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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Model-Based Approach For Diffuse Glioma Classification, Grading, And Patient Survival Prediction, Zeina A. Shboul Aug 2020

Model-Based Approach For Diffuse Glioma Classification, Grading, And Patient Survival Prediction, Zeina A. Shboul

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

The work in this dissertation proposes model-based approaches for molecular mutations classification of gliomas, grading based on radiomics features and genomics, and prediction of diffuse gliomas clinical outcome in overall patient survival. Diffuse gliomas are types of Central Nervous System (CNS) brain tumors that account for 25.5% of primary brain and CNS tumors and originate from the supportive glial cells. In the 2016 World Health Organization’s (WHO) criteria for CNS brain tumor, a major reclassification of the diffuse gliomas is presented based on gliomas molecular mutations and the growth behavior. Currently, the status of molecular mutations is determined ...


Cancer Biomarker Detection In Human Plasma By Integrating Surface Acoustic Wave And Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Yuqi Huang Jun 2020

Cancer Biomarker Detection In Human Plasma By Integrating Surface Acoustic Wave And Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence, Yuqi Huang

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This thesis includes data and discussion about the technique of metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) to lower the detection limit of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The detection limit goes down to 100pg/mL level when using MEF substrate made by rapid thermally annealed silver film covered by silica, which has great promise in diagnosing certain types of cancer that uses CEA as detection biomarker, such as pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. To further address the issue of background noises from non-specifically bound proteins (NSB) in complex media, such as plasma, serum, urine and blood, MEF is integrated with surface acoustic wave (SAW) streaming ...


Scanless Optical Coherence Tomography For High-Speed 3d Biomedical Microscopy, Yahui Wang May 2020

Scanless Optical Coherence Tomography For High-Speed 3d Biomedical Microscopy, Yahui Wang

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution cross-sectional imaging modality that has found applications in a wide range of biomedical fields, such as ophthalmology diagnosis, interventional cardiology, surgical guidance, and oncology. OCT can be used to image dynamic scenes, in quantitative blood flow sensing and visualization, dynamic optical coherence elastography, and large-scale neural recording. However, the spatiotemporal resolution of OCT for dynamic imaging is limited by the approach it takes to scan the three-dimensional (3-D) space. In a typical OCT system, the incident light is focused to a point at the sample. The OCT system uses mechanical scanners (galvanometers or ...


Identification Of Neurobiological Mechanisms Associated With Attention Deficits In Adults Post Traumatic Brain Injury, Ziyan Wu May 2020

Identification Of Neurobiological Mechanisms Associated With Attention Deficits In Adults Post Traumatic Brain Injury, Ziyan Wu

Dissertations

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is one of the major public health concerns with approximately 70 million new cases occurring worldwide per year. It is often caused by a forceful bump, blow, or jolt to the head, resulting in brain tissue damage and normal brain functions disruption. All grades of TBI, ranging from mild to severe, can cause wide-ranging and long-term effects on affected individuals, resulting in physical impairments, and neurocognitive consequences that permanently affect their abilities to perform daily activities. Attention deficits are the most common persisting neurocognitive consequences following TBI, which significantly contribute to poor academic and social functioning ...


Control And Locomotion Of Inertially And Magnetically Actuated Multi-Scale Robotic Systems, Ehab Al Khatib May 2020

Control And Locomotion Of Inertially And Magnetically Actuated Multi-Scale Robotic Systems, Ehab Al Khatib

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

In this research, two actuation systems were introduced, inertial and magnetic actuation. In the inertial actuation, the robot used the transfer of momentum to navigate, and this momentum could be generated by spinning masses and wheels. Recent studies in our System Laboratory proved that a wide range of inertially actuated locomotion systems could be generated. This can be achieved by using a family tree approach, starting from a very simple system, and progressively evolving it to more complex ones. The motion diversity of these robots inspired us to extend their locomotion from a macro scale to millimeter and micro scales ...


Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina May 2020

Heel Down And Toe-Off Time Measured With Ultrasonic Doppler System And Force Plate Sensor, Sabin Timsina

Honors Theses

Collie Box is a medical device that measures the gait parameters of the person walk- ing in front of it. This device uses the Ultrasonic Doppler system to extract the heel-contact and toe-off times of a person walking within the range of 2-10 meters. These times are used to determine the leg’s swing phase and double stance times. The ultrasonic transducer of 10mm diameter is driven at 40kHz. At the time of the heel-contact and toe-off, foot velocity is zero while the torso part of the human body is still in motion. The wide directivity of 10mm diameter ultrasonic ...


Ece Senior Design Project - Cost-Effective Diy Electrometer, Benjamin Hahn Apr 2020

Ece Senior Design Project - Cost-Effective Diy Electrometer, Benjamin Hahn

Honors Theses

An electrometer is a critical electrophysiology instrument used to generate minuscule currents for intracellular stimulation of biological neurons. An electrometer also enables simultaneous measurement of the neuron membrane voltage response. This device is necessary to perform accurate stimulation of neurons. However, the cost of commercial electrometers, around $5000, is prohibitive to many researchers, particularly at the high-school or introductory college level. A recent Western Michigan University graduate student, Lucas Essenburg, designed a basic electrometer for $210. His thesis proved that quality electrometers can be constructed for a fraction of the price of commercial-grade equipment.

This project focused on the improvement ...


Developing A Skin Phantom For The Testing Of Biowearables, Tawni Henderson, Ju Young Lee, Matthew Placide, Kiran Sutaria Apr 2020

Developing A Skin Phantom For The Testing Of Biowearables, Tawni Henderson, Ju Young Lee, Matthew Placide, Kiran Sutaria

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

There is a demonstrated need in the biowearables industry for a benchtop model that can accurately emulate the perspiration mechanism and corresponding impedance vs. frequency spectra of skin. This model, or skin phantom, could increase the efficiency and accuracy of early-stage testing of biowearables, as well as minimize animal, human, and cadaver testing.

The objective of this project is to develop a skin phantom that can emulate the perspiration mechanism and impedance spectrum behavior of human skin for the testing of biowearables in the 2,000 - 20,000 Hz range. We also endeavored to create computer-simulated models to aid in ...


Electrochemical Detection Of Reactive Oxygen Species Via A Platinum Microelectrode Array, Victor M. Carriere Jr. Jan 2020

Electrochemical Detection Of Reactive Oxygen Species Via A Platinum Microelectrode Array, Victor M. Carriere Jr.

Master's Theses

Oxidative stress, an excess of endogenous or exogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the body, is closely aligned with inflammatory responses. ROS such as hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, and radical hydroxyl ion serve essential functions in fighting infection, but chronic elevation of these species irreversibly damages cellular components. Given the central role of inflammation in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer’s Disease, atherosclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, a low-cost, extracellular, non-invasive assay of ROS is needed.

This work reports the use of a platinum microelectrode array (Pt MEA)-based ceramic probe to detect time- and concentration-dependent variations in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ...


A Wearable Mechatronic Device For Hand Tremor Monitoring And Suppression: Development And Evaluation, Yue Zhou Dec 2019

A Wearable Mechatronic Device For Hand Tremor Monitoring And Suppression: Development And Evaluation, Yue Zhou

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tremor, one of the most disabling symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), significantly affects the quality of life of the individuals who suffer from it. These people live with difficulties with fine motor tasks, such as eating and writing, and suffer from social embarrassment. Traditional medicines are often ineffective, and surgery is highly invasive and risky. The emergence of wearable technology facilitates an externally worn mechatronic tremor suppression device as a potential alternative approach for tremor management. However, no device has been developed for the suppression of finger tremor that has been validated on a human.

It has been reported ...


Blood Glucose Predictor, Jessica Patterson Dec 2019

Blood Glucose Predictor, Jessica Patterson

Electrical Engineering

For my senior project, I perform data analysis using statistical methods to determine body metrics that correlate with blood glucose levels. Working with Dr. Tina Smilkstein, I take repeat measurements from 6 different volunteers to establish trends in bodily metric data. The data taken includes weight, body fat, pulse rate, VO2, blood glucose, blood pressure, hours slept, and quality of sleep. Using these values, I use the program MiniTab to view results.

A few examples of correlations with blood glucose found in this project are:

  • Systolic blood pressure for females had a regression line of 124.0 -0.3366*Blood ...


A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari Sep 2019

A Heterogeneous Patient-Specific Biomechanical Model Of The Lung For Tumor Motion Compensation And Effective Lung Radiation Therapy Planning, Parya Jafari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Radiation therapy is a main component of treatment for many lung cancer patients. However, the respiratory motion can cause inaccuracies in radiation delivery that can lead to treatment complications. In addition, the radiation-induced damage to healthy tissue limits the effectiveness of radiation treatment. Motion management methods have been developed to increase the accuracy of radiation delivery, and functional avoidance treatment planning has emerged to help reduce the chances of radiation-induced toxicity. In this work, we have developed biomechanical model-based techniques for tumor motion estimation, as well as lung functional imaging. The proposed biomechanical model accurately estimates lung and tumor motion ...


Investigation Of The Electrode Polarization Effect For Biosensor Applications, Anil Koklu Aug 2019

Investigation Of The Electrode Polarization Effect For Biosensor Applications, Anil Koklu

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

My research focuses on electrokinetic transport. Particularly, in this dissertation, we focus on fabrication and testing of micro electrodes with nanostructured surfaces to minimize the electrode polarization (EP) effects for biosensor applications. In the first study, electrochemical deposition of gold nanoparticles on to planar gold electrodes was used to generate rough surfaces. Dendritic nanostructures that reduced EP up to two orders of magnitude was obtained by optimizing the deposition conditions. These structures also enhanced dielectrophoresis (DEP) response of our bio-chips, making them usable in physiological buffers. In further studies we discovered a universal scaling of EP in the frequency domain ...


Large Scale Electronic Health Record Data And Echocardiography Video Analysis For Mortality Risk Prediction, Alvaro Emilio Ulloa Cerna Jul 2019

Large Scale Electronic Health Record Data And Echocardiography Video Analysis For Mortality Risk Prediction, Alvaro Emilio Ulloa Cerna

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Electronic health records contain the clinical history of patients. The enormous potential for discovery in such a rich dataset is hampered by their complexity. We hypothesize that machine learning models trained on EHR data can predict future clinical events significantly better than current models. We analyze an EHR database of 594,862 Echocardiography studies from 272,280 unique patients with both unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques.

In the unsupervised approach, we first develop a simulation framework to evaluate a family of different clustering pipelines. We apply the optimized approach to 41,645 patients with heart failure without providing any ...


Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo Jun 2019

Inverted Cone Convolutional Neural Network For Deboning Mris, Oliver John Palumbo

Theses and Dissertations

Data plenitude is the power but also the bottleneck for data-driven approaches, including neural networks. In particular, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) require an abundant database of training images to achieve a desired high accuracy. Current techniques employed for boosting small datasets are data augmentation and synthetic data generation, which suffer from computational complexity and imprecision compared to original datasets. In this thesis, we intercalate prior knowledge based on the temporal relation between the images in the third dimension. Specifically, we compute the gradient of subsequent images in the dataset to remove extraneous information and highlight subtle variations between the images ...


Neurostimulator With Waveforms Inspired By Nature For Wearable Electro-Acupuncture, Jose Aquiles Parodi Amaya Jun 2019

Neurostimulator With Waveforms Inspired By Nature For Wearable Electro-Acupuncture, Jose Aquiles Parodi Amaya

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The work presented here has 3 goals: establish the need for novel neurostimulation waveform solutions through a literature review, develop a neurostimulation pulse generator, and verify the operation of the device for neurostimulation applications.

The literature review discusses the importance of stimulation waveforms on the outcomes of neurostimulation, and proposes new directions for neurostimulation research that would help in improving the reproducibility and comparability between studies.

The pulse generator circuit is then described that generates signals inspired by the shape of excitatory or inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (EPSP, IPSP). The circuit analytical equations are presented, and the effects of the circuit ...


Epic: Examining Patch Impedance Characteristics, Shane Buck, Jyotsna Gopinath, Kyle Markfield Jun 2019

Epic: Examining Patch Impedance Characteristics, Shane Buck, Jyotsna Gopinath, Kyle Markfield

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

In the United States, approximately one in 4 adults have at least one chronic illness, making up approximately 84% of US Healthcare Spending. Unfortunately, 50% of patients with chronic diseases do not take their medication properly and as such spend more money trying to get better – approximately $100 billion in annual preventable costs. One solution to this issue is digital medicine as it allows for the monitoring of patient medicine consumption.

Our industry partner has developed a three-part digital medicine system with the aim of allowing patients with chronic health issues to better reach their health goals through monitoring of ...


Designing A Low-Cost Ultrasound Pulser, Andrea Huey Jun 2019

Designing A Low-Cost Ultrasound Pulser, Andrea Huey

Honors Theses

Ultrasound imaging allows for those studying living beings to see inside a subject without causing it harm. This allows for real-time images to be taken, leading to ease of observational research. However, while this technology is beneficial to those who utilize it, the devices used to create and receive ultrasound pulses can be incredibly complex, allowing for precise adjustment of the output signal and various other functions, and therefore expensive. The focus of this senior project is the design of a low-cost pulser for use with an ultrasound transducer. While it does not have all the high-level functions of the ...


Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki May 2019

Dual Modality Optical Coherence Tomography : Technology Development And Biomedical Applications, Farzana Rahmat Zaki

Dissertations

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a cross-sectional imaging modality that is widely used in clinical ophthalmology and interventional cardiology. It is highly promising for in situ characterization of tumor tissues. OCT has high spatial resolution and high imaging speed to assist clinical decision making in real-time.

OCT can be used in both structural imaging and mechanical characterization. Malignant tumor tissue alters morphology. Additionally, structural OCT imaging has limited tissue differentiation capability because of the complex and noisy nature of the OCT signal. Moreover, the contrast of structural OCT signal derived from tissue’s light scattering properties has little chemical specificity ...


Developing An Optomechanical Approach For Characterizing Mechanical Properties Of Single Adherent Cells, Ali Mehrnezhad May 2019

Developing An Optomechanical Approach For Characterizing Mechanical Properties Of Single Adherent Cells, Ali Mehrnezhad

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Mechanical properties of a cell reflect its biological and pathological conditions including cellular disorders and fundamental cellular processes such as cell division and differentiation. There have been active research efforts to develop high-throughput platforms to mechanically characterize single cells. Yet, many of these research efforts are focused on suspended cells and use a flow-through configuration. Therefore, adherent cells are detached prior to the characterization, which seriously perturbs the cellular conditions. Also, methods for adherent cells are limited in their throughput.

My study is aimed to fill the technical gap in the field of single cell analysis, which is a high-throughput ...


The Affective Perceptual Model: Enhancing Communication Quality For Persons With Pimd, Jadin Tredup May 2019

The Affective Perceptual Model: Enhancing Communication Quality For Persons With Pimd, Jadin Tredup

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Methods for prolonged compassionate care for persons with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) require a rotating cast of import people in the subjects life in order to facilitate interaction with the external environment. As subjects continue to age, dependency on these people increases with complexity of communications while the quality of communication decreases. It is theorized that a machine learning (ML) system could replicate the attuning process and replace these people to promote independence. This thesis extends this idea to develop a conceptual and formal model and system prototype.

The main contributions of this thesis are: (1) proposal of ...


The Effects Of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 On The Viability And Proliferation Of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Isolates, Joseph Cinelli May 2019

The Effects Of Bone Morphogenic Protein 2 On The Viability And Proliferation Of Dental Pulp Stem Cell Isolates, Joseph Cinelli

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Growth factor is an umbrella term used to describe a signaling molecule present in organisms that serves the purpose of influencing a stimulatory or inhibitory response from the target cell it acts on. Growth factors are categorized and classified by the types of tissues they act on and the cellular responses they illicit. For example, there are growth factors that act primarily in connective tissue on fibroblasts and they are aptly classified as the fibroblast growth factor family. Similarly, there is another family of growth factors that act on bone forming cells, among others, and they are known as bone ...


Development And Assessment Of Signal Processing Algorithms For Assistive Hearing Devices, Farid Moshgelani Apr 2019

Development And Assessment Of Signal Processing Algorithms For Assistive Hearing Devices, Farid Moshgelani

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Speech identification in the presence of background noise is difficult for children with auditory processing disorder and adults with sensorineural hearing loss. The listening difficulty arises from deficits in their temporal, spectral, binaural, and/ or cognitive processing. Given the lack of improvement with conventional assistive hearing devices, alternate speech processing methodologies, which exaggerate the temporal and spectral cues, need to be developed to improve speech intelligibility for individuals who have poor temporal and/ or spectral processing.

This thesis first, reports results from a series of experiments on subjective and objective assessments of two different schemes of envelope enhancement algorithms (dynamic ...


Vision Beyond Optics: Standardization, Evaluation And Innovation For Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences, Maximiliaan Huisman Apr 2019

Vision Beyond Optics: Standardization, Evaluation And Innovation For Fluorescence Microscopy In Life Sciences, Maximiliaan Huisman

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Fluorescence microscopy is an essential tool in biomedical sciences that allows specific molecules to be visualized in the complex and crowded environment of cells. The continuous introduction of new imaging techniques makes microscopes more powerful and versatile, but there is more than meets the eye. In addition to develop- ing new methods, we can work towards getting the most out of existing data and technologies. By harnessing unused potential, this work aims to increase the richness, reliability, and power of fluorescence microscopy data in three key ways: through standardization, evaluation and innovation.

A universal standard makes it easier to assess ...


Design And Development Of A Wireless Eeg System Integrated Into A Football Helmet, Akshay V. Dunakhe Mar 2019

Design And Development Of A Wireless Eeg System Integrated Into A Football Helmet, Akshay V. Dunakhe

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the United States, approximately 2.8 million Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBI) occur annually. Out of these 2.8 million occurrences, 280,000 injuries are caused by sports and recreational activities. The actual number can be significantly higher since mild TBI are often unrecorded. These injuries not only cause physical damage to players, but they are also one of the leading causes of a player’s retirement from a sports career. While working with TBIs, it is vital to detect the concussion at its first occurrence, termed as a “primary concussion.” If the primary concussion goes undetected, the player may ...


Development Of A Myoelectric Detection Circuit Platform For Computer Interface Applications, Nickolas Andrew Butler Mar 2019

Development Of A Myoelectric Detection Circuit Platform For Computer Interface Applications, Nickolas Andrew Butler

Master's Theses

Personal computers and portable electronics continue to rapidly advance and integrate into our lives as tools that facilitate efficient communication and interaction with the outside world. Now with a multitude of different devices available, personal computers are accessible to a wider audience than ever before. To continue to expand and reach new users, novel user interface technologies have been developed, such as touch input and gyroscopic motion, in which enhanced control fidelity can be achieved. For users with limited-to-no use of their hands, or for those who seek additional means to intuitively use and command a computer, novel sensory systems ...


Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop Jan 2019

Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the mechanical impedance of the human ankle and the corresponding lower extremity muscle activity. Three experimental studies were performed to measure the ankle impedance about multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), while the ankle was subjected to different loading conditions and different levels of muscle activity. The first study determined the non-loaded ankle impedance in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse anatomical planes while the ankle was suspended above the ground. The subjects actively co-contracted their agonist and antagonistic muscles to various levels, measured using electromyography (EMG). An Artificial Neural Network ...


Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro Jan 2019

Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

With the growing population of amputees, powered prostheses can be a solution to improve the quality of life for many people. Powered ankle-foot prostheses can be made to behave similar to the lost limb via controllers that emulate the mechanical impedance of the human ankle. Therefore, the understanding of human ankle dynamics is of major significance. First, this work reports the modulation of the mechanical impedance via two mechanisms: the co-contraction of the calf muscles and a change of mean ankle torque and angle. Then, the mechanical impedance of the ankle was determined, for the first time, as a multivariable ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills Jan 2019

Fabrication And Characterization Of Nanofiber Nylon-6-Mwcnt As An Electrochemical Sensor For Sodium Ions Concentration Detection In Sweat, Kelsey Mills

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Fabrication and characterization nylon-6-MWCNT nanofiber as an electrochemical sensor to detect sodium ion concentrations specifically in sweat. Using contact angle to determine surface morphology and chronoamperometry testing to identify ideal sensor conditions, tests optimized parameters like weight percent of nylon or other polymers, carbon nanotube (CNT) isomer, and solution concentration to determine reproducibility of functional sensors. Utilizing the electric qualities of carbon nanotubes partnered with the sodium ion selectivity of calixarene treatment and polymers unique properties like flexibility and scalability create open an arena for optimizing sodium ion sensors for further development for functional prototypes. Morphology tests showed that the ...


Overview Of Sepsis And Sepsis Biomarker Detection, Souvik Kundu Jan 2019

Overview Of Sepsis And Sepsis Biomarker Detection, Souvik Kundu

Creative Components

Sepsis being a fatal physiological state due to an imbalance in the immune system caused by infection, and one of the most common cause for millions of deaths in the non-coronary intensive care unit worldwide requires special attention in its diagnostic methods and cure. Therefore an understanding of literature related to sepsis is of utmost importance. With the advent of inter-disciplinary research, the study and diagnosis of sepsis problem are not limited to the medical field, rather it requires interventions and active participation of other fields of science and technology. However, often subject matter from interdisciplinary research is expounded in ...