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Old Dominion University

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Computational Analysis And Design Optimization Of Convective Pcr Devices, Jung Il Shu Jul 2019

Computational Analysis And Design Optimization Of Convective Pcr Devices, Jung Il Shu

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a relatively novel technique to amplify a few copies of DNA to a detectable level. PCR has already become common in biomedical research, criminal forensics, molecular archaeology, and so on. Many have attempted to develop PCR devices in numerous types for the purpose of the lab-on-chip (LOC) or point-of-care (POC). To use PCR devices for POC lab testing, the price must be lower, and the performance should be comparable to the lab devices. For current practices with the existing methods, the price is pushed up higher partially due to too much dependence on numerous developmental ...


Estimating Cognitive Workload In An Interactive Virtual Reality Environment Using Electrophysiological And Kinematic Activity, Christoph Tremmel Apr 2019

Estimating Cognitive Workload In An Interactive Virtual Reality Environment Using Electrophysiological And Kinematic Activity, Christoph Tremmel

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

As virtual reality (VR) technology continues to gain prominence in commercial, educational, recreational and research applications, there is increasing interest in incorporating physiological sensors in VR devices for passive user-state monitoring to eventually increase the sense of immersion. By recording physiological signals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyography (EMG) or kinematic parameters during the use of a VR device, the user’s interactions in the virtual environment could be adapted in real time based on the user’s cognitive state. This dissertation evaluates the feasibility of passively monitoring cognitive workload via electrophysiological and kinematic activity while performing a classical n-back ...


A Stepwise Compression-Relaxation Testing Method For Tissue Characterization And Tumor Detection Via A Two-Dimensional Tactile Sensor, Yichao Yang Jul 2018

A Stepwise Compression-Relaxation Testing Method For Tissue Characterization And Tumor Detection Via A Two-Dimensional Tactile Sensor, Yichao Yang

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation presents a stepwise compression-relaxation (SCR) testing method built upon a two-dimensional (2D) tactile sensor for mechanical characterization of soft tissues and tumor detection. The core of the 2D sensor entails one whole polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure embedded with a 3×3 sensing-plate/transducer array. A soft sample was compressed by the 2D sensor with a step incremental depth at a ramp speed, and then relaxed for certain hold time. When a soft sample was compressed by the 2D sensor, the sensing-plates translated the sample response at different tissue sites to the sensor deflections, which were registered as resistance changes ...


Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi Jul 2018

Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...


Epithelial Sheet Response To External Stimuli, Yashar Bashirzadeh Jul 2018

Epithelial Sheet Response To External Stimuli, Yashar Bashirzadeh

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Mechanical communication of adherent cells with their micro-environment is mediated by cytoskeletal and adhesion proteins. These mechanical links aid tissues in maintaining their coherence in the context of the surrounding extra cellular matrix (ECM). Epithelial tissues exert force on the ECM through integrin-based junctions and maintain their coherency through E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions while dynamically undergoing collective migration. Such a complex network of communication involving the cell cytoskeleton and adhesion proteins modulates the tissue's response to external cues. Two distinct forms of such external stimuli are those of electrical and mechanical origin.

Epithelial tissues quickly respond to physiologically relevant electric ...


Understanding The Mechanical Behavior Of Costal Cartilage At Their Curved Exterior Surface Via A Tactile Sensor With A Built-In Probe For Distributed-Deflection Detection, Jiayue Shen Apr 2018

Understanding The Mechanical Behavior Of Costal Cartilage At Their Curved Exterior Surface Via A Tactile Sensor With A Built-In Probe For Distributed-Deflection Detection, Jiayue Shen

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This dissertation is aimed to determine the mechanical properties at the exterior surface of costal cartilages (CC) and examine how they vary with the cartilage length and the anatomical sites of CC in the ribcage via conformal indentation testing which is built upon a tactile sensor for distributed-deflection detection. The sensor entails a rectangular Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microstructure sensing-plate integrated with a 5 ×1 transducer array with 0.75mm spatial resolution underneath and a built-in probe of 0.5mm×5mm×3mm above. By pressing the sensor against the exterior surface of a CC tissue with a pre-defined indentation pattern, the sensor ...


Study Of Abc Membrane Transporters In Single Live Cells, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak Apr 2018

Study Of Abc Membrane Transporters In Single Live Cells, Preeyaporn Songkiatisak

Chemistry & Biochemistry Theses & Dissertations

The multidrug ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane transporters (efflux pumps) are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes and they can extrude diverse structurally unrelated substrates, such as antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents out of the cells. The efflux pumps are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR) and the failure of numerous treatments in infections and cancers. All ABC membrane transporters share a common modular topology containing two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). The underlying molecular mechanisms regarding how the similar structural ABC membrane transporters could selectively extrude a wide variety of substrates and cause MDR, are not yet fully ...


3d Bioprinting Systems For The Study Of Mammary Development And Tumorigenesis, John Reid Apr 2018

3d Bioprinting Systems For The Study Of Mammary Development And Tumorigenesis, John Reid

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Understanding the microenvironmental factors that control cell function, differentiation, and stem cell renewal represent the forefront of developmental and cancer biology. To accurately recreate and model these dynamic interactions in vitro requires both precision-controlled deposition of multiple cell types and well-defined three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM). To achieve this goal, we hypothesized that accessible bioprinting technology would eliminate the experimental inconsistency and random cell-organoid formation associated with manual cell-matrix embedding techniques commonly used for 3D, in vitro cell cultures. The first objective of this study was to adapt a commercially-available, 3D printer into a 3D bioprinter. Goal-based computer simulations were ...


Non-Invasive Picosecond Pulse System For Electrostimulation, Ross Aaron Petrella Apr 2018

Non-Invasive Picosecond Pulse System For Electrostimulation, Ross Aaron Petrella

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Picosecond pulsed electric fields have been shown to have stimulatory effects, such as calcium influx, activation of action potential, and membrane depolarization, on biological cells. Because the pulse duration is so short, it has been hypothesized that the pulses permeate a cell and can directly affect intracellular cell structures by bypassing the shielding of the membrane. This provides an opportunity for studying new biophysics. Furthermore, radiating picosecond pulses can be efficiently done by a compact antenna because the antenna size is comparable to the pulse width. However, all of the previous bioelectric studies regarding picosecond pulses have been conducted in ...


A Scientific Approach To Understanding The Head Trauma Endured By A Mixed Martial Arts Fighter, John William Michael Sorbello Jan 2018

A Scientific Approach To Understanding The Head Trauma Endured By A Mixed Martial Arts Fighter, John William Michael Sorbello

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to gain some insight on the type of head trauma an athlete may encounter during mixed martial arts (MMA) competition. These athletes endure continuous blows to the head throughout their training and fighting career. The knowledge obtained from this research may assist MMA athletes and trainers in assessing the way they train, how they compete and, more importantly, how long they choose to compete in their amateur or professional MMA career.

The analysis is performed by first creating a three-dimensional solid model of the human head based on geometric coordinates originally obtained from a ...


Characterization Of Language Cortex Activity During Speech Production And Perception, Hassan Baker Jan 2018

Characterization Of Language Cortex Activity During Speech Production And Perception, Hassan Baker

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Millions of people around the world suffer from severe neuromuscular disorders such as spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and others. Many of these individuals cannot perform daily tasks without assistance and depend on caregivers, which adversely impacts their quality of life. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is technology that aims to give these people the ability to interact with their environment and communicate with the outside world. Many recent studies have attempted to decode spoken and imagined speech directly from brain signals toward the development of a natural-speech BCI. However, the current progress has not reached practical ...


Thermally Assisted Pulsed Electric Field Ablation For Cancer Therapy, James Michael Hornef Oct 2017

Thermally Assisted Pulsed Electric Field Ablation For Cancer Therapy, James Michael Hornef

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) have promised improved treatment results in a variety of cancer types including melanoma, pancreatic and lung squamous cancer. Recent studies show that PEF-based cancer therapy may be improved further with the assistance of moderate heating of the target. Experiments were performed to design, calibrate and implement a feedback-looped infrared laser irradiation system that could maintain specified temperatures during the treatment. The exact treatment area, penetration depth and thermal distribution of a 980-nm laser fiber were quantified using several methods, including the knife-edge technique and a tissue optical property study. In vivo and in vitro experiments using ...


Development And Validation Of A Hybrid Virtual/Physical Nuss Procedure Surgical Trainer, Mohammad F. Obeid Oct 2017

Development And Validation Of A Hybrid Virtual/Physical Nuss Procedure Surgical Trainer, Mohammad F. Obeid

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

With continuous advancements and adoption of minimally invasive surgery, proficiency with nontrivial surgical skills involved is becoming a greater concern. Consequently, the use of surgical simulation has been increasingly embraced by many for training and skill transfer purposes. Some systems utilize haptic feedback within a high-fidelity anatomically-correct virtual environment whereas others use manikins, synthetic components, or box trainers to mimic primary components of a corresponding procedure.

Surgical simulation development for some minimally invasive procedures is still, however, suboptimal or otherwise embryonic. This is true for the Nuss procedure, which is a minimally invasive surgery for correcting pectus excavatum (PE) – a ...


Computational Modeling For Abnormal Brain Tissue Segmentation, Brain Tumor Tracking, And Grading, Syed Mohammad Shamin Reza Oct 2017

Computational Modeling For Abnormal Brain Tissue Segmentation, Brain Tumor Tracking, And Grading, Syed Mohammad Shamin Reza

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

This dissertation proposes novel texture feature-based computational models for quantitative analysis of abnormal tissues in two neurological disorders: brain tumor and stroke. Brain tumors are the cells with uncontrolled growth in the brain tissues and one of the major causes of death due to cancer. On the other hand, brain strokes occur due to the sudden interruption of the blood supply which damages the normal brain tissues and frequently causes death or persistent disability. Clinical management of these brain tumors and stroke lesions critically depends on robust quantitative analysis using different imaging modalities including Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Digital Pathology ...


Multi-Material Mesh Representation Of Anatomical Structures For Deep Brain Stimulation Planning, Tanweer Rashid Jul 2017

Multi-Material Mesh Representation Of Anatomical Structures For Deep Brain Stimulation Planning, Tanweer Rashid

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The Dual Contouring algorithm (DC) is a grid-based process used to generate surface meshes from volumetric data. However, DC is unable to guarantee 2-manifold and watertight meshes due to the fact that it produces only one vertex for each grid cube. We present a modified Dual Contouring algorithm that is capable of overcoming this limitation. The proposed method decomposes an ambiguous grid cube into a set of tetrahedral cells and uses novel polygon generation rules that produce 2-manifold and watertight surface meshes with good-quality triangles. These meshes, being watertight and 2-manifold, are geometrically correct, and therefore can be used to ...


Development Of An Atlas-Based Segmentation Of Cranial Nerves Using Shape-Aware Discrete Deformable Models For Neurosurgical Planning And Simulation, Sharmin Sultana Apr 2017

Development Of An Atlas-Based Segmentation Of Cranial Nerves Using Shape-Aware Discrete Deformable Models For Neurosurgical Planning And Simulation, Sharmin Sultana

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain or brainstem and control our sensory functions such as vision, hearing, smell and taste as well as several motor functions to the head and neck including facial expressions and eye movement. Often, these cranial nerves are difficult to detect in MRI data, and thus represent problems in neurosurgery planning and simulation, due to their thin anatomical structure, in the face of low imaging resolution as well as image artifacts. As a result, they may be at risk in neurosurgical procedures around the skull base, which might have dire consequences such as ...


Low Temperature Plasma For The Treatment Of Epithelial Cancer Cells, Soheila Mohades Apr 2017

Low Temperature Plasma For The Treatment Of Epithelial Cancer Cells, Soheila Mohades

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas (LTP) may lead to a paradigm shift in treating various diseases by conducting fundamental research on the effects of LTP on cells, tissues, organisms (plants, insects, and microorganisms). This is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research field that involves engineering, physics, life sciences, and chemistry to find novel solutions for urgent medical needs. Effects of different LTP sources have shown the anti-tumor properties of plasma exposure; however, there are still many unknowns about the interaction of plasma with eukaryotic cells which must be elucidated in order to evaluate the practical potential of plasma in cancer ...


Machine Learning Methods For Medical And Biological Image Computing, Rongjian Li Jul 2016

Machine Learning Methods For Medical And Biological Image Computing, Rongjian Li

Computer Science Theses & Dissertations

Medical and biological imaging technologies provide valuable visualization information of structure and function for an organ from the level of individual molecules to the whole object. Brain is the most complex organ in body, and it increasingly attracts intense research attentions with the rapid development of medical and bio-logical imaging technologies. A massive amount of high-dimensional brain imaging data being generated makes the design of computational methods for efficient analysis on those images highly demanded. The current study of computational methods using hand-crafted features does not scale with the increasing number of brain images, hindering the pace of scientific discoveries ...


Microbubble Generation By Piezoelectric Transducers For Biomedical Studies, Mohammed Alkhazal Jul 2016

Microbubble Generation By Piezoelectric Transducers For Biomedical Studies, Mohammed Alkhazal

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Bubbles induced by blast waves or shocks are speculated as the major cause of damage in biological cells in mild traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Microbubble collapse was found to induce noticeable cell detachment from the cell substrate, changes in focal adhesion, and biomechanics. To better understand the bubble mechanism, a system needs to be constructed which allows clear differentiation on the impact of bubbles from that of shocks. Such a generator needs to be low profile in order to place under a microscope. A piezoelectric transducer system was designed to meet the need. The system uses either a flat or ...


Non-Thermal Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma For Sterilization Of Surfaces And Biofilms, Johanna Ursula Neuber Apr 2016

Non-Thermal Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma For Sterilization Of Surfaces And Biofilms, Johanna Ursula Neuber

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Bacterial resistance to antimicrobial methods is a critical issue in many fields of medicine. This work describes the studies performed to characterize and optimize the bacterial inactivation effects of a non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma brush and plasma jet on a laminate surface inoculated with Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus, and a cultivated Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, respectively. These treatments are pilot studies for eventual application to surface sterilization in hospitals and root canal disinfection. To evaluate bacterial inactivation, after treatment and recovery, the bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) are counted. Several different methods are used to optimize the antimicrobial effect. For the ...


New Engineering Approaches To Arrhythmias And Myocardial Infarction, Frency Varghese Oct 2015

New Engineering Approaches To Arrhythmias And Myocardial Infarction, Frency Varghese

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

In this thesis, we present new engineering approaches to several important cardiac diseases. Chapter 1 considers the dynamics of arrhythmias. The most dangerous arrhythmias are reentrant arrhythmias, including ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. During these arrhythmias, there are one or several rotating excitation waves present in the heart. Because of their shape, these waves are called scroll waves; their center of rotation is a one-dimensional curve called the filament. Filaments largely constrain the configuration of a scroll wave but are much simpler, so much effort has gone into describing scroll wave dynamics in terms of the dynamics of their filaments ...


Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis Of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Diganta Dutta Jul 2015

Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis Of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy, Diganta Dutta

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed ...


Multichannel Characterization Of Brain Activity In Neurological Impairments, Yalda Shahriari Apr 2015

Multichannel Characterization Of Brain Activity In Neurological Impairments, Yalda Shahriari

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Hundreds of millions of people worldwide suffer from various neurological and psychiatric disorders. A better understanding of the underlying neurophysiology and mechanisms for these disorders can lead to improved diagnostic techniques and treatments. The objective of this dissertation is to create a novel characterization of multichannel EEG activity for selected neurological and psychiatric disorders based on available datasets. Specifically, this work provides spatial, spectral, and temporal characterizations of brain activity differences between patients/animal models and healthy controls, with focus on modern techniques that quantify cortical connectivity, which is widely believed to be abnormal in such disorders. Exploring the functional ...


Development Of A Practical Visual-Evoked Potential-Based Brain-Computer Interface, Nicholas R. Waytowich Apr 2015

Development Of A Practical Visual-Evoked Potential-Based Brain-Computer Interface, Nicholas R. Waytowich

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

There are many different neuromuscular disorders that disrupt the normal communication pathways between the brain and the rest of the body. These diseases often leave patients in a `locked-in" state, rendering them unable to communicate with their environment despite having cognitively normal brain function. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are augmentative communication devices that establish a direct link between the brain and a computer. Visual evoked potential (VEP)- based BCIs, which are dependent upon the use of salient visual stimuli, are amongst the fastest BCIs available and provide the highest communication rates compared to other BCI modalities. However. the majority of research ...


Ablation Of Cardiac Tissue With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields: Experiments And Numerical Simulations, Fei Xie Apr 2015

Ablation Of Cardiac Tissue With Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields: Experiments And Numerical Simulations, Fei Xie

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Cardiac ablation for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia is usually performed by heating tissue with radio-frequency (RF) electrical currents to create conduction-blocking lesions in order to stop the propagation of electrical waves. Problems associated with RF ablation are recurrence of arrhythmias after successful treatments, tissue loss beyond the targeted tissue, long duration of the ablation procedure, and thermal side effects including thrombus formation that may lead to stroke. Here, we propose a new, non-thermal ablation method using nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) with better-controlled ablation volume, shorter procedure time, and no thermal side effects. We demonstrate that we can create ...


Multi-Surface Simplex Spine Segmentation For Spine Surgery Simulation And Planning, Rabia Haq Jan 2015

Multi-Surface Simplex Spine Segmentation For Spine Surgery Simulation And Planning, Rabia Haq

Computational Modeling and Simulation Engineering Theses & Dissertations

This research proposes to develop a knowledge-based multi-surface simplex deformable model for segmentation of healthy as well as pathological lumbar spine data. It aims to provide a more accurate and robust segmentation scheme for identification of intervertebral disc pathologies to assist with spine surgery planning. A robust technique that combines multi-surface and shape statistics-aware variants of the deformable simplex model is presented. Statistical shape variation within the dataset has been captured by application of principal component analysis and incorporated during the segmentation process to refine results. In the case where shape statistics hinder detection of the pathological region, user-assistance is ...


Empirical Modeling Of Asynchronous Scalp Recorded And Intracranial Eeg Potentials, Komalpreet Kaur Jul 2014

Empirical Modeling Of Asynchronous Scalp Recorded And Intracranial Eeg Potentials, Komalpreet Kaur

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a system that allows people with severe neuromuscular disorders to communicate and control devices using their brain signals. BCIs based on scalp-recorded electroencephalography (s-EEG) have recently been demonstrated to provide a practical, long-term communication channel to severely disabled users. These BCIs use time-domain s-EEG features based on the P300 event-related potential to convey the user's intent. The performance of s-EEG-based BCIs has generally stagnated in recent years, and high day-to-day performance variability exists for some disabled users. Recently intracranial EEG (i-EEG), which is recorded from the cortical surface or the hippocampus, has been successfully ...


Numerical Study Of Poration And Ionic Conduction In Nanopores Caused By High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulses In Cell, Hao Qiu Jul 2014

Numerical Study Of Poration And Ionic Conduction In Nanopores Caused By High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulses In Cell, Hao Qiu

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

This dissertation focuses on the dynamics and bioeffects of electroporation of biological cell and ionic conduction in nanopores under high-intensity, nanosecond pulses. The electroporation model utilized the current continuity equation and the asymptotic Smoluchowski equation to explore the transmembrane potential and pore density of the plasma and intracellular membranes; the ionic conduction model employed the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations and the Navier-Stokes equations to analyze the ionic current and ion concentration profile.

Nanosecond electric pulses of high-intensity amplitude can initiate electroporation of intracellular organelles. The pulse parameters and cell electrical properties, that can selectively electroporate liposomes but keep the plasma and nuclear ...


Implementation Of Analytical Fatigue Models Into Opensim To Predict The Effects Of Fatigue On Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading, Michael A. Samann Jul 2014

Implementation Of Analytical Fatigue Models Into Opensim To Predict The Effects Of Fatigue On Anterior Cruciate Ligament Loading, Michael A. Samann

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides stability to the knee joint while performing activities such as a side step cut. Neuromuscular fatigue, a reduction in muscle force producing capabilities, alters lower extremity mechanics while performing a side step cut and may increase the risk of ACL injury, particularly in females. Musculoskeletal modeling allows for the measurement of muscle forces, which are difficult to measure in-vivo. Therefore, musculoskeletal modeling, may improve our understanding of the effects of neuromuscular fatigue on muscle force production and loading of the ACL. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a musculoskeletal model which ...


Protein Loop Length Estimation From Medium Resolution Cryoem Images, Andrew R. Mcknight Jul 2013

Protein Loop Length Estimation From Medium Resolution Cryoem Images, Andrew R. Mcknight

Computer Science Theses & Dissertations

In the post-genomic era, proteomics research presents a new frontier in life science. Proteins play roles in virtually every biological process, and understanding their atomic structures is the key to unraveling how they carry out their work. Compared to the over half million protein sequences in UniProt, only around 25,000 unique sequences have been atomically modeled and deposited to PDB (Protein Databank). Cryoelectron Microscopy (cryoEM) is an important biophysical technique that produces 3D subnanometer resolution images of molecules not amenable to past approaches like x-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance. De novo modeling is becoming a promising approach to ...