrodes was used to generate rough surfaces. Dendritic nanostructures that reduced EP up to two orders of magnitude was obtained by optimizing the deposition conditions. These structures also enhanced dielectrophoresis (DEP) response of our bio-chips, making them usable in physiological buffers. In further studies we discovered a universal scaling of EP in the frequency domain ...


Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo Jun 2019

Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo

Theses and Dissertations

Data plenitude is the power but also the bottleneck for data-driven approaches, including neural networks. In particular, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) require an abundant database of training images to achieve a desired high accuracy. Current techniques employed for boosting small datasets are data augmentation and synthetic data generation, which suffer from computational complexity and imprecision compared to original datasets. In this thesis, we intercalate prior knowledge based on the temporal relation between the images in the third dimension. Specifically, we compute the gradient of subsequent images in the dataset to remove extraneous information and highlight subtle variations between the images ...


Epic: Examining Patch Impedance Characteristics, Shane Buck, Jyotsna Gopinath, Kyle Markfield Jun 2019

Epic: Examining Patch Impedance Characteristics, Shane Buck, Jyotsna Gopinath, Kyle Markfield

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

In the United States, approximately one in 4 adults have at least one chronic illness, making up approximately 84% of US Healthcare Spending. Unfortunately, 50% of patients with chronic diseases do not take their medication properly and as such spend more money trying to get better – approximately $100 billion in annual preventable costs. One solution to this issue is digital medicine as it allows for the monitoring of patient medicine consumption.

Our industry partner has developed a three-part digital medicine system with the aim of allowing patients with chronic health issues to better reach their health goals through monitoring of ...


Designing A Low-Cost Ultrasound Pulser, Andrea Huey Jun 2019

Designing A Low-Cost Ultrasound Pulser, Andrea Huey

Honors Theses

Ultrasound imaging allows for those studying living beings to see inside a subject without causing it harm. This allows for real-time images to be taken, leading to ease of observational research. However, while this technology is beneficial to those who utilize it, the devices used to create and receive ultrasound pulses can be incredibly complex, allowing for precise adjustment of the output signal and various other functions, and therefore expensive. The focus of this senior project is the design of a low-cost pulser for use with an ultrasound transducer. While it does not have all the high-level functions of the ...


Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki May 2019

Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional imaging modality that is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and interventional cardiology. It is highly promising for in situ characterization of tumor tissues. OCT has high spatial resolution and high imaging speed to assist clinical decision making in real-time.

OCT can be used in both structural imaging and mechanical characterization. Malignant tumor tissue alters morphology. Additionally, structural OCT imaging has limited tissue differentiation capability because of the complex and noisy nature of the OCT signal. Moreover, the contrast of structural OCT signal derived from tissue’s light scattering properties has little chemical specificity ...


Development Of A Myoelectric Detection Circuit Platform For Computer Interface Applications, Nickolas Andrew Butler Mar 2019

Development Of A Myoelectric Detection Circuit Platform For Computer Interface Applications, Nickolas Andrew Butler

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Personal computers and portable electronics continue to rapidly advance and integrate into our lives as tools that facilitate efficient communication and interaction with the outside world. Now with a multitude of different devices available, personal computers are accessible to a wider audience than ever before. To continue to expand and reach new users, novel user interface technologies have been developed, such as touch input and gyroscopic motion, in which enhanced control fidelity can be achieved. For users with limited-to-no use of their hands, or for those who seek additional means to intuitively use and command a computer, novel sensory systems ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills Jan 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Fabrication and characterization nylon-6-MWCNT nanofiber as an electrochemical sensor to detect sodium ion concentrations specifically in sweat. Using contact angle to determine surface morphology and chronoamperometry testing to identify ideal sensor conditions, tests optimized parameters like weight percent of nylon or other polymers, carbon nanotube (CNT) isomer, and solution concentration to determine reproducibility of functional sensors. Utilizing the electric qualities of carbon nanotubes partnered with the sodium ion selectivity of calixarene treatment and polymers unique properties like flexibility and scalability create open an arena for optimizing sodium ion sensors for further development for functional prototypes. Morphology tests showed that the ...


Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop Jan 2019

Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the mechanical impedance of the human ankle and the corresponding lower extremity muscle activity. Three experimental studies were performed to measure the ankle impedance about multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), while the ankle was subjected to different loading conditions and different levels of muscle activity. The first study determined the non-loaded ankle impedance in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse anatomical planes while the ankle was suspended above the ground. The subjects actively co-contracted their agonist and antagonistic muscles to various levels, measured using electromyography (EMG). An Artificial Neural Network ...


Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro Jan 2019

Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

With the growing population of amputees, powered prostheses can be a solution to improve the quality of life for many people. Powered ankle-foot prostheses can be made to behave similar to the lost limb via controllers that emulate the mechanical impedance of the human ankle. Therefore, the understanding of human ankle dynamics is of major significance. First, this work reports the modulation of the mechanical impedance via two mechanisms: the co-contraction of the calf muscles and a change of mean ankle torque and angle. Then, the mechanical impedance of the ankle was determined, for the first time, as a multivariable ...


Overview Of Sepsis And Sepsis Biomarker Detection, Souvik Kundu Jan 2019

Overview Of Sepsis And Sepsis Biomarker Detection, Souvik Kundu

Creative Components

Sepsis being a fatal physiological state due to an imbalance in the immune system caused by infection, and one of the most common cause for millions of deaths in the non-coronary intensive care unit worldwide requires special attention in its diagnostic methods and cure. Therefore an understanding of literature related to sepsis is of utmost importance. With the advent of inter-disciplinary research, the study and diagnosis of sepsis problem are not limited to the medical field, rather it requires interventions and active participation of other fields of science and technology. However, often subject matter from interdisciplinary research is expounded in ...


Aptamer Functionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors For Odor Detection, Michael D. Aldridge Jan 2019

Aptamer Functionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors For Odor Detection, Michael D. Aldridge

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Odor detection and identification are complex processes, and tasks that currently only animals do well. There is a pressing need for an electronic nose, or eNose, with good sensitivity, selectivity, and speed that mimics that ability. Food quality control operations, environmental sensing, occupational safety, and the defense sectors all require systems that can rapidly and reliably detect trace levels of volatile organic compounds. The goal of this work is to create a biologically inspired device which can accurately detect and identify odors at concentrations consistent with the most sensitive biological systems.

In order to mimic a natural olfactory system, we ...


Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of neural prostheses to improve health of paraplegics has been a prime interest of neuroscientists over the last few decades. Scientists have performed experiments with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to enable voluntary motor function of paralyzed patients. However, the experimentation on the human spinal cord is not a trivial task. Therefore, modeling and simulation techniques play a significant role in understanding the underlying concepts and mechanics of the spinal cord stimulation. In this work, simulation and modeling techniques related to spinal cord stimulation were investigated. The initial work was intended to visualize the electric field distribution patterns in ...


Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin Nov 2018

Demonstration Of Monolithic-Silicon Carbide (Sic) Neural Devices, Evans K. Bernardin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Brain Machine Interfaces (BMI) provide a communication pathway between the electrical conducting units of the brain (neurons) and external devices. BMI technology may provide improved neurological and physiological functions to patients suffering from disabilities due to damaged nervous systems. Unfortunately, microelectrodes used in Intracortical Neural Interfaces (INI), a subset of the BMI device family, have yet to demonstrate long-term in vivo performance due to material, mechanical and electrical failures. Many state-of-the-art INI devices are constructed using stacks of multiple materials, such as silicon (Si), titanium (Ti), platinum (Pt), parylene C, and polyimide. Not only must each material tolerate the biological ...


A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman Sep 2018

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.

The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...


Microfluidic Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, John J. Foley Sep 2018

Microfluidic Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy, John J. Foley

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The goal of this study is to design and manufacture a microfluidic device capable of measuring changes in impedance valuesof microfluidic cell cultures. Tocharacterize this, an interdigitated array of electrodes was patterned over glass, where it was then bonded to a series of fluidic networks created in PDMS via soft lithography. The device measured ethanol impedance initially to show that values remain consistent over time. Impedance values of water and 1% wt. saltwater were compared to show that the device is able to detect changes in impedance, with up to a 60% reduction in electrical impedance in saltwater. Cells were ...


Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado Aug 2018

Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The BONEBRIDGE bone-conduction device is used to treat conductive and mixed hearing losses. The size of its floating mass transducer (FMT) can preclude implantation in certain anatomies, necessitating comprehensive surgical planning. Current techniques are time consuming and difficult to transfer to the operating room. The objective of this thesis was to develop software for calculating skull thickness to the dura mater to find locations for the FMT and to the first air cells which guarantee sufficient bone for the implant screws to grasp. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images were segmented and processed and custom Matlab code was written to ...


Forward Electrophysiological Modeling And Inverse Problem For Uterine Contractions During Pregnancy, Mengxue Zhang Aug 2018

Forward Electrophysiological Modeling And Inverse Problem For Uterine Contractions During Pregnancy, Mengxue Zhang

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Uterine contractile dysfunction during pregnancy is a significant healthcare challenge that imposes heavy medical and financial burdens on both human beings and society. In the U.S., about 12% of babies are born prematurely each year, which is a leading cause of neonatal mortality and increases the possibility of having subsequent health problems. Post-term birth, in which a baby is born after 42 weeks of gestation, can cause risks for both the newborn and the mother. Currently, there is a limited understanding of how the uterus transitions from quiescence to excitation, which hampers our ability to detect labor and treat ...


Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts: Recellularisation And Surface Functionalisation With Hybrid Magnetic Nanomedicine Developed With Theranostic Potential, Tatiane Eufrásio Da Silva Jul 2018

Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts: Recellularisation And Surface Functionalisation With Hybrid Magnetic Nanomedicine Developed With Theranostic Potential, Tatiane Eufrásio Da Silva

PhD theses

Cardiovascular Disease is the number one cause of death in the world, with a mortality rate, globally of 35.1% representing 17.6 million lives lost annually. The majority of these deaths are related to vascular diseases, such as atherosclerotic plaques, which can obstruct blood flow perfusion of organs and tissue causing serious injuries or even death. In the heart, in order to prevent heart failure, blood flow to the tissue must be restored as quickly as possible, ideally via minimally invasive interventions such as stenting or other types of angioplasty as the gold standard. However, this is not always ...


Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi Jul 2018

Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...


A Study Of Scalability And Cost-Effectiveness Of Large-Scale Scientific Applications Over Heterogeneous Computing Environment, Arghya K. Das Jun 2018

A Study Of Scalability And Cost-Effectiveness Of Large-Scale Scientific Applications Over Heterogeneous Computing Environment, Arghya K. Das

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advances in large-scale experimental facilities ushered in an era of data-driven science. These large-scale data increase the opportunity to answer many fundamental questions in basic science. However, these data pose new challenges to the scientific community in terms of their optimal processing and transfer. Consequently, scientists are in dire need of robust high performance computing (HPC) solutions that can scale with terabytes of data.

In this thesis, I address the challenges in three major aspects of scientific big data processing as follows: 1) Developing scalable software and algorithms for data- and compute-intensive scientific applications. 2) Proposing new cluster architectures ...


New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney Jun 2018

New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most accurate imaging techniques that can be used to detect several diseases, where other imaging methodologies fail. MRI data takes a longer time to capture. This is a pain taking process for the patients to remain still while the data is being captured. This is also hard for the doctor as well because if the images are not captured correctly then it will lead to wrong diagnoses of illness that might put the patients lives in danger. Since long scanning time is one of most serious drawback of the MRI modality, reducing ...


The Human Keyboard, Derek Char, Thomas Chung, Alexander Mckee, Allen Pai Jun 2018

The Human Keyboard, Derek Char, Thomas Chung, Alexander Mckee, Allen Pai

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Most products that implement features for user interactions utilize buttons or switches for the user to command to select actions to perform. Such designs are typically controlled with direct motions, such as touch or voice and are seldom designed in consideration of those unable to utilize direct control. In this project, we designed technology that reads naturally occuring biosignals from the body, which then can be apply those signals with any interface. For our specific application in this project, we decided to implement a keyboard. Instead of teaching the fingers how to type on a mechanical keyboard, the body can ...


Extended-Use Ecg Monitor, Daniel Aaron Soski Jun 2018

Extended-Use Ecg Monitor, Daniel Aaron Soski

Master's Theses and Project Reports

In this thesis, a prototype ECG monitor was developed that is integrated into an elastic shirt and takes a 3-lead ECG for over 5 days. The high-quality measurements can be used to identify markers indicative of various detrimental heart conditions. Measurements recorded by the device are encrypted and stored onto a micro-SD card. Current Holter monitors are expensive and have functional lives less than 48 hours; however, extended duration monitoring has been proven more useful in diagnosis. The device designed demonstrates that ECG measurements can be taken over longer durations without sacrificing quality, comfort, or device cost.


Computational Theories For Human Stereo Vision, Han Gao May 2018

Computational Theories For Human Stereo Vision, Han Gao

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Binocular stereopsis refers to the ability to perceive depth, which has always been a central problem in perception since the time of da Vinci. The foremost theoretical difficulty that arises when attempting to understand how the visual system computes disparity is known as the correspondence or matching problem. Decades of research upon macaque primary visual cortex has shown that in each layer of the primary visual cortex (V1) long-range horizontal connections among striate cortex cells exist which integrate information from different parts of the visual field. Inspired by long-range horizontal connections in V1 and the Jeffress model, a time-delay neural ...


Functional Electrical Stimulation Of Peripheral Nerve Tissue Via Regenerative Sieve Microelectrodes, Matthew Reagan Macewan May 2018

Functional Electrical Stimulation Of Peripheral Nerve Tissue Via Regenerative Sieve Microelectrodes, Matthew Reagan Macewan

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) of peripheral nervous tissue offers a promising method for restoring motor function in patients suffering from complex neurological injuries. However, existing microelectrodes designed to stimulate peripheral nerve are unable to provide the type of stable, selective interface required to achieve near-physiologic control of peripheral motor axons and distal musculature. Regenerative sieve electrodes offer a unique alternative to such devices, achieving a highly stable, selective electrical interface with independent groups of regenerated nerve fibers integrated into the electrode. Yet, the capability of sieve electrodes to functionally recruit regenerated motor axons for the purpose of muscle activation remains ...


Design & Delivery Of Automated Winston-Lutz Test For Isocentric & Off-Axis Delivery Stability Utilizing Truebeam Developer Mode & Electronic Portal Imaging Device, Mahmoud Mohammad Yaqoub May 2018

Design & Delivery Of Automated Winston-Lutz Test For Isocentric & Off-Axis Delivery Stability Utilizing Truebeam Developer Mode & Electronic Portal Imaging Device, Mahmoud Mohammad Yaqoub

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The uncertainties in treatment delivery cannot be ignored in radiation therapy. Thus, the quality assurance QA tests are very important task of the medical physicist in clinical practice. Assuring the coincidence between the mechanical isocenter of the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) and its radiation beams isocenter is one of the most important qualities need to be tested, and the Winston Lust (WL) test is the

most popular technique to perform this task, especially for the treatment modalities which need high precision in beam delivery such as the stereotactic radiosurgery/stereotactic body radiotherapy (SRS/SBRT). The linear accelerator-based SRS/SBRT is a ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard May 2018

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Integration And Cross-Coupling Of A Notched-Turbine Symbiotic Power Source For Implantable Medical Devices, Samuel Perez Apr 2018

Integration And Cross-Coupling Of A Notched-Turbine Symbiotic Power Source For Implantable Medical Devices, Samuel Perez

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to design and integrate a symbiotic notched-turbine energy generator for implantation as a cross-coupled system capable of continuously and perpetually powering an electronic implantable medical device (IMD), which is a device designed to operate inside the body of a higher mammal to enhance, correct or provide the body with a function that has deviated from the norm or has stopped altogether. The list of IMDs available for implantation keeps growing every year, one of the newest being the VBLOC, produced by EnteroMedics®, and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on January 15th ...


Non-Invasive Picosecond Pulse System For Electrostimulation, Ross Aaron Petrella Apr 2018

Non-Invasive Picosecond Pulse System For Electrostimulation, Ross Aaron Petrella

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Picosecond pulsed electric fields have been shown to have stimulatory effects, such as calcium influx, activation of action potential, and membrane depolarization, on biological cells. Because the pulse duration is so short, it has been hypothesized that the pulses permeate a cell and can directly affect intracellular cell structures by bypassing the shielding of the membrane. This provides an opportunity for studying new biophysics. Furthermore, radiating picosecond pulses can be efficiently done by a compact antenna because the antenna size is comparable to the pulse width. However, all of the previous bioelectric studies regarding picosecond pulses have been conducted in ...


3d Bioprinting Systems For The Study Of Mammary Development And Tumorigenesis, John Reid Apr 2018

3d Bioprinting Systems For The Study Of Mammary Development And Tumorigenesis, John Reid

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Understanding the microenvironmental factors that control cell function, differentiation, and stem cell renewal represent the forefront of developmental and cancer biology. To accurately recreate and model these dynamic interactions in vitro requires both precision-controlled deposition of multiple cell types and well-defined three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM). To achieve this goal, we hypothesized that accessible bioprinting technology would eliminate the experimental inconsistency and random cell-organoid formation associated with manual cell-matrix embedding techniques commonly used for 3D, in vitro cell cultures. The first objective of this study was to adapt a commercially-available, 3D printer into a 3D bioprinter. Goal-based computer simulations were ...