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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Evaluation Of Postural Stability Using Sensory Organization Test, Tiffany Sims Dec 2003

Evaluation Of Postural Stability Using Sensory Organization Test, Tiffany Sims

Theses

Poor postural stability of the elderly and other patients has been a major concern.The cost of treating injuries due to poor stability is expected to rise to $32.4 Billion by 2020. Many interventions have been proposed and used to improve stability. In order to determine the efficacy of these interventions, an objective evaluation of postural stability before and after intervention is important.

The aim of this thesis was to scientifically analyze the ambiguities in the equilibrium score (ES) given by the Neurocom Smart Equitest (NSE) machine, and compare it to a new measure of stability that has been ...


Wavelet Transform Methods For Identifying Onset Of Semg Activity, Janina Wilen Dec 2003

Wavelet Transform Methods For Identifying Onset Of Semg Activity, Janina Wilen

Theses

Quantifying improvements in motor control is predicated on the accurate identification of the onset of surface electromyograpic (sEMG) activity. Applying methods from wavelet theory developed in the past decade to digitized signals, a robust algorithm has been designed for use with sEMG collected during reaching tasks executed with the less-affected arm of stroke patients. The method applied both Discretized Continuous Wavelet Transforms (CWT) and Discrete Wavelet Transforms (DWT) for event detection and no-lag filtering, respectively. Input parameters were extracted from the assessed signals.

The onset times found in the sEMG signals using the wavelet method were compared with physiological instants ...


A Labview Program To Obtain The Initiating Component Of A Vergence Eye Movement In An Open-Loop Experiment, Anuj P. Daftari Dec 2003

A Labview Program To Obtain The Initiating Component Of A Vergence Eye Movement In An Open-Loop Experiment, Anuj P. Daftari

Theses

The vergence oculomotor system is used in viewing objects moving in depth, such as when a baseball player tracks a ball moving towards him. It is composed of two components according to the Dual Mode Theory; a fast preprogrammed initiating component and a slow feedback-controlled sustaining component. The initiating component is described with open-loop control and the sustaining component is described as a closed-loop feedback control system. Previously, several languages have been utilized to develop programs to study and isolate the open-loop portion of vergence eye movements. Presenting a subject with a stimulus, which initiates an open-loop response has been ...


Transmission Of Light And Audible Sound In A Synthetic Fog Medium, Bhavin Babaria Dec 2003

Transmission Of Light And Audible Sound In A Synthetic Fog Medium, Bhavin Babaria

Theses

The primary goal of the thesis was to study the propagation of visible light and auditory sound through a synthetic fog medium compared to an ambient air environment. It is known that the fog substantially decreases the visibility however; this has not been studied quantitatively. Further information regarding other energies such as sound is also needed to understand how the energy reacts in the fog medium. The extent of visual and auditory degradation in humans needs to be investigated. Researchers have studied light transmitted through water, air; however, no one has studied how light or sound is transmitted through a ...


Development Of Fmri Compatible Lower Body Negative Pressure System, Pratap Singh Kunwar Dec 2003

Development Of Fmri Compatible Lower Body Negative Pressure System, Pratap Singh Kunwar

Theses

The lower body negative pressure (LBNP) system provides a controlled, measured orthostatic stress to the cardiovascular system, which can be used with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine to study cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses to graded LBNP. In the past, even though functional MRI (fMRI) was considered as one of the best modalities with which to measure small metabolic changes in the brain, it has not been used with an LBNP system to measure cerebrovascular changes. This was due to the lack of an fMRI compatible LBNP system.

In this project, an tMRI compatible LBNP system was first constructed without ...


Investigation Of Heart Rate Variability During Sleep Apnea, Sekar Subramanian Dec 2003

Investigation Of Heart Rate Variability During Sleep Apnea, Sekar Subramanian

Theses

Sleep apnea is a disorder, where there are repetitive pauses in respiratory flow of at least 10 seconds or longer duration, and which occur more than five times per hour. Apnea has strong modulating effects on the autonomic nervous system, with prominent heart rate variation. It can be assumed that during sleep, internal influences (sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system activities) dominate the autonomic nervous system; in addition repetitive apneas are accompanied by a pronounced increase in average heart rate. The aim of this study was to investigate the heart rate variability using spectral analysis and time-frequency analysis during sleep apnea ...


Instrumented Self-Propelled Sprayer To Determine Dynamic Boom Effects On Droplet Application Uniformity, Hong Young Jeon Dec 2003

Instrumented Self-Propelled Sprayer To Determine Dynamic Boom Effects On Droplet Application Uniformity, Hong Young Jeon

Masters Theses

A self-propelled sprayer with a 27-m boom was instrumented to measure inadvertent boom movement and acceleration during field operation to quantity application uniformity. The instrumentation system was developed to monitor boom end heights, accelerations, and sprayer longitudinal position along a track. Acceleration measures included longitudinal (x), vertical (y), and transverse (z) components at the sprayer vehicle rear, boom center, and at each boom end. A PC-based data acquisition system polled sensors at 2.5 kHz. Software-implemented, 2nd-order Butterworth band pass (0.1 to 15 Hz) filtering of raw data reduced signal noise. Y-accelerations at the boom center ranged ...


An Analysis Of Liquid Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Use In Broiler Production Houses To Control In-House Ammonia (Nh3) Concentrations And Naturally-Occurring Salmonella And Campylobacter; The Development Of An Nh3 Emission Factor For A Typical Tennessee Broiler House., Kenneth A. Armstrong Dec 2003

An Analysis Of Liquid Aluminum Sulfate (Alum) Use In Broiler Production Houses To Control In-House Ammonia (Nh3) Concentrations And Naturally-Occurring Salmonella And Campylobacter; The Development Of An Nh3 Emission Factor For A Typical Tennessee Broiler House., Kenneth A. Armstrong

Masters Theses

No abstract provided.


A Biologically Inspired Joint Model Using Engineering Methods To Enhance Understanding Of Muscle Activity, Richard Paradiso Aug 2003

A Biologically Inspired Joint Model Using Engineering Methods To Enhance Understanding Of Muscle Activity, Richard Paradiso

Theses

Compliant actuators and control methods have been known to exhibit similarities in human musculoskeletal systems. In order to better understand and improve the effects of force optimization under closed- loop conditions, a physical joint model was constructed with an agonist and an antagonist muscle operating under linear control. Utilizing LabVIEW software, compliant McKibben air muscles and Merlin stretch sensors, the author was able to incorporate a Bang-Bang controller and propose the inclusion of pulse width modulation (PWM) as well as a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PD) controller to study the reflex loops under various levels of feedback sensitivity. The feedback mechanism, similar to ...


Study Of Baroreceptor Sensitivity Index In Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Diane L. Donnelly Aug 2003

Study Of Baroreceptor Sensitivity Index In Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Diane L. Donnelly

Theses

Although numerous studies evaluate baroreflex response as part of their research protocol, only one was identified as having evaluated continuous baroreceptor response as part of a 70° head-up tilt. It was done by Youde et al. [28] and was limited in that it evaluated only sequences of three beats for lag 0. The limitations of the Youde study [28] are not present in this thesis.

The data for this thesis came from a 70° head-up tilt study performed on chronic fatigue syndrome subjects by LaManca et al. [3] at the East Orange VA Medical Center. Baroreflex was not evaluated as ...


The Influence Of Exercise On Oxygen Uptake In Mild Hypertension, Matthew Joseph Herban Aug 2003

The Influence Of Exercise On Oxygen Uptake In Mild Hypertension, Matthew Joseph Herban

Theses

The amount of oxygen used by muscle cells increase with exercise. The two body systems that influence the amount of oxygen delivered are the cardiovascular system and the pulmonary system. Two groups of patients were studied, those that were mildly hypertensive (but are not taking prescription medication for hypertension) and the control or normal group. The two groups exercised on a bicycle ergometer. Work rate was increased in steps (multiples of thirty watts) until anaerobic threshold (as measured by an ear oximeter) was reached. Heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production were measured during exercise. Their data ...


Interpolation Of Spatial Surfaces And Inferring Subsurface Transitions Using Electrical Conductivity, Robert Claborne Wilson Aug 2003

Interpolation Of Spatial Surfaces And Inferring Subsurface Transitions Using Electrical Conductivity, Robert Claborne Wilson

Masters Theses

Precision agriculture techniques are becoming more popular within the agriculture community as producers demand more return from an ever-decreasing amount of farmland. Increased environmental regulations are forcing farmers to reduce the input of fertilizers and agrochemicals on their crops. Innovative techniques in precision agriculture are enhancing traditional decision-making processes by offering multiple layers of data for a production field. It is difficult to determine the complex interactions that exist between factors affecting crop growth and the resultant management decisions. Strategies in precision agriculture attempt to modify customary practices in order to address the known variability of field conditions. This case ...


A Distributed Control System For Priority-Based Site-Specific Irrigation, Fabio Rodrigues De Miranda Aug 2003

A Distributed Control System For Priority-Based Site-Specific Irrigation, Fabio Rodrigues De Miranda

Doctoral Dissertations

Site-specific irrigation enables maximizing yields and water use efficiency for fields with variation in soil water availability. Distributed control for fixed irrigated systems, with controllers close to the sensors and actuators in the field, is easier to install and maintain, and less susceptible to damage by lightning strikes compared to centralized control, but is only economically viable with affordable, low-power controllers. A low cost, solar-powered, feedback irrigation controller for distributed control of fixed irrigation systems was developed and tested. The system used soil water potential measurements to control the amount of water applied to each specific zone of a field ...


Delineation Of Management Units For Site-Specific Irrigation.”, Carlos Wagner Oliveira Aug 2003

Delineation Of Management Units For Site-Specific Irrigation.”, Carlos Wagner Oliveira

Doctoral Dissertations

Variability of soil properties in many fields is too great for a whole field to be effectively managed with a uniform application of irrigation water. Consequently, a decision must be made for irrigation management about which areas in the field should be treated differently or grouped. A decision-making framework was developed to determine whether site-specific irrigation management would be cost effective for selected fields. The framework is designed to find the best field layout in terms of water management, and tests the hypothesis that there is a particular field management layout that maximizes net return. As part of the framework ...


Labview-Controlled Stimulus Presentation On A Monitor For Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement Experiments, Florence Bautista Chua May 2003

Labview-Controlled Stimulus Presentation On A Monitor For Smooth Pursuit Eye Movement Experiments, Florence Bautista Chua

Theses

Smooth pursuit is an example of how movements in the visual world guide involuntary oculomotor movements. A current system to study eye movements uses an oscilloscope screen. A computer screen offers many advantages: a greater visual field, the use of shapes, 32 bits of colors, and increased timing accuracy. To control stimulus display on a computer monitor, instrumentation was developed in LabVIEW. Initial studies supported a draw/redraw to erase method for stimulus presentation. An experiment compared the computer monitor to the oscilloscope. Indeed, the monitor display was an improvement over the oscilloscope for vision research.


Data Recording And Analysis Of American Sign Language, Robert Michael Demarco May 2003

Data Recording And Analysis Of American Sign Language, Robert Michael Demarco

Theses

American Sign Language (ASL) is a form of communication that is used by the Deaf. It consists of hand shapes and gestures to express words and phrases. Translators on the market today consist of interpreting a simple form of ASL known as finger spelling. In order to develop a more effective translator, instrumentation was developed utilizing a Flock of Birds and Cyberglove system to record in hand shapes and movements in a LabVIEW environment. Experimentation done included reading in data and subjectively analyzing the data recorded for accuracy. Initial results have show that the instrumentation worked and data was recorded ...


Implementation Of Cyclic Exercise Protocol On Two Study Groups - Aids And Insomnia, Ujwala G. Kalambur May 2003

Implementation Of Cyclic Exercise Protocol On Two Study Groups - Aids And Insomnia, Ujwala G. Kalambur

Theses

Traditional exercise regimens are based on maintaining a prolonged increase in heart rate, followed by a single recovery period. The Cyclic Exercise Protocol is a novel protocol that is designed to create a series of parabolic waves of exercise and recovery. This study involves the implementation of this exercise protocol on two study groups namely AIDS and Insomnia. This exercise protocol involves short bursts of exercise lasting for 60 seconds or less followed by a period of complete aerobic recovery. The underlying principle of this exercise protocol is that rest, recovery and the body's natural rhythm are important to ...


Short-Term Water Use Dynamics In Drainage Lysimeters, Musa V. Dlamini May 2003

Short-Term Water Use Dynamics In Drainage Lysimeters, Musa V. Dlamini

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Turfgrass water use (seasonal turfET) and crop coefficients were determined and a mathematical soil-water balance model for non-weighing drainage lysimeters, which simulates the occurrence (timing and amount) of drainage, was developed. Pairs of non-weighing drainage lysimeters were used to determine crop coefficients for turfgrass in four locations in the state of Utah: Logan Golf and Country Club, Murray Golf Course, Brigham Young University (Spanish Fork) Experiment Farm, and Sunbrook Golf Course (St. George).

Daily weather data including air temperature, relative humidity, average wind travel, total solar radiation, precipitation, and average soil temperature were collected with an electronic weather station at ...


Effects Of Diabetes And Aging On Posture And Acceleration Thresholds During Lateral Translations, Samantha Jean Richerson Apr 2003

Effects Of Diabetes And Aging On Posture And Acceleration Thresholds During Lateral Translations, Samantha Jean Richerson

Doctoral Dissertations

Research objectives. One source of falls in the elderly may be an inability to sufficiently adjust to transient postural perturbations or slips. Identifying useful predictors of fall potential, as well as factors that affect the ability of an individual to detect a movement of the standing support surface may provide insight into postural stability and methods to increase stability in elders. To do this, acceleration thresholds to short, precise, lateral platform translations and the resultant psychophysical responses of adults with early Type 2 diabetes to age-matched controls and young adults were measured.

Methods. Using an innovative SLIP-FALLS platform, short (1 ...


Cloning, Expression, And Characterization Of Gfp:Xkcm1 Deletion Constructs, Patrick Thorsen Apr 2003

Cloning, Expression, And Characterization Of Gfp:Xkcm1 Deletion Constructs, Patrick Thorsen

Life and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Theses

Kinesins are a type of motor protein that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move along microtubules. Kinesin Catastrophe Modulator One (XKCM1) of Xenopus laevis was recently identified as a kinesin that is essential for the establishment and maintenance of mitotic spindles by affecting the microtubule dynamics in Xenopus egg extracts. In the present research, three different deletion constructs of XKCM1 fused with Green Flourescent Protein (GFP) were cloned, expressed, and characterized in order to determine which part of the XKCM1 structure was necessary for proper destabilization of microtubules. These deletion constructs have previously been studied z'n vivo ...


Feasibility Of Radiographic Absorptiometry Of The Mandible As An Osteoporosis Screening Method, Julie A. Skipper Jan 2003

Feasibility Of Radiographic Absorptiometry Of The Mandible As An Osteoporosis Screening Method, Julie A. Skipper

Browse all Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate single- and dual-energy radiographic absorptiometry (RA) for the measurement of mandibular bone mineral density (BMD), using standard dental equipment, that would allow for inexpensive and widespread osteoporosis screening. Accurately measured x-ray tube spectra are important for validating the simulations used in the design of the method. A constrained least-squares deconvolution technique for reducing the detector-induced blurring of the energy spectrum was developed. Application of this analytic correction to spectra acquired with a NaI-photomultiplier detector improved the measured data by 20-60%. Implementation of the screening method is accomplished by simultaneously acquiring ...


Interaction Of Disparity And Accommodative Vergence, Michele Liu Kung Jan 2003

Interaction Of Disparity And Accommodative Vergence, Michele Liu Kung

Theses

To fixate on a target that moves from far to near, changes in blur and disparity activate accommodation and disparity vergence. The goal of this study was to experimentally obtain eye movement data from four subjects, and analyze this data using through a new signal processing algorithm known as independent component analysis (ICA). Preliminary data suggest that three underlying neural subcomponents are present where the two components of disparity vergence initiate the movement and the accommodative portion is activated to facilitate the steady state portion of the response.

ICA was used as a blind source separation technique to analyze experimental ...