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Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Design, Construction And Application Of A Home-Built, Two-Photon Microscope, William P. Breeding Aug 2019

Design, Construction And Application Of A Home-Built, Two-Photon Microscope, William P. Breeding

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Two-photon microscopy (TPM) is a powerful, versatile imaging modality for the study of biological systems. This thesis overviews the relevant physics involved in TPM, design considerations and process of constructing a home-built, two-photon microscope, and provides a set of procedures to operate the system. Furthermore, this work explores several applications of TPM through the study of single-cell metabolism and imaging the cellular-material interface. Explored in particular depth was the imaging of cellulose nanofiber (CNF) materials, with the goal of understanding the three-dimensional nature of fibroblast cell growth when embedded within the materials. This work uncovered several optical properties of CNF ...


Feasibility Study Of Intelligent Lvad Control For Optimal Heart Failure Therapy., John A. Karlen Iii Jul 2019

Feasibility Study Of Intelligent Lvad Control For Optimal Heart Failure Therapy., John A. Karlen Iii

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) are operated at constant speeds (rpm), consequently, pump flow is passively determined by the pressure difference between the LV and aorta. Since the diastolic pressure gradient (~70 mmHg) is much larger than the systolic gradient (~10 mmHg), the majority of pump flow occurs during systole. This limitation results in sub-optimal LV volume unloading, LV washing, and diminished vascular pulsatility that may be associated with increased risk for clinically-significant adverse events, including stroke, bleeding, arteriovenous malformations, and aortic insufficiency. To address these clinical adverse events, an intelligent control strategy using pump speed modulation was developed ...


Simulation Of A Continuum Tumor Model Using Distributed Computing., Dylan A Goodin Jul 2019

Simulation Of A Continuum Tumor Model Using Distributed Computing., Dylan A Goodin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mathematical modeling aims to provide a theoretical framework for understanding tissue dynamics and for establishing treatment response for diseased tissues, such as tumors. Previously published continuum models have successfully represented idealized two-dimensional and three-dimensional tissue for short periods of time. A recently published continuum model of cancer increases model complexity and describes three-dimensional tissue that, due to the required complexity of the geometric multigrid solver, can only be feasibly applied to millimeter-scale simulations. Furthermore, the computational cost for such models has hindered their application in the laboratory and in the clinic. With computational demands greatly outpacing current openMP-based approaches on ...


Fluctuations In Walking Speeds And Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters When Walking On A Self-Paced Treadmill At Level, Incline, And Decline Slopes, Cesar Castano May 2019

Fluctuations In Walking Speeds And Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters When Walking On A Self-Paced Treadmill At Level, Incline, And Decline Slopes, Cesar Castano

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

On a daily basis, humans walk over a variety of terrains. Studies have shown that spatiotemporal gait parameters, such as stride length, stride frequency, stride variability, etc., change when humans walk down a decline and up an incline compared to level ground. However, these studies have been limited to using fixed speed treadmills or analyzing a small number of strides when conducted over ground. Thus, there is a need to investigate the fluctuations in spatiotemporal gait parameters of humans walking at their self-selected speed, which requires recording hundreds of strides. Here we hypothesized that subjects will walk with a slower ...


Energy Expenditure And Stability During Self-Paced Walking On Different Slopes, Alanna Raffaelli May 2019

Energy Expenditure And Stability During Self-Paced Walking On Different Slopes, Alanna Raffaelli

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metabolic power and cost of transport (COT) are common quantifiers for effort when performing tasks including walking and running. Most studies focus on using a range of normal walking speeds over level ground or varied slopes. However, these studies use fixed-speed conditions. Fatigue, stability, metabolic expenditure, heart rate, and many other factors contribute to normal walking speed varying over time. This study aimed to show that allowing a subject to walk with a self-paced speed should correlate to a minimum COT at a given slope. This study also aimed to determine if a preferred slope exists based on minimizing metabolic ...


Classifying And Predicting Walking Speed From Electroencephalography Data, Allen Rahrooh May 2019

Classifying And Predicting Walking Speed From Electroencephalography Data, Allen Rahrooh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electroencephalography (EEG) non-invasively records electrocortical activity and can be used to understand how the brain functions to control movements and walking. Studies have shown that electrocortical dynamics are coupled with the gait cycle and change when walking at different speeds. Thus, EEG signals likely contain information regarding walking speed that could potentially be used to predict walking speed using just EEG signals recorded during walking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether walking speed could be predicted from EEG recorded as subjects walked on a treadmill with a range of speeds (0.5 m/s, 0.75 m ...


Conceptualization And Fabrication Of A Bioinspired Mobile Robot Actuated By Shape Memory Alloy Springs, Lietsel Richardson May 2019

Conceptualization And Fabrication Of A Bioinspired Mobile Robot Actuated By Shape Memory Alloy Springs, Lietsel Richardson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work is an experimental study and fabrication of design concepts to validate the feasibility of smart materials and their applications in bio-inspired robotics. Shape-Memory Alloy (SMA) springs are selected as the smart material actuators of interest to achieve locomotion in the proposed mobile robot. Based on a previous design of the robot, this work focuses on both implementing a new locomotion concept and reducing size and weight of the previous design, both using SMA based actuators. Objectives are met in consideration of the conceptual mechanics of circular robot locomotion. The first prototype is a variation of the original design ...


Modeling Runoff From Small Agricultural Watersheds In Eastern South Dakota, Bryce Siverling Jan 2019

Modeling Runoff From Small Agricultural Watersheds In Eastern South Dakota, Bryce Siverling

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The capability to be able to consistently and accurately model any problem has potential time and money savings. The present study aimed to determine if the Natural Resources Conservation Service’s Curve Number (CN) model or the more detailed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) Model can consistently and accurately model runoff events from small agricultural fields in Eastern South Dakota. The overall goal was to better understand models used to predict runoff and determine if they can produce accurate estimates of runoff from the watersheds being studied. Runoff measurements were collected from an agricultural field located south of Coleman ...


Laxity Of The Hip Capsule In Natural And Posteriorly Implanted Specimens, Luke Storer Jan 2019

Laxity Of The Hip Capsule In Natural And Posteriorly Implanted Specimens, Luke Storer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The hip capsule consists of ligament tissue that surrounds the hip joint, providing stability to ensure proper alignment, prevent dislocation, and facilitate proper joint function. The objective of this study was to characterize the torque-rotation response of the natural and posteriorly implanted hip capsule in healthy cadaveric specimens in multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOF) and under combined loading scenarios using the AMTI VIVO, a robotic joint simulator. The anterior portion of the hip capsule was stained with Methylene Blue and virtual extensometers were calculated by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) software for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model validation. The range of motion (ROM ...


Development Of An Impedance-Controlled Hot Snare Polypectomy Device To Minimize Tissue Damage, Curtislee Thornton Jan 2019

Development Of An Impedance-Controlled Hot Snare Polypectomy Device To Minimize Tissue Damage, Curtislee Thornton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study explores the ability to measure the changing impedance, ex vivo, of a porcine colon sample while undergoing a high-frequency alternating current from an Olympus PSD-30 electrosurgical unit and stop the applied current before excessive tissue damage ensues. The causes of the thermal damage are first examined, followed by the construction and testing of the impedance-controlled feedback device. Perforation was observed to occur when the impedance of the tissue sample increased by 25% or more. Using this information, the device was tested for five power settings ranging from 10W-50W. In each trial, the feedback device stopped the applied current ...


Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of neural prostheses to improve health of paraplegics has been a prime interest of neuroscientists over the last few decades. Scientists have performed experiments with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to enable voluntary motor function of paralyzed patients. However, the experimentation on the human spinal cord is not a trivial task. Therefore, modeling and simulation techniques play a significant role in understanding the underlying concepts and mechanics of the spinal cord stimulation. In this work, simulation and modeling techniques related to spinal cord stimulation were investigated. The initial work was intended to visualize the electric field distribution patterns in ...


Rotary Pump Speed Modulation To Produce Pulsatile Flow And Ventricular Volume Unloading., Connor Joseph Smith Aug 2018

Rotary Pump Speed Modulation To Produce Pulsatile Flow And Ventricular Volume Unloading., Connor Joseph Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background: Continuous-flow (CF) left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) have gained widespread clinical acceptance as a treatment option for advanced heart failure (HF); however, they have also been associated with an increased risk of adverse events, including gastrointestinal bleeding, aortic insufficiency, and hemorrhagic stroke. It has been hypothesized that the increase in adverse event incidence may be due in part to diminished vascular pulsatility and high shear stress when CF-LVADs are operated at fixed speeds. Previous studies have shown that pump speed modulation generates greater levels of pulsatility in rotary pumps than when operated at fixed speeds. The objective of this ...


Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller Aug 2018

Evaluation Of Drug-Loaded Gold Nanoparticle Cytotoxicity As A Function Of Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity., Hunter Allan Miller

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The inherent heterogeneity of tumor tissue presents a major challenge to nanoparticle-medicated drug delivery. This heterogeneity spans from the molecular to the cellular (cell types) and to the tissue (vasculature, extra-cellular matrix) scales. Here we employ computational modeling to evaluate therapeutic response as a function of vascular-induced tumor tissue heterogeneity. Using data with three-layered gold nanoparticles loaded with cisplatin, nanotherapy is simulated with different levels of tissue heterogeneity, and the treatment response is measured in terms of tumor regression. The results show that tumor vascular density non-trivially influences the nanoparticle uptake and washout, and the associated tissue response. The drug ...


The Effectiveness Of Localized Ultrasound And Aptamer Surface Modification On Nanoemulsions For Drug Delivery To Spheroids., Daniel A. Hodge Jul 2018

The Effectiveness Of Localized Ultrasound And Aptamer Surface Modification On Nanoemulsions For Drug Delivery To Spheroids., Daniel A. Hodge

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is a group of diseases that affects 1.6 million and kills nearly 600,000 Americans each year. The National Cancer Institute defines it as “diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade nearby tissues” and it is often treated with one or more of the following: chemotherapy, radiation, surgery. The expense for these treatments is expected to rise to $156 billion by 2020. Localized delivery can improve effectiveness and cancer survival rates, decrease the cost of treatment, and decrease the side effects of chemotherapy. This paper addresses models for this localized delivery through nanoemulsions. Nanoemulsions ...


Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey May 2018

Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bone fracture is the second most common injury of child abuse. Studies have generally reported that femur fractures are more likely due to abuse than accidental causes in cases where the child is non-ambulatory. They have also found that household falls are commonly offered as the cause of injury in cases of abuse. In this study, a finite element (FE) pediatric femur model will be developed and used to evaluate likelihood of fracture in common household fall scenarios (bed falls and feet first falls). This will provide greater biomechanical evidence as to the likelihood of femur fracture due to common ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard May 2018

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Plga-Modified Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Hypo-Vascularized Hpv-Related Cervical Cancers., Lee B. Sims May 2018

Plga-Modified Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Hypo-Vascularized Hpv-Related Cervical Cancers., Lee B. Sims

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A major challenge associated with delivery of active agents in the female reproductive tract (FRT) is the ability of agents to efficiently diffuse through the cervicovaginal mucosa (CVM) and reach the underlying sub-epithelial immune cell layer and vasculature. A variety of drug delivery vehicles have been employed to improve the delivery of agents across the CVM and offer the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular ...


Investigation Of Cardiovascular Tissue Following 56fe-Radiation And Potential Countermeasure Effectiveness., Alexandra R Decarlo May 2018

Investigation Of Cardiovascular Tissue Following 56fe-Radiation And Potential Countermeasure Effectiveness., Alexandra R Decarlo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Exposure to ionizing radiation is an important medical concern because it can lead to health problems including cancer and cardiovascular issues. In space, astronauts are exposed to ionizing radiation that is not experienced by those who remain on Earth. This radiation can cause health problems such as cardiovascular disease. One way this can happen is through the creation of reactive oxygen species, which can activate TGF-β1, contributing to fibrosis or other cardiovascular problems. Antioxidants can be a potential pharmacological mitigator of these excess reactive oxygen species because of their ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. One such antioxidant with potential ...


Design And Development Of A Multifunctional Surgical Device For Ground And Space-Based Surgical Applications., Brooke Elaine Barrow Apr 2018

Design And Development Of A Multifunctional Surgical Device For Ground And Space-Based Surgical Applications., Brooke Elaine Barrow

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

With the possibility of longer ventures into space, NASA will face many new medical challenges. The ability to surgically treat trauma and other disorders in reduced gravity requires reliable wound access, containment, and visualization. In collaboration with Carnegie Mellon University, the University of Louisville is currently developing the AISS (Aqueous Immersion Surgical System) to increase efficiency and control of the operative field in space-based surgeries. Reliable wound access and containment is achieved by placing a transparent wound-isolation dome securely over the wound-site and pressurizing it with a saline solution. Leak-free trocars provide access ports for various surgical instruments. This system ...


Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer Apr 2018

Materials Design With Polylactic Acid-Polyethylene Glycol Blends Using 3d Printing And For Medical Applications., Jeremiah R. Bauer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is an examination of two material systems derived from polylactic acid (PLA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG). PLA is a polymer commonly sourced from renewable sources such as starches and sugars. It is a relatively strong, biodegradable polymer, making it ideal for use in the body. Even though it has a relative high strength, PLA is also brittle leading to the use of plasticizers to increase flexibility. One such plasticizer is PEG, which is a material that can exist at room temperature as either a thin liquid, or a hard waxy solid depending on the molecular weight. The first ...


Tumor-Targeted Double Emulsions For Ultrasound-Triggered Delivery Of Molecular Therapeutics., Connor S Centner Apr 2018

Tumor-Targeted Double Emulsions For Ultrasound-Triggered Delivery Of Molecular Therapeutics., Connor S Centner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States, with 1.74 million new cancer cases diagnosed and 610,000 cancer deaths expected in 2018 alone. Current treatments often result in negative systemic effects and ineffective treatment of the tumor. Drug delivery vehicles have been developed for more effective local delivery methods, but many drug delivery vehicles lack spatial and temporal control. Targeted double emulsions are a new class of drug delivery vehicles which present a promising option for a high payload and controlled delivery. The purpose of our project was to develop and characterize an aptamer-chelated ...


Computational Modeling Of Transcatheter Aortic Valves, Mostafa Abbasi Jan 2018

Computational Modeling Of Transcatheter Aortic Valves, Mostafa Abbasi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is an established therapy alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk and intermediate-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Currently, although TAVR is an alternative and less-invasive treatment for high-risk and intermediate-risk patients, surgical aortic valves replacement (SAVR) was still considered as the gold standard for low-risk patients. TAVR could potentially be applied to lower-risk younger patients if the indications can be safely expanded to the patients and transcatheter aortic valve (TAV) long-term durability can match with that of surgical bioprostheses. In contrast to surgical aortic valves (SAVs), there have been limited clinical data on the ...


Development Of Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Methods And Instrumentation For Biological Applications, Laura A. Buchanan Jan 2018

Development Of Low Frequency Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Methods And Instrumentation For Biological Applications, Laura A. Buchanan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

EPR is a powerful biophysical tool that can be used to measure tumor physiology. With the addition of magnetic field gradients, the spectral properties of paramagnetic species can be mapped. To facilitate EPR imaging, methods and instrumentation at frequencies between 250 MHz and 1 GHz were developed.

At low spin concentrations, the rapid scan background signal is often many times larger than the EPR signal of interest. To help remove the background contribution, a data acquisition procedure that takes advantage of a cross-loop resonator and bipolar power supplies was developed at 250 MHz. In this procedure, two scans are collected ...


Lcd 3d Printing Of A Photocurable Elastomer For Tissue Engineering, Beatriz Luiza De Souza Jan 2018

Lcd 3d Printing Of A Photocurable Elastomer For Tissue Engineering, Beatriz Luiza De Souza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Three-dimensional scaffolding is an emerging research area in biomedical and tissue engineering. Scaffolds provide the possibility of growing tissues in a controlled environment, with desired characteristics and properties towards a specific application. A new method to 3D print biodegradable and biocompatible material called Polyglycerol Sebacate Acrylate (PGSA) is demonstrated. PGSA is essentially an acrylated form of PGS using photoinitiator to become a photocurable resin suitable for liquid crystal display (LCD) 3D printing. PGSA was selected because its rheological and crosslinking behavior (and hence its mechanical properties) can be controlled by changes in curing time, temperature, and pressure. This material has ...


Probing The Effects Of Substrate Stiffness On Astrocytes Mechanics, Ariege Bizanti Jan 2018

Probing The Effects Of Substrate Stiffness On Astrocytes Mechanics, Ariege Bizanti

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Astrocytes are among the most functionally diverse population of cells in the central nervous system (CNS) as they are essential to many important neurological functions including maintaining brain homeostasis, regulating the blood brain barrier, and preventing build-up of toxic substances within the brain, for example. Astrocyte importance to brain physiology and pathology has inspired a host of studies focused on understanding astrocyte behavior primarily from a biological and chemical perspective. However, a clear understanding of astrocyte dysfunction and their link to disease has been hampered by a lack of knowledge of astrocyte behavior from a biomechanical perspective. Furthermore, astrocytes (and ...


Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff Jan 2018

Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Instability and dislocation remain leading indications for revision of primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). Many studies have addressed the links between implant design and propensity for dislocation, however a comprehensive review of the ability of modern THA constructs to protect against joint instability is needed.

Accordingly, the objective of this study is to provide objective data about THA risks to be considered in the treatment algorithm to protect against adverse joint loading conditions and joint instability. Adverse loading conditions were assessed in a population of activities of daily living using data from telemetric hip implant representation in an FE simulation ...


Cementless Tibial Base Micromotion During Activities Of Daily Living, Hayden Wilson Jan 2018

Cementless Tibial Base Micromotion During Activities Of Daily Living, Hayden Wilson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Initial stability of cementless total knee replacement (TKR) components is directly related to long-term fixation and success, as excess motion hinders bony ingrowth. To assess implant stability, there is a need for more physiologically accurate loading conditions, incorporating forces and displacements in all 6 degrees-of-freedom found in the knee joint, as well as understanding the impact of femoral flexion on conformity of tibiofemoral articulation. Understanding how different activities of daily living generate tibial micromotion yields insight into surgical technique considerations, and rehabilitation strategies post-operatively. ASTM F3141-15, which specifies knee flexion, Internal-External moment, Medial-Lateral, Anterior-Posterior and Superior-Inferior forces during gait and ...


Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar Dec 2017

Material Properties Design Using Simulations And Experiments For Powder Injection Molding Of Lead Zirconate Titanate (Pzt)., Bhushan Pramod Bandiwadekar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Powder injection molding (PIM) process simulations can be performed to minimize the number of injection molding experiments by estimating material properties necessary for PIM simulations. In current work, lead zirconate titanate (PZT) powder-polymer binder feedstock was compounded for 45 vol. % and 52 vol. % solids loading. PIM experiments on designed micro-pillar array geometry were performed using 52 vol. % PZT. Using PIM experiments results as basis, PIM simulations were performed on designed micro-pillar array geometries to understand the effectiveness of PIM simulations with the use of estimated feedstock properties in predicting molding behavior that have micro-features. Additionally, PIM simulations were performed to ...


Design, Development, And Characterization Of Breathforce : A Respiratory Training System For Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries., Kevin L Tran Dec 2017

Design, Development, And Characterization Of Breathforce : A Respiratory Training System For Patients With Spinal Cord Injuries., Kevin L Tran

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pulmonary and cardiovascular dysfunction are consistently reported as the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among the 1,275,000 people who are living with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) in the United States. Respiratory-cardiovascular complications from neurological disorders (primarily COPD and sleep apnea) are currently the number one cause of death and disability in the US.

The main goal of this project is to develop an inspiratory-expiratory training device for use in the rehabilitation of patients with respiratory motor and cardiovascular deficits that incorporates existing technologies and promotes successful training methodologies performed at the clinic and at home.

An ...


A Novel Approach To Assess Minimally Invasive Surgical Device Failure Utilizing Adverse Event Outcome Severity And Design Complexity., Marie K. Riggs Dec 2017

A Novel Approach To Assess Minimally Invasive Surgical Device Failure Utilizing Adverse Event Outcome Severity And Design Complexity., Marie K. Riggs

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Medical device failure and misuse have the potential to cause serious injury and death. Given the intricate nature of the instruments utilized specifically in minimally invasive surgery (MIS), users and manufacturers of surgical devices share a responsibility in preventing user error and device failure. A novel approach was presented for the evaluation of minimally invasive device failures, which involved assessing the severity of adverse event outcomes associated with the failures modes and investigating aspects of the devices’ design that may contribute to failure. The goals of this research were to 1) characterize the design attributes, failure modes, and adverse events ...