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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Large Scale Electronic Health Record Data And Echocardiography Video Analysis For Mortality Risk Prediction, Alvaro Emilio Ulloa Cerna Jul 2019

Large Scale Electronic Health Record Data And Echocardiography Video Analysis For Mortality Risk Prediction, Alvaro Emilio Ulloa Cerna

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Electronic health records contain the clinical history of patients. The enormous potential for discovery in such a rich dataset is hampered by their complexity. We hypothesize that machine learning models trained on EHR data can predict future clinical events significantly better than current models. We analyze an EHR database of 594,862 Echocardiography studies from 272,280 unique patients with both unsupervised and supervised machine learning techniques.

In the unsupervised approach, we first develop a simulation framework to evaluate a family of different clustering pipelines. We apply the optimized approach to 41,645 patients with heart failure without providing any ...


Justrun - Social Gps Running Game, Riley Bergin, Maggie Cai, Simran Judge, Grace Ling Jun 2019

Justrun - Social Gps Running Game, Riley Bergin, Maggie Cai, Simran Judge, Grace Ling

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

With advances in technology allowing people to live more sedentary lives, more and more people are struggling to live a healthy active lifestyle. In the efforts to combat unhealthy styles of living, we wish to introduce a mobile app that takes advantage of motivational game mechanics to motivate players will make go on runs regularly.


Machine Learning Solution To Organ-At-Risk Segmentation For Radiation Treatment Planning, Brie Goo, Katrina May, Haobo Zhang, James Olivas Apr 2019

Machine Learning Solution To Organ-At-Risk Segmentation For Radiation Treatment Planning, Brie Goo, Katrina May, Haobo Zhang, James Olivas

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

In the treatment of cancer using ionizing radiation, it is important to design a treatment plan such that dose to normal, healthy organs is sufficiently low. Today, segmentation requires a trained human to carefully outline, or segment, organs on each slice of a treatment planning computed tomography (CT) scan but it is laborious, time-consuming, and contains intra- and inter-rater variability. Currently, existing clinical automation technology relies on atlas-based automation, which has limited segmentation accuracy. Thus the auto-segmentations require post process editing by an expert. In this paper, we propose a machine learning solution that shortens the segmentation time of organs-at-risk ...


Testing And Validation Framework For Closed-Loop Physiology Management Systems For Critical And Perioperative Care, Farooq M. Gessa Jan 2019

Testing And Validation Framework For Closed-Loop Physiology Management Systems For Critical And Perioperative Care, Farooq M. Gessa

Master’s Theses

The research aims at developing a framework for testing systems such as closed-loop physiology management systems to ensure that they are safe and effective for use with patients. Building medical devices that are both robust and safe is a challenge. There has been a tremendous increase in modernization and innovation of various medical systems but many of these systems either fail trials or are recalled due to safety issues.

Medical operation rooms require care teams responsible for monitoring the patients and other technical surgical devices. The care process requires a balancing administration that takes care of the drugs and fluids ...


Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop Jan 2019

Estimation Of Multi-Directional Ankle Impedance As A Function Of Lower Extremity Muscle Activation, Lauren Knop

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The purpose of this research is to investigate the relationship between the mechanical impedance of the human ankle and the corresponding lower extremity muscle activity. Three experimental studies were performed to measure the ankle impedance about multiple degrees of freedom (DOF), while the ankle was subjected to different loading conditions and different levels of muscle activity. The first study determined the non-loaded ankle impedance in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse anatomical planes while the ankle was suspended above the ground. The subjects actively co-contracted their agonist and antagonistic muscles to various levels, measured using electromyography (EMG). An Artificial Neural Network ...


Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro Jan 2019

Estimation And Prediction Of The Human Gait Dynamics For The Control Of An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis, Guilherme Aramizo Ribeiro

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

With the growing population of amputees, powered prostheses can be a solution to improve the quality of life for many people. Powered ankle-foot prostheses can be made to behave similar to the lost limb via controllers that emulate the mechanical impedance of the human ankle. Therefore, the understanding of human ankle dynamics is of major significance. First, this work reports the modulation of the mechanical impedance via two mechanisms: the co-contraction of the calf muscles and a change of mean ankle torque and angle. Then, the mechanical impedance of the ankle was determined, for the first time, as a multivariable ...


Textured Contact Lens Based Iris Presentation Attack In Uncontrolled Environment, Daksha Yadav Jan 2019

Textured Contact Lens Based Iris Presentation Attack In Uncontrolled Environment, Daksha Yadav

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

The widespread use of smartphones has spurred the research in mobile iris devices. Due to their convenience, these mobile devices are also utilized in unconstrained outdoor conditions. At the same time, iris recognition in the visible spectrum has developed into an active area of research. These scenarios have necessitated the development of reliable iris recognition algorithms for such an uncontrolled environment. Additionally, iris presentation attacks such as textured contact lens pose a major challenge to current iris recognition systems.

Motivated by these factors, in this thesis, a detailed analysis of the effect of textured contact lenses on iris recognition in ...


Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage Dec 2018

Modeling And Simulation Methodologies For Spinal Cord Stimulation., Saliya Kumara Kirigeeganage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of neural prostheses to improve health of paraplegics has been a prime interest of neuroscientists over the last few decades. Scientists have performed experiments with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) to enable voluntary motor function of paralyzed patients. However, the experimentation on the human spinal cord is not a trivial task. Therefore, modeling and simulation techniques play a significant role in understanding the underlying concepts and mechanics of the spinal cord stimulation. In this work, simulation and modeling techniques related to spinal cord stimulation were investigated. The initial work was intended to visualize the electric field distribution patterns in ...


A Study Of Scalability And Cost-Effectiveness Of Large-Scale Scientific Applications Over Heterogeneous Computing Environment, Arghya K. Das Jun 2018

A Study Of Scalability And Cost-Effectiveness Of Large-Scale Scientific Applications Over Heterogeneous Computing Environment, Arghya K. Das

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advances in large-scale experimental facilities ushered in an era of data-driven science. These large-scale data increase the opportunity to answer many fundamental questions in basic science. However, these data pose new challenges to the scientific community in terms of their optimal processing and transfer. Consequently, scientists are in dire need of robust high performance computing (HPC) solutions that can scale with terabytes of data.

In this thesis, I address the challenges in three major aspects of scientific big data processing as follows: 1) Developing scalable software and algorithms for data- and compute-intensive scientific applications. 2) Proposing new cluster architectures ...


Dynamic Model For Simulating Motion Of The Right Ventricle, Brian Michael Larsen, Sam Koopman Porter, John Francis D'Ambrosio Jun 2018

Dynamic Model For Simulating Motion Of The Right Ventricle, Brian Michael Larsen, Sam Koopman Porter, John Francis D'Ambrosio

Mechanical Engineering

This report documents all the research, ideation, and mockups used to determine right ventricle motion and develop a system capable of reproducing that motion on a tissue sample. The model is intended for evaluating anchoring systems being developed by Edwards Lifesciences for use with tricuspid valve therapies. Several design solutions were considered for the primary functions of recreating motion of the right ventricle and attaching tissue to the device. From these ideas a primary means of producing motion and attaching tissue was selected. These ideas were then developed over the course of a school year to become the final system ...


The Human Keyboard, Derek Char, Thomas Chung, Alexander Mckee, Allen Pai Jun 2018

The Human Keyboard, Derek Char, Thomas Chung, Alexander Mckee, Allen Pai

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Most products that implement features for user interactions utilize buttons or switches for the user to command to select actions to perform. Such designs are typically controlled with direct motions, such as touch or voice and are seldom designed in consideration of those unable to utilize direct control. In this project, we designed technology that reads naturally occuring biosignals from the body, which then can be apply those signals with any interface. For our specific application in this project, we decided to implement a keyboard. Instead of teaching the fingers how to type on a mechanical keyboard, the body can ...


Unsupervised Parkinson’S Disease Assessment, Alexander S. Adranly, Senbao Lu, Yousef Zoumot Apr 2018

Unsupervised Parkinson’S Disease Assessment, Alexander S. Adranly, Senbao Lu, Yousef Zoumot

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disease that affects 6.2 million people worldwide. The most popular clinical method to measure PD tremor severity is a standardized test called the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), which is performed subjectively by a medical professional. Due to infrequent checkups and human error introduced into the process, treatment is not optimally adjusted for PD patients. According to a recent review there are two devices recommended to objectively quantify PD symptom severity. Both devices record a patient’s tremors using inertial measurement units (IMUs). One is not currently available for ...


Interactive Clinical Event Pattern Mining And Visualization Using Insurance Claims Data, Zhenhui Piao Jan 2018

Interactive Clinical Event Pattern Mining And Visualization Using Insurance Claims Data, Zhenhui Piao

Theses and Dissertations--Computer Science

With exponential growth on a daily basis, there is potentially valuable information hidden in complex electronic medical records (EMR) systems. In this thesis, several efficient data mining algorithms were explored to discover hidden knowledge in insurance claims data. The first aim was to cluster three levels of information overload(IO) groups among chronic rheumatic disease (CRD) patient groups based on their clinical events extracted from insurance claims data. The second aim was to discover hidden patterns using three renowned pattern mining algorithms: Apriori, frequent pattern growth(FP-Growth), and sequential pattern discovery using equivalence classes(SPADE). The SPADE algorithm was found ...


Characterization Of Language Cortex Activity During Speech Production And Perception, Hassan Baker Jan 2018

Characterization Of Language Cortex Activity During Speech Production And Perception, Hassan Baker

Electrical & Computer Engineering Theses & Disssertations

Millions of people around the world suffer from severe neuromuscular disorders such as spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and others. Many of these individuals cannot perform daily tasks without assistance and depend on caregivers, which adversely impacts their quality of life. A Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is technology that aims to give these people the ability to interact with their environment and communicate with the outside world. Many recent studies have attempted to decode spoken and imagined speech directly from brain signals toward the development of a natural-speech BCI. However, the current progress has not reached practical ...


Bio-Inspired Multi-Spectral And Polarization Imaging Sensors For Image-Guided Surgery, Nimrod Missael Garcia Dec 2017

Bio-Inspired Multi-Spectral And Polarization Imaging Sensors For Image-Guided Surgery, Nimrod Missael Garcia

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Image-guided surgery (IGS) can enhance cancer treatment by decreasing, and ideally eliminating, positive tumor margins and iatrogenic damage to healthy tissue. Current state-of-the-art near-infrared fluorescence imaging systems are bulky, costly, lack sensitivity under surgical illumination, and lack co-registration accuracy between multimodal images. As a result, an overwhelming majority of physicians still rely on their unaided eyes and palpation as the primary sensing modalities to distinguish cancerous from healthy tissue. In my thesis, I have addressed these challenges in IGC by mimicking the visual systems of several animals to construct low power, compact and highly sensitive multi-spectral and color-polarization sensors. I ...


Poly Drop, Zachary T. Scott, Lilly J. Paul Jun 2017

Poly Drop, Zachary T. Scott, Lilly J. Paul

Computer Engineering

Poly Drop is a software interface to control an Open Drop digital micro-fluidics system. We obtained a hardware system from Gaudi labs. Our task was to create a Graphical User Interface that made the control of the device easier and more automated for better testing. We created software that had 3 parts: a control GUI, arduino code to control the hardware, and Image Analysis that gives the user information such as location and color of liquid drops as they move across the electrode grid of the Open Drop system. The GUI was developed using Java Swing. The communication between the ...


An Emg-Based Patient Monitoring System Using Zynq Soc Device, Farhad Fallahlalehzari Dec 2016

An Emg-Based Patient Monitoring System Using Zynq Soc Device, Farhad Fallahlalehzari

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This thesis describes the design, development, and testing of an EMG-based patient monitoring system using the Zynq device. Zynq is a system on chip device designed by Xilinx which consists of an ARM dual cortex-A9 processor as well as an FPGA integrated into one chip. This work also analyzes the performance of image-processing algorithms on this system and compares that performance to more traditional PC-based systems. Image processing algorithms, such as Sobel edge detection, dilation and erosion, could be used in conjunction with a camera for the patient monitoring purposes. These algorithms often perform sub-optimally on processors because of their ...


Analog Spiking Neuromorphic Circuits And Systems For Brain- And Nanotechnology-Inspired Cognitive Computing, Xinyu Wu Dec 2016

Analog Spiking Neuromorphic Circuits And Systems For Brain- And Nanotechnology-Inspired Cognitive Computing, Xinyu Wu

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Human society is now facing grand challenges to satisfy the growing demand for computing power, at the same time, sustain energy consumption. By the end of CMOS technology scaling, innovations are required to tackle the challenges in a radically different way. Inspired by the emerging understanding of the computing occurring in a brain and nanotechnology-enabled biological plausible synaptic plasticity, neuromorphic computing architectures are being investigated. Such a neuromorphic chip that combines CMOS analog spiking neurons and nanoscale resistive random-access memory (RRAM) using as electronics synapses can provide massive neural network parallelism, high density and online learning capability, and hence, paves ...


Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi Dec 2016

Psychophysiological Analysis Of A Pedagogical Agent And Robotic Peer For Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders., Mohammad Nasser Saadatzi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by ongoing problems in social interaction and communication, and engagement in repetitive behaviors. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an estimated 1 in 68 children in the United States has ASD. Mounting evidence shows that many of these individuals display an interest in social interaction with computers and robots and, in general, feel comfortable spending time in such environments. It is known that the subtlety and unpredictability of people’s social behavior are intimidating and confusing for many individuals with ASD. Computerized learning environments and robots, however, prepare a ...


Enhancing Student Usability Of 3d Bioprinting, Andrew Chang, Sabrina Cismas Jun 2016

Enhancing Student Usability Of 3d Bioprinting, Andrew Chang, Sabrina Cismas

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

3D bioprinting is an emerging technology that is changing the face of tissue engineering through the ability to print cells, scaffolding and matrix materials, and other bioactive reagents. 3D bioprinters are a culmination of various scientific and engineering disciplines with respect to their operation and bioprints, and as such, offer a prime case study on the convergence of the technical fields in research. In order to capitalize on this fact and make 3D bioprinting more accessible for interdisciplinary education applications, we sought to translate 3D bioprinting into the classroom environment as a tool for education. In collaboration with SE3D Education ...


Mums: Mobile Urinalysis For Maternal Screening, Blair Koeneman, Amy Miller, Joe Neumeyer, Jake Prince Jun 2016

Mums: Mobile Urinalysis For Maternal Screening, Blair Koeneman, Amy Miller, Joe Neumeyer, Jake Prince

Interdisciplinary Design Senior Theses

Pregnant women in low-income communities often lack access to the necessary healthcare for successful births. This is frequently due to the high costs of medical care, the remote location of patients, and the infrequency of primary care medical visits. To address this inequity, we have created a mobile application and imaging unit that allows for the low-cost implementation of urinalysis testing, which will aid in the detection of warning signs for prenatal health risks. From a single photo taken with a tablet camera, our application digitizes the results of a standard urinalysis test strip, displays the test results, and tracks ...


Multi-Classifier Fusion Strategy For Activity And Intent Recognition Of Torso Movements, Abhijit Kadrolkar Jan 2016

Multi-Classifier Fusion Strategy For Activity And Intent Recognition Of Torso Movements, Abhijit Kadrolkar

Doctoral Dissertations

As assistive, wearable robotic devices are being developed to physically assist their users, it has become crucial to develop safe, reliable methods to coordinate the device with the intentions and motions of the wearer. This dissertation investigates the recognition of user intent during flexion and extension of the human torso in the sagittal plane to be used for control of an assistive exoskeleton for the human torso. A multi-sensor intent recognition approach is developed that combines information from surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals from the user’s muscles and inertial sensors mounted on the user’s body. Intent recognition is implemented ...


A Haptic Surface Robot Interface For Large-Format Touchscreen Displays, Mark Price Jan 2016

A Haptic Surface Robot Interface For Large-Format Touchscreen Displays, Mark Price

Masters Theses

This thesis presents the design for a novel haptic interface for large-format touchscreens. Techniques such as electrovibration, ultrasonic vibration, and external braked devices have been developed by other researchers to deliver haptic feedback to touchscreen users. However, these methods do not address the need for spatial constraints that only restrict user motion in the direction of the constraint. This technology gap contributes to the lack of haptic technology available for touchscreen-based upper-limb rehabilitation, despite the prevalent use of haptics in other forms of robotic rehabilitation. The goal of this thesis is to display kinesthetic haptic constraints to the touchscreen user ...


A Magnetic Actuated Fully Insertable Robotic Camera System For Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery, Xiaolong Liu Aug 2015

A Magnetic Actuated Fully Insertable Robotic Camera System For Single Incision Laparoscopic Surgery, Xiaolong Liu

Doctoral Dissertations

Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a common surgical procedure which makes tiny incisions in the patients anatomy, inserting surgical instruments and using laparoscopic cameras to guide the procedure. Compared with traditional open surgery, MIS allows surgeons to perform complex surgeries with reduced trauma to the muscles and soft tissues, less intraoperative hemorrhaging and postoperative pain, and faster recovery time. Surgeons rely heavily on laparoscopic cameras for hand-eye coordination and control during a procedure. However, the use of a standard laparoscopic camera, achieved by pushing long sticks into a dedicated small opening, involves multiple incisions for the surgical instruments. Recently, single ...


Exploration Of Stimulus Current Energy Reduction And Bifurcation Dynamics In Conductance-Based Neuron Models Using Optimal Control Theory, Michael E. Ellinger Jun 2015

Exploration Of Stimulus Current Energy Reduction And Bifurcation Dynamics In Conductance-Based Neuron Models Using Optimal Control Theory, Michael E. Ellinger

Dissertations

Hodgkin-Huxley type conductance-based models can simulate the effect of time-varying injected stimulus currents on the neuron membrane voltage. The dynamics simulated by these model types enables investigation of the biophysical basis of neuronal activity which is fundamental to higher level function. Broadened understanding the basis of nervous system function could lead to development of effective treatment for related diseases, disorders, and the effects of trauma. In this dissertation, optimal control is used with conductance-based neuron models to develop a "Reduced Energy Input Stimulus Discovery Method." Within the method, an objective function balances two competing criteria: tracking a reference membrane voltage ...


Optimization And Control Of An Active Helmet Design For Head Injury Prevention, Chadi S. Abdel-Samad Apr 2015

Optimization And Control Of An Active Helmet Design For Head Injury Prevention, Chadi S. Abdel-Samad

Electrical, Computer & Energy Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Thousands of mild traumatic brain injuries (mBTIs) occur in US football each year. In some instances, injuries are quite serious and life-threatening. New NFL rules being enforced by the league are an attempt to address this problem. Of interest is whether an active helmet design, employing feedback, can also reduce the incidence of mBTIs in football. Medical evidence and research suggests that peak center of gravity (CG) head acceleration is well correlated with the onset and severity of mBTI. In this dissertation, an active helmet design is introduced, dynamically modeled, and explored from the perspective of using control to reduce ...


Experimental Analysis And Modeling Of Robot-Tissue Contact Mechanics For In Vivo Mobility, Levin John Sliker Jan 2015

Experimental Analysis And Modeling Of Robot-Tissue Contact Mechanics For In Vivo Mobility, Levin John Sliker

Mechanical Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Robotic mobility within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is an intriguing concept, which has received wide attention from within the research community over the past ten years. Capsule endoscopes (CEs) exist commercially, but lack an active mobility system, rendering them as passive devices. These passive devices are only capable of observational procedures, and are limited by the passive speed (dependent on intestinal peristalsis), inability to control orientation, and vulnerability to retention, requiring surgical removal in severe cases. Additionally, passive capsules take photos throughout their journey, resulting in a compilation of thousands of images, which can take the attending physician hours to ...


Computer Aided Detection Of Oral Lesions On Ct Images, Shaikat Mahmood Galib Jan 2015

Computer Aided Detection Of Oral Lesions On Ct Images, Shaikat Mahmood Galib

Masters Theses

"Oral lesions are important findings on computed tomography images. They are difficult to detect on CT images because of low contrast, arbitrary orientation of objects, complicated topology and lack of clear lines indicating lesions. In this thesis, a fully automatic method to detect oral lesions from dental CT images is proposed to identify (1) Closed boundary lesions and (2) Bone deformation lesions. Two algorithms were developed to recognize these two types of lesions, which cover most of the lesion types that can be found on CT images. The results were validated using a dataset of 52 patients. Using non training ...


A Continous Rotary Actuation Mechanism For A Powered Hip Exoskeleton, Matthew C. Ryder Jan 2015

A Continous Rotary Actuation Mechanism For A Powered Hip Exoskeleton, Matthew C. Ryder

Masters Theses

This thesis presents a new mechanical design for an exoskeleton actuator to power the sagittal plane motion in the human hip. The device uses a DC motor to drive a Scotch yoke mechanism and series elasticity to take advantage of the cyclic nature of human gait and to reduce the maximum power and control requirements of the exoskeleton. The Scotch yoke actuator creates a position-dependent transmission that varies between 4:1 and infinity, with the peak transmission ratio aligned to the peak torque periods of the human gait cycle. Simulation results show that both the peak and average motor torque ...


Design Of A Haptic Interface For Medical Applications Using Magneto-Rheological Fluid Based Actuators, Nima Najmaei Dec 2014

Design Of A Haptic Interface For Medical Applications Using Magneto-Rheological Fluid Based Actuators, Nima Najmaei

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis reports on the design, construction, and evaluation of a prototype two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) haptic interface, which takes advantage of Magneto-Rheological Fluid (MRF) based clutches for actuation. Haptic information provides important cues in teleoperated systems and enables the user to feel the interaction with a remote or virtual environment during teleoperation. The two main objectives in designing a haptic interface are stability and transparency. Indeed, deficiencies in these factors in haptics-enabled telerobotic systems has the introduction of haptics in medical environments where safety and reliability are prime considerations. An actuator with poor dynamics, high inertia, large size, and heavy ...