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Theses/Dissertations

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

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A Possible Link Between R-Wave Amplitude Alternans And T-Wave Alternans In Ecgs, Sahar Alaei Jan 2019

A Possible Link Between R-Wave Amplitude Alternans And T-Wave Alternans In Ecgs, Sahar Alaei

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) is the largest cause of natural deaths in the USA, accounting for over 300,000 deaths annually. The major reason for SCD is Ventricular Arrhythmia (VA). Therefore, there is need for exploration of approaches to predict increased risk for VA. Alternans of the T wave in the ECG (TWA) is widely investigated as a potential predictor of VA, however, clinical trials show that TWA has high negative predictive value but poor positive predictive value. A possible reason that TWA has a large number of false positives is that a pattern of alternans known as concordant alternans ...


A Brain-Computer Interface For Closed-Loop Sensory Stimulation During Motor Training In Patients With Tetraplegia, Sarah Helen Thomas Jan 2019

A Brain-Computer Interface For Closed-Loop Sensory Stimulation During Motor Training In Patients With Tetraplegia, Sarah Helen Thomas

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Normal movement execution requires proper coupling of motor and sensory activation. An increasing body of literature supports the idea that incorporation of sensory stimulation into motor rehabilitation practices increases its effectiveness. Paired associative stimulation (PAS) studies, in which afferent and efferent pathways are activated in tandem, have brought attention to the importance of well-timed stimulation rather than non-associative (i.e., open-loop) activation. In patients with tetraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI), varying degrees of upper limb function may remain and could be harnessed for rehabilitation. Incorporating associative sensory stimulation coupled with self-paced motor training would be a means for ...


Noninvasive Multimodal Diffuse Optical Imaging Of Vulnerable Tissue Hemodynamics, Mingjun Zhao Jan 2019

Noninvasive Multimodal Diffuse Optical Imaging Of Vulnerable Tissue Hemodynamics, Mingjun Zhao

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Measurement of tissue hemodynamics provides vital information for the assessment of tissue viability. This thesis reports three noninvasive near-infrared diffuse optical systems for spectroscopic measurements and tomographic imaging of tissue hemodynamics in vulnerable tissues with the goal of disease diagnosis and treatment monitoring. A hybrid near-infrared spectroscopy/diffuse correlation spectroscopy (NIRS/DCS) instrument with a contact fiber-optic probe was developed and utilized for simultaneous and continuous monitoring of blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxidative metabolism in exercising gastrocnemius. Results measured by the hybrid NIRS/DCS instrument in 37 subjects (mean age: 67 ± 6) indicated that vitamin D supplement plus ...


Calibrated Short Tr Recovery Mri For Rapid Measurement Of Brain-Blood Partition Coefficient And Correction Of Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow, Scott William Thalman Jan 2019

Calibrated Short Tr Recovery Mri For Rapid Measurement Of Brain-Blood Partition Coefficient And Correction Of Quantitative Cerebral Blood Flow, Scott William Thalman

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

The high prevalence and mortality of cerebrovascular disease has led to the development of several methods to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in vivo. One of these, arterial spin labeling (ASL), is a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with the advantage that it is completely non-invasive. The quantification of CBF using ASL requires correction for a tissue specific parameter called the brain-blood partition coefficient (BBPC). Despite regional and inter-subject variability in BBPC, the current recommended implementation of ASL uses a constant assumed value of 0.9 mL/g for all regions of the brain, all subjects, and even all ...


Effects Of Lumbar Spinal Fusion On Lumbopelvic Rhythm During Activities Of Daily Living, Cameron G. Slade Jan 2018

Effects Of Lumbar Spinal Fusion On Lumbopelvic Rhythm During Activities Of Daily Living, Cameron G. Slade

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Abnormalities in lumbopelvic rhythm (LPR) play a role in occurrence/recurrence of low back pain (LBP). The LPR before spinal fusion surgery and its changes following the surgery are not understood. A repeated measure study was designed to investigate timing and magnitude aspects of LPR in a group of patients (n = 5) with LBP before and after a spinal fusion surgery. Participants completed a forward bending and backward return task at their preferred pace in the sagittal plane. The ranges of thoracic and pelvic rotations and lumbar flexion (as the magnitude aspects of LPR) as well as the mean absolute ...


Multimodal Noncontact Diffuse Optical Reflectance Imaging Of Blood Flow And Fluorescence Contrasts, Daniel Irwin Jan 2018

Multimodal Noncontact Diffuse Optical Reflectance Imaging Of Blood Flow And Fluorescence Contrasts, Daniel Irwin

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

In this study we design a succession of three increasingly adept diffuse optical devices towards the simultaneous 3D imaging of blood flow and fluorescence contrasts in relatively deep tissues. These metrics together can provide future insights into the relationship between blood flow distributions and fluorescent or fluorescently tagged agents. A noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) device was firstly developed to recover flow by mechanically scanning a lens-based apparatus across the sample. The novel flow reconstruction technique and measuring boundary curvature were advanced in tandem. The establishment of CCD camera detection with a high sampling density and flow recovery by speckle ...


Sleep And Thermoregulation: A Study Of The Effect Of Ambient Temperature Manipulation On Mouse Sleep Architecture, Asma'a A. Ajwad Jan 2018

Sleep And Thermoregulation: A Study Of The Effect Of Ambient Temperature Manipulation On Mouse Sleep Architecture, Asma'a A. Ajwad

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Good quality sleep is essential for mental and physical health. Inadequate sleep impacts memory consolidation, learning and cognition, immune function, autonomic regulation, physical performance, and other vital functions. In many neurological disorders that are associated with sleep problems such as epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease, changes in brain circuitry affect sleep-wake regulation mechanisms; this is reflected in anomalous sleep-wake architecture and usually accompanied by poor sleep depth. Thus, over many years, many approaches have been tried in humans and animal models with the goal of improving sleep quality. Unfortunately, each of those approaches comes with limitations or side effects. Thus ...


Lower Back Biomechanics At Non-Chronic Stage Of Low Back Pain, Iman Shojaei Jan 2018

Lower Back Biomechanics At Non-Chronic Stage Of Low Back Pain, Iman Shojaei

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Prior studies have reported differences in lower back biomechanics during activities of daily living between individuals with and without chronic low back pain (LBP). Nevertheless, the literature on lower back biomechanics of patients with non-chronic LBP is scant. Therefore, the objective of this study, as the first step towards future prospective studies, was to investigate the lower back biomechanics in patients with non-chronic LBP. Case-control studies were conducted wherein measures of lumbo-pelvic coordination during bending and return tasks as well as measures of mechanical demand on the lower back during lifting tasks in the sagittal plane were investigated between patients ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Blue Light Poly(Β-Amino Ester)S, Nicholas John Kohrs Jan 2018

Synthesis And Characterization Of Blue Light Poly(Β-Amino Ester)S, Nicholas John Kohrs

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is a debilitating injury which results in full or partial loss of function. Current clinical options utilize tissue grafts and bracing to restore function. Tissue graft implantation oftentimes leads to serious complications, some of which end in graft rejection and thereby necessitate further surgeries and procedures. Polymeric scaffolds show promise as scaffolding systems due to their mechanical properties and overall degradation profiles. Scaffolds need appropriate mechanical properties, 10-60 kPa modulus, and overall degradation times, five days to two weeks, to initiate tissue regeneration. Poly(β-amino ester)s (PBAE), a class of synthetic polymers, act as a ...


Adrenergic Stimulation In Acute Hyperglycemia: Effects On Cellular And Tissue Level Murine Cardiac Electrophysiology, Sridevi Thyagarajan Jan 2018

Adrenergic Stimulation In Acute Hyperglycemia: Effects On Cellular And Tissue Level Murine Cardiac Electrophysiology, Sridevi Thyagarajan

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Cardiovascular complications associated with elevated levels of glucose in the blood (Hyperglycemia, HG) is a growing health concern. HG is known to be associated with a variety of cardiovascular morbidities including higher incidence of electrical disturbances. Although effects of chronic HG have been widely investigated, electrophysiological effects of acute hyperglycemia are relatively less known. Further, hyperglycemic effects on adrenergic response is not widely investigated. We used excised ventricular tissues from mice to record trans-membrane potentials during a variety of pacing protocols to investigate cellular/tissue level electrophysiological effects of acute hyperglycemia and adrenergic stimulation (1µM Isoproterenol, a β-adrenergic agonist). A ...


Validation, Optimization, And Image Processing Of Spiral Cine Dense Magnetic Resonance Imaging For The Quantification Of Left And Right Ventricular Mechanics, Gregory J. Wehner Jan 2017

Validation, Optimization, And Image Processing Of Spiral Cine Dense Magnetic Resonance Imaging For The Quantification Of Left And Right Ventricular Mechanics, Gregory J. Wehner

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Recent evidence suggests that cardiac mechanics (e.g. cardiac strains) are better measures of heart function compared to common clinical metrics like ejection fraction. However, commonly-used parameters of cardiac mechanics remain limited to just a few measurements averaged over the whole left ventricle. We hypothesized that recent advances in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be extended to provide measures of cardiac mechanics throughout the left and right ventricles (LV and RV, respectively).

Displacement Encoding with Stimulated Echoes (DENSE) is a cardiac MRI technique that has been validated for measuring LV mechanics at a magnetic field strength of 1.5 ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Poly(Simvastatin) - Incorporated Copolymers And Blends For Bone Regeneration, Theodora Asafo-Adjei Jan 2017

Synthesis And Characterization Of Poly(Simvastatin) - Incorporated Copolymers And Blends For Bone Regeneration, Theodora Asafo-Adjei

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Common biodegradable polyesters such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) are used as drug delivery vehicles for tissue regenerative applications. However, they are typically bioinert, with drug loading limitations. Polymerizing the active agent or precursor into its respective biodegradable polymer would control drug loading via molar ratios of drug to initiator used for synthesis. Simvastatin was chosen due to its favorable anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, and osteogenic properties. In addition, its lactone ring lends itself to ring-opening polymerization and, consequently, the synthesis of poly(simvastatin) with controlled simvastatin release.

Simvastatin was first polymerized with a ...


Quantifying The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding By The Human Endothelium, Taylor R. Mckenty Jan 2017

Quantifying The Effects Of Hydrostatic Pressure On Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Binding By The Human Endothelium, Taylor R. Mckenty

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Fluid pressures regulate endothelial cell (EC) tubulogenic activity involving fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and its receptor, FGF receptor 2 (FGFR2). Our lab has recently shown that sustained 20 mmHg hydrostatic pressure (HP) upregulates EC sprout formation in a FGF2-dependent fashion. This upregulation of sprout formation may be due to enhanced FGF-2 / FGFR2 interactions in the presence of 20 mmHg HP. We hypothesize that exposure of ECs to 20 mmHg sustained HP enhances FGF-2 binding kinetics. We used a custom hydrostatic pressure system, immunofluorescence, and FACS to quantify FGF-2 binding by ECs in the absence or presence of a range ...


Closed-Loop Afferent Nerve Electrical Stimulation For Rehabilitation Of Hand Function In Subjects With Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury, Christopher J. Schildt Jan 2016

Closed-Loop Afferent Nerve Electrical Stimulation For Rehabilitation Of Hand Function In Subjects With Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury, Christopher J. Schildt

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) is commonly used to promote use-dependent cortical plasticity for rehabilitation of motor function in spinal cord injury. Pairing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with PNS has been shown to increase motor evoked potentials most when the two stimuli are timed to arrive in the cortex simultaneously. This suggests that a mechanism of timing-dependent plasticity (TDP) may be a more effective method of promoting motor rehabilitation. The following thesis is the result of applying a brain-computer interface to apply PNS in closed-loop simultaneously to movement intention onset as measured by EEG of the sensorimotor cortex to test whether ...


Detection Of Electrical Alternans In Ventricular Depolarization Phase Of Human Electrocardiogram, David R. Wasemiller Jan 2016

Detection Of Electrical Alternans In Ventricular Depolarization Phase Of Human Electrocardiogram, David R. Wasemiller

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

T-wave Alternans (TWA) in an electrocardiogram (ECG) has received considerable interest as a potential predictor of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, large clinical trials have shown that while TWA has a very high negative predictive value, its positive predictive value is poor. Results of previous studies suggest that arrhythmia onset can be affected by the phase relationship of alternans of the depolarization and repolarization phase of the action potentials of the ventricles. To assess this relationship, one would first need to establish that depolarization alternans can be detected and then develop methods to determine its relationship with repolarization alternans, which ...


Alterations In Active And Passive Behavior Of Lower Back Tissues Following Six Sessions Of High Velocity Low Amplitude Spinal Manipulative Therapy For Healthy Participants, Emily C. Croft Jan 2016

Alterations In Active And Passive Behavior Of Lower Back Tissues Following Six Sessions Of High Velocity Low Amplitude Spinal Manipulative Therapy For Healthy Participants, Emily C. Croft

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Non-specific low back pain (LBP) is a major health problem affecting a substantial portion of the population. The current treatments offered for non-specific LBP are oftentimes unsuccessful because the acting mechanism(s) of most treatment options are unknown. Obtaining a better understanding about the acting mechanism behind existing treatment options is, therefore, essential for the improvement of non-specific LBP treatment and management. The objective of this study was to gain a more comprehensive understanding about the acting mechanism of high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulative therapy, specifically the impact that high velocity low amplitude spinal manipulative therapy may have on ...


Three-Dimensional Endothelial Spheroid-Based Investigation Of Pressure-Sensitive Sprout Formation, Min Song Jan 2016

Three-Dimensional Endothelial Spheroid-Based Investigation Of Pressure-Sensitive Sprout Formation, Min Song

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

This study explored hydrostatic pressure as a mechanobiological parameter to control in vitro endothelial cell tubulogenesis in 3-D hydrogels as a model microvascular tissue engineering approach. For this purpose, the present investigation used an endothelial spheroid model, which we believe is an adaptable microvascularization strategy for many tissue engineering construct designs. We also aimed to identify the operating magnitudes and exposure times for hydrostatic pressure-sensitive sprout formation as well as verify the involvement of VEGFR-3 signaling. For this purpose, we used a custom-designed pressure system and a 3-D endothelial cell spheroid model of sprouting tubulogenesis. We report that an exposure ...


Reference Point Indentation Of Human Trabecular Bone Treated With Bisphosphonates For Varying Durations, Drew Jones Jan 2016

Reference Point Indentation Of Human Trabecular Bone Treated With Bisphosphonates For Varying Durations, Drew Jones

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Reference point indentation (RPI), a novel form of micro-indentation, quantifies RPI material parameters which correlate with modulus, yield stress, strength, or toughness. Information linking bisphosphonate treatment length with the material properties of osteoporotic trabecular bone is needed to improve patient treatment. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine if RPI can be used to successfully evaluate human trabecular bone and if so, determine an optimized test method for using RPI on trabecular bone, and 2) use this method to determine if any RPI parameters are related to the duration of bisphosphonate treatment.

Indentation using a 4 N applied ...


The Influence Of Cholesterol-Related Membrane Fluidity On The Shear Stress Control Of Neutrophil Adhesion And Its Implications In Hypercholesterolemia, Michael L. Akenhead Jan 2016

The Influence Of Cholesterol-Related Membrane Fluidity On The Shear Stress Control Of Neutrophil Adhesion And Its Implications In Hypercholesterolemia, Michael L. Akenhead

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Hypercholesterolemia is a significant risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease and is associated with chronic leukocyte adhesion in the microvasculature. While the underlying mechanisms behind this have yet to be determined, it may be possible that hypercholesterolemia impairs the fluid shear stress (FSS) inactivation of neutrophils through the rigidifying effect of cholesterol on membrane fluidity. FSS restricts surface expression of CD18 integrins through cathepsin B (ctsB) proteolysis, which minimizes neutrophil adhesivity. If hypercholesterolemia blocks FSS mechanotransduction, then the inhibition of CD18 cleavage may link pathologic blood cholesterol elevations with dysregulated neutrophil adhesion. We hypothesized that elevated cholesterol contributes ...


The Rheological Impact Of Cell Activation On The Flow Behavior Of Neutrophils, Nolan M. Horrall Jan 2016

The Rheological Impact Of Cell Activation On The Flow Behavior Of Neutrophils, Nolan M. Horrall

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Previously, it was reported that the morphological changes (pseudopod projection) that circulating neutrophils adopt due to cell activation raises peripheral vascular resistance by disrupting microvascular rheology. Studies utilized murine muscle preparations to link neutrophil pseudopod formation to cell activation and a viscous impact on hemodynamic resistance. But because of the complexity associated with the organization of the vasculature and microvasculature in tissues, it was unclear whether the effects of neutrophil activation on hemodynamic resistance were associated with the macro-/micro- circulation. This research describes an in vitro analysis using viscometry and microvascular network mimics (microporous membranes) to assess the rheological ...


Human Cardiovascular Responses To Simulated Partial Gravity And A Short Hypergravity Exposure, Qingguang Zhang Jan 2015

Human Cardiovascular Responses To Simulated Partial Gravity And A Short Hypergravity Exposure, Qingguang Zhang

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Orthostatic intolerance (OI), i.e., the inability to maintain stable arterial pressure during upright posture, is a major problem for astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, one important goal of spaceflight-related research is the development of countermeasures to prevent post flight OI. Given the rarity and expense of spaceflight, countermeasure development requires ground-based simulations of partial gravity to induce appropriate orthostatic effects on the human body, and to test the efficacy of potential countermeasures.

To test the efficacy of upright lower body positive pressure (LBPP) as a model for simulating cardiovascular responses to lunar and Martian gravities on Earth, cardiovascular responses to ...


Layered, Flexible Drug Delivery Films For The Prevention Of Fibrotic Scar Tissue Formation, Cheryl L. Rabek Jan 2015

Layered, Flexible Drug Delivery Films For The Prevention Of Fibrotic Scar Tissue Formation, Cheryl L. Rabek

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Open wounds account for about 50% of military injuries and 10% of non‐fatal traffic injuries. Scar tissue formation in these wounds may be reduced or prevented if treated with a combination of molecules whose release is tuned to the healing phases. The goal of this research was to develop flexible, layered drug delivery films for sequential, localized release of anti‐inflammatory, anti‐oxidant, and anti‐fibrotic molecules to soft tissue.

Films were composed of cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and Pluronic F‐127 (Pluronic). To impart flexibility, plasticizers, triethyl citrate (TEC) or tributyl citrate (TBC), were added. Mechanical analysis was ...


A Local, Sustained Delivery System For Zoledronic Acid And Rankl-Inhibitory Antibody As A Potential Treatment For Metastatic Bone Disease, Rohith Jayaram Jan 2015

A Local, Sustained Delivery System For Zoledronic Acid And Rankl-Inhibitory Antibody As A Potential Treatment For Metastatic Bone Disease, Rohith Jayaram

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Cancerous solid tumors can migrate and lead to metastatic bone disease. Drugs prescribed to reduce bone resorption from metastasis, such as zoledronic acid and the RANKL-inhibitory antibody Denosumab, cause side effects such as osteonecrosis of the jaw when delivered systemically. This project used two biocompatible materials, acrylic bone cement (PMMA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), to incorporate and sustain release of anti-resorptive agents. Results showed similar mechanical properties for acrylic bone cements loaded up to 6.6% drug by weight. Results showed sustained zoledronic acid release for 8 weeks from both systems, with PMMA releasing up to 22% of loaded ...


Collagen Crosslinking Reagent Utilized To Modify The Mechanical Properties Of The Soft Palate In Equine Snoring And Apnea Applications, Stephanie L. Hunt Jan 2015

Collagen Crosslinking Reagent Utilized To Modify The Mechanical Properties Of The Soft Palate In Equine Snoring And Apnea Applications, Stephanie L. Hunt

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Snoring is a sleep disruption that can lead to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which interrupts breathing by obstructing the airway. Injecting a protein crosslinker, such as genipin, into the soft palate could decrease the severity of snoring and OSA by stiffening the soft palate. Equine soft palates modeled human palates due to a high incidence of awake snoring and apnea.

The pilot in vivo study treated six horses with two 100 mM injections of the buffered genipin reagent. The efficacy phase horses underwent respiratory audio recordings to document snoring changes using Matlab and ImageJ in the time and frequency domains ...


Experimental-Computational Analysis Of Vigilance Dynamics For Applications In Sleep And Epilepsy, Farid Yaghouby Jan 2015

Experimental-Computational Analysis Of Vigilance Dynamics For Applications In Sleep And Epilepsy, Farid Yaghouby

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures. Sleep problems can cooccur with epilepsy, and adversely affect seizure diagnosis and treatment. In fact, the relationship between sleep and seizures in individuals with epilepsy is a complex one. Seizures disturb sleep and sleep deprivation aggravates seizures. Antiepileptic drugs may also impair sleep quality at the cost of controlling seizures. In general, particular vigilance states may inhibit or facilitate seizure generation, and changes in vigilance state can affect the predictability of seizures. A clear understanding of sleep-seizure interactions will therefore benefit epilepsy care providers and improve quality of life in patients ...


Long Term Blood Oxygenation Membranes, Joseph V. Alexander Jan 2015

Long Term Blood Oxygenation Membranes, Joseph V. Alexander

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Hollow fiber membranes are widely used in blood oxygenators to remove carbon dioxide and add oxygen during cardiopulmonary bypass operations. These devices are now widely used off-label by physicians to perform extracorporeal blood oxygenation for patients with lung failure. Unfortunately, the hollow fiber membranes used in these devices fail prematurely due to blood plasma leakage and gas emboli formation.

This project formed ultrathin (~100nm) polymer coatings on polymer hollow fiber membranes. The coatings were intended to “block” existing pores on the exterior surfaces while permitting high gas fluxes. This coating is synthesized using surface imitated control radical polymerization.

The coating ...


The Effect Of Cholesterol On The Osteoblast Responsiveness To Hydrodynamic Pressure Stimulation, Kristen Lough Jan 2015

The Effect Of Cholesterol On The Osteoblast Responsiveness To Hydrodynamic Pressure Stimulation, Kristen Lough

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Hypercholesterolemia is a risk factor for osteoporosis but the underlying mechanism is unknown. Previous evidence suggests that osteoporosis results from an impaired regulation of osteoblasts by fluid pressure fluctuations in the bone matrix. Recently, our laboratory showed that enhanced cholesterol in the cell membrane, due to hypercholesterolemia, alters leukocyte mechanosensitivity. We predict a similar link between osteoblasts and hypercholesterolemia leading to osteoporosis. Specifically, we hypothesize that extracellular cholesterol modifies the osteoblast sensitivity to pressure. MC3T3-E1 cells were exposed to hydrodynamic pressures regimes (mean=40mmHg, amplitude=0-20mmHg, frequency=1Hz) for 1-12 hours. To assess the impact of membrane cholesterol enrichment, cells ...


Body Armor Induced Changes In The Trunk Mechancial And Neuromuscular Behavior, Rebecca Leigh Tromp Jan 2015

Body Armor Induced Changes In The Trunk Mechancial And Neuromuscular Behavior, Rebecca Leigh Tromp

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

While military body armor is used among warfighters for protection on and off the battlefield, it has been suggested to impede performance and act as a risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders, especially low back pain. Apart from personal suffering, low back pain in soldiers is a great economic burden on the US economy. The objective of this study was to quantify the changes in trunk mechanical and neuromuscular behavior following prolonged exposure to body armor compared to exposure without. A crossover study design was used where 12 sex-balanced participants completed a series of tests before and after ...


Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemo-Radiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong Jan 2015

Diffuse Optical Measurements Of Head And Neck Tumor Hemodynamics For Early Prediction Of Chemo-Radiation Therapy Outcomes, Lixin Dong

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Chemo-radiation therapy is a principal modality for the treatment of head and neck cancers, and its efficacy depends on the interaction of tumor oxygen with free radicals. In this study, we adopted a novel hybrid diffuse optical instrument combining a commercial frequency-domain tissue oximeter (Imagent) and a custom-made diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flowmeter, which allowed for simultaneous measurements of tumor blood flow and blood oxygenation. Using this hybrid instrument we continually measured tumor hemodynamic responses to chemo-radiation therapy over the treatment period of 7 weeks. We also explored monitoring dynamic tumor hemodynamic changes during radiation delivery. Blood flow data analysis ...


Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Tomography Of Breast Tumor, Lian He Jan 2015

Noncontact Diffuse Correlation Tomography Of Breast Tumor, Lian He

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Since aggressive cancers are frequently hypermetabolic with angiogenic vessels, quantification of blood flow (BF) can be vital for cancer diagnosis. Our laboratory has developed a noncontact diffuse correlation tomography (ncDCT) system for 3-D imaging of BF distribution in deep tissues (up to centimeters). The ncDCT system employs two sets of optical lenses to project source and detector fibers respectively onto the tissue surface, and applies finite element framework to model light transportation in complex tissue geometries. This thesis reports our first step to adapt the ncDCT system for 3-D imaging of BF contrasts in human breast tumors. A commercial 3-D ...