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Full-Text Articles in VLSI and Circuits, Embedded and Hardware Systems

Reinventing Integrated Photonic Devices And Circuits For High Performance Communication And Computing Applications, Venkata Sai Praneeth Karempudi Jan 2024

Reinventing Integrated Photonic Devices And Circuits For High Performance Communication And Computing Applications, Venkata Sai Praneeth Karempudi

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

The long-standing technological pillars for computing systems evolution, namely Moore's law and Von Neumann architecture, are breaking down under the pressure of meeting the capacity and energy efficiency demands of computing and communication architectures that are designed to process modern data-centric applications related to Artificial Intelligence (AI), Big Data, and Internet-of-Things (IoT). In response, both industry and academia have turned to 'more-than-Moore' technologies for realizing hardware architectures for communication and computing. Fortunately, Silicon Photonics (SiPh) has emerged as one highly promising ‘more-than-Moore’ technology. Recent progress has enabled SiPh-based interconnects to outperform traditional electrical interconnects, offering advantages like high bandwidth density, …


Gen-Acceleration: Pioneering Work For Hardware Accelerator Generation Using Large Language Models, Durga Lakshmi Venkata Deepak Vungarala Dec 2023

Gen-Acceleration: Pioneering Work For Hardware Accelerator Generation Using Large Language Models, Durga Lakshmi Venkata Deepak Vungarala

Theses

Optimizing computational power is critical in the age of data-intensive applications and Artificial Intelligence (AI)/Machine Learning (ML). While facing challenging bottlenecks, conventional Von-Neumann architecture with implementing such huge tasks looks seemingly impossible. Hardware Accelerators are critical in efficiently deploying these technologies and have been vastly explored in edge devices. This study explores a state-of-the-art hardware accelerator; Gemmini is studied; we leveraged the open-sourced tool. Furthermore, we developed a Hardware Accelerator in the study we compared with the Non-Von-Neumann architecture. Gemmini is renowned for efficient matrix multiplication, but configuring it for specific tasks requires manual effort and expertise. We propose implementing …


A Case Study In Cmos Design Scaling For Analog Applications: The Ringamp Ldo, Steven Corum Dec 2023

A Case Study In Cmos Design Scaling For Analog Applications: The Ringamp Ldo, Steven Corum

Masters Theses

As CMOS process nodes scale to smaller feature sizes, process optimizations are made to achieve improvements in digital circuit performance, such as increasing speed and memory, while decreasing power consumption. Unfortunately for analog design, these optimizations usually come at the expense of poorer transistor performance, such as reduced small signal output resistance and increased channel length modulation. The ring amplifier has been proposed as a digital solution to the analog scaling problem, by configuring digital inverters to function as analog amplifiers through deadzone biasing. As digital inverters naturally scale, the ring amplifier is a promising area of exploration for analog …


Qasm-To-Hls: A Framework For Accelerating Quantum Circuit Emulation On High-Performance Reconfigurable Computers, Anshul Maurya Dec 2023

Qasm-To-Hls: A Framework For Accelerating Quantum Circuit Emulation On High-Performance Reconfigurable Computers, Anshul Maurya

Theses and Dissertations

High-performance reconfigurable computers (HPRCs) make use of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) for efficient emulation of quantum algorithms. Generally, algorithm-specific architectures are implemented on the FPGAs and there is very little flexibility. Moreover, mapping a quantum algorithm onto its equivalent FPGA emulation architecture is challenging. In this work, we present an automation framework for converting quantum circuits to their equivalent FPGA emulation architectures. The framework processes quantum circuits represented in Quantum Assembly Language (QASM) and derives high-level descriptions of the hardware emulation architectures for High-Level Synthesis (HLS) on HPRCs. The framework generates the code for a heterogeneous architecture consisting of a …


Accelerating Machine Learning Inference For Satellite Component Feature Extraction Using Fpgas., Andrew Ekblad Dec 2023

Accelerating Machine Learning Inference For Satellite Component Feature Extraction Using Fpgas., Andrew Ekblad

Theses and Dissertations

Running computer vision algorithms requires complex devices with lots of computing power, these types of devices are not well suited for space deployment. The harsh radiation environment and limited power budgets have hindered the ability of running advanced computer vision algorithms in space. This problem makes running an on-orbit servicing detection algorithm very difficult. This work proposes using a low powered FPGA to accelerate the computer vision algorithms that enable satellite component feature extraction. This work uses AMD/Xilinx’s Zynq SoC and DPU IP to run model inference. Experiments in this work centered around improving model post processing by creating implementations …


Low-Power, Event-Driven System On A Chip For Charge Pulse Processing Applications, Joseph A. Schmitz Dec 2023

Low-Power, Event-Driven System On A Chip For Charge Pulse Processing Applications, Joseph A. Schmitz

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This dissertation presents an electronic architecture and methodology capable of processing charge pulses generated by a range of sensors, including radiation detectors and tactile synthetic skin. These sensors output a charge signal proportional to the input stimulus, which is processed electronically in both the analog and digital domains. The presented work implements this functionality using an event-driven methodology, which greatly reduces power consumption compared to standard implementations. This enables new application areas that require a long operating time or compact physical dimensions, which would not otherwise be possible. The architecture is designed, fabricated, and tested in the aforementioned applications to …


A Moving Target Architecture As A Side-Channel Countermeasure, Rachel M. Cazzola Nov 2023

A Moving Target Architecture As A Side-Channel Countermeasure, Rachel M. Cazzola

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

We investigate a novel side-channel attack countermeasure called Side-channel Power analysis Resistance for Encryption Algorithms using Dynamic partial reconfiguration (SPREAD). The countermeasure leverages a strategy that is best characterized as a moving target architecture. Modern field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architectures provide support for dynamic partial reconfiguration (DPR), a feature that allows real-time reconfiguration of portions of the programmable logic (PL) while the FPGA continues to carry out computing tasks. Using the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), the proposed moving target architecture leverages DPR to change the implementation characteristics of the substitution boxes (SBOX) in real time. We present experimental hardware results …


Creating An Automatic Lowering Function For Quarter-Scale Tractor Pulling Sled, Sam Wilkins Oct 2023

Creating An Automatic Lowering Function For Quarter-Scale Tractor Pulling Sled, Sam Wilkins

Honors Theses

As the agricultural industry works to continuously integrate innovative technology and improve production efficiency, improved on-board data acquisition and transmission will be necessary for all agricultural machines. To make this a reality, the utilization of controller area network (CAN) technology will be crucial. Therefore, it is important for all agricultural engineers to have foundational knowledge of CAN bus systems and the standards that govern their use in industry. The UNL quarter-scale tractor team regularly utilizes CAN buses on their tractors and testing equipment. One such testing machine is the team’s pulling sled, which uses CAN messages to transport important information …


Fingerprinting For Chiplet Architectures Using Power Distribution Network Transients, Matthew G. Burke Aug 2023

Fingerprinting For Chiplet Architectures Using Power Distribution Network Transients, Matthew G. Burke

Masters Theses

Chiplets have become an increasingly popular technology for extending Moore's Law and improving the reliability of integrated circuits. They do this by placing several small, interacting chips on an interposer rather than the traditional, single chip used for a device. Like any other type of integrated circuit, chiplets are in need of a physical layer of security to defend against hardware Trojans, counterfeiting, probing, and other methods of tampering and physical attacks.

Power distribution networks are ubiquitous across chiplet and monolithic ICs, and are essential to the function of the device. Thus, we propose a method of fingerprinting transient signals …


Sel4 On Risc-V - Developing High Assurance Platforms With Modular Open-Source Architectures, Michael A. Doran Jr Aug 2023

Sel4 On Risc-V - Developing High Assurance Platforms With Modular Open-Source Architectures, Michael A. Doran Jr

Masters Theses

Virtualization is now becoming an industry standard for modern embedded systems. Modern embedded systems can now support multiple applications on a single hardware platform while meeting power and cost requirements. Virtualization on an embedded system is achieved through the design of the hardware-software interface. Instruction set architecture, ISA, defines the hardware-software interface for an embedded system. At the hardware level the ISA, provides extensions to support virtualization.

In addition to an ISA that supports hypervisor extensions it is equally important to provide a hypervisor completely capable of exploiting the benefits of virtualization for securing modern embedded systems. Currently there does …


A Portable, Low Power Radiation Detection And Identification System For High Count Rate, Long Term Monitoring, Samuel J. Murray Aug 2023

A Portable, Low Power Radiation Detection And Identification System For High Count Rate, Long Term Monitoring, Samuel J. Murray

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

This dissertation presents the design of a novel radiation detection and identification system that can operate continuously over a period of 8 days while detecting at 30,000 counts per second, consuming a total of 11 mW. The entire system is highly integrated, containing a gamma ray detector, a high voltage detector power supply, and a multichannel analyzer (MCA) system-on-a-chip (SoC), which are all combined into a compact form using a multi-level, configurable printed circuit board design. The MCA SoC, fabricated using a 65 nm CMOS technology, features two enabling resources to allow low power detections at high count rates for …


Characterization Of Low Power Hfo2 Based Switching Devices For In-Memory Computing, Aseel Zeinati May 2023

Characterization Of Low Power Hfo2 Based Switching Devices For In-Memory Computing, Aseel Zeinati

Theses

Oxide based Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) devices are investigated as one of the promising non-volatile memories to be used for in-memory computing that will replace the classical von Neumann architecture and reduce the power consumption. These applications required multilevel cell (MLC) characteristics that can be achieved in RRAM devices. One of the methods to achieve this analog switching behavior is by performing an optimized electrical pulse. The RRAM device structure is basically an insulator between two metals as metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure. Where one of the primary challenges is to assign an RRAM stack with both low power consumption and …


Using An Embedded System For A Quality Cup Of Coffee, Evan Powers, Joshua Stermer, Tsion Yohannes May 2023

Using An Embedded System For A Quality Cup Of Coffee, Evan Powers, Joshua Stermer, Tsion Yohannes

2023 Symposium

Many coffee lovers spend up to $5 on a cup of coffee everyday. To save money one could make them at home, but a quality machine with PIDs start at $1000. Using an embedded system one could spend less than $50 and a few hours implement PIDs into an existing $400 machine that will last a lifetime. microcontroller. Learning C language combined with hardware implementation applied to cheap and simple everyday objects can improve everyday quality of life and save money.

This is challenging because we have to incorporate the additional circuitry into a pre established circuit with limited space, …


Vi Energy-Efficient Memristor-Based Neuromorphic Computing Circuits And Systems For Radiation Detection Applications, Jorge Iván Canales Verdial May 2023

Vi Energy-Efficient Memristor-Based Neuromorphic Computing Circuits And Systems For Radiation Detection Applications, Jorge Iván Canales Verdial

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

Radionuclide spectroscopic sensor data is analyzed with minimal power consumption through the use of neuromorphic computing architectures. Memristor crossbars are harnessed as the computational substrate in this non-conventional computing platform and integrated with CMOS-based neurons to mimic the computational dynamics observed in the mammalian brain’s visual cortex. Functional prototypes using spiking sparse locally competitive approximations are presented. The architectures are evaluated for classification accuracy and energy efficiency. The proposed systems achieve a 90% true positive accuracy with a high-resolution detector and 86% with a low-resolution detector.


The Study Of Corrosion On Additive-Manufactured Metals., Braydan Daniels May 2023

The Study Of Corrosion On Additive-Manufactured Metals., Braydan Daniels

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the corrosion mechanisms between wrought and additive-manufactured (3D-printed) copper and stainless steel. The experimental procedure consisted of measuring the open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry, Tafel analysis, surface topology, and scanning electron microscopy for each metal within salt water, tap water, sulfuric acid, and synthetic body fluid (excluding copper in synthetic body fluid).

Overall, printed stainless steel was more corrosion-resistant than wrought stainless steel in tap water and synthetic body fluid based on OCP, LSV, and surface topology results. Additionally, printed copper was more corrosion-resistant than wrought …


Design And Implementation Of High-Efficiency, Lightweight, System-Friendly Solid-State Circuit Breaker, Dehao Qin May 2023

Design And Implementation Of High-Efficiency, Lightweight, System-Friendly Solid-State Circuit Breaker, Dehao Qin

All Dissertations

Direct current (DC) distribution system has shown potential over the alternative current (AC) distribution system in some application scenarios, e.g., electrified transportation, renewable energy, data center, etc. Because of the fast response speed, DC solid-state circuit breaker (SSCB) becomes a promising technology for the future power electronics intensive DC energy system with fault-tolerant capability. First, a thorough literature survey is performed to review the DC-SSCB technology. The key components for DC-SSCB, including power semiconductors, topologies, energy absorption units, and fault detection circuits, are studied. It is observed that the prior studies mainly focus on the basic interruption capability of the …


A Low Power, Rad-Hard, Ecl Standard Cell Library, Zakaraya A. Hamdan May 2023

A Low Power, Rad-Hard, Ecl Standard Cell Library, Zakaraya A. Hamdan

Masters Theses

Space exploration for life both inside and outside of our solar system demand the design and fabrication of robust, reliable electronics that can take measurements, process data, and sustain necessary operations. However, the presence of high radiation and the cold temperature of space poses a challenge to most designers. This thesis presents the design of a radiation-hardened, cold capable emitter coupled logic standard cell library with the intention of being used for space applications. The cells are designed and fabricated in a 90nm silicon germanium BiCMOS process. First, a review of emitter coupled logic is presented. Then, the design methodology …


Stream Processor Development Using Multi-Threshold Null Convention Logic Asynchronous Design Methodology, Wassim Khalil May 2023

Stream Processor Development Using Multi-Threshold Null Convention Logic Asynchronous Design Methodology, Wassim Khalil

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Decreasing transistor feature size has led to an increase in the number of transistors in integrated circuits (IC), allowing for the implementation of more complex logic. However, such logic also requires more complex clock tree synthesis (CTS) to avoid timing violations as the clock must reach many more gates over larger areas. Thus, timing analysis requires significantly more computing power and designer involvement than in the past. For these reasons, IC designers have been pushed to nix conventional synchronous (SYNC) architecture and explore novel methodologies such as asynchronous, self-timed architecture. This dissertation evaluates the nominal active energy, voltage-scaled active energy, …


Evaluation Of The Dynamic Vision Sensor’S Photoreceptor Circuit For Infrared Event-Based Sensing, Zinah M. Alsaad Apr 2023

Evaluation Of The Dynamic Vision Sensor’S Photoreceptor Circuit For Infrared Event-Based Sensing, Zinah M. Alsaad

Electrical and Computer Engineering ETDs

For space surveillance applications, neuromorphic imaging is being studied as it may perform sensing and tracking tasks with less power and downstream datalink demand. The read-out of the event-based camera is made to only be sensitive to changes in the signals it receives from the photodetector, which results in a datastream of events indicating where and when changes in illumination occur. This is in contrast to the conventional framing camera, which produces images by essentially counting the electrons produced by light incident on each pixel’s photodetector. These cameras are commercially available with siliconbased detectors for applications involving visible wavelengths. However, …


Automated Sensing Methods In Soft Stretchable Sensors For Soft Robotic Gripper, Prosenjit Kumar Ghosh Apr 2023

Automated Sensing Methods In Soft Stretchable Sensors For Soft Robotic Gripper, Prosenjit Kumar Ghosh

Electrical Engineering Theses

A soft robot is made from deformable and flexible materials such as silicone, rubber, polymers, etc. Soft robotics is a rapidly evolving field where the human-robot-interaction and bio-inspired design align. The physical characteristics such as highly deformable material and dexterity make soft robots widely applicable. A soft robotic gripper is a robotic hand that acts like a human hand and grasps any object. The most common applications of soft robotics grippers are gripping and locomotion in sensitive applications where high dynamic and sensitivity are essential. Nowadays, soft robotics grippers are used without any sensing method and feedback as it is …


Phone Microwave, Khanh Kim Hoang, Emily Zhou Mar 2023

Phone Microwave, Khanh Kim Hoang, Emily Zhou

Computer Engineering

This project involves the installation of remote-control capabilities in an antique 1980s microwave, effectively turning the microwave into a “smart” device. While preserving the original functionality of the microwave, a combination of software and hardware components allows for remote microwave operations. The microwave can be remotely operated by calling the built-in number, and more advanced settings and options can be utilized by texting. The microwave is also secured against unauthorized use with the addition of a PIN code that is required to operate the device.


Security Of Hardware Accelerators In Multi-Tenant Fpga Environments, Shayan Moini Feb 2023

Security Of Hardware Accelerators In Multi-Tenant Fpga Environments, Shayan Moini

Doctoral Dissertations

Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) play an important role in the acceleration of computationally expensive algorithms for machine learning, aerospace, and ASIC prototyping. The emergence of FPGAs in the cloud (cloud FPGAs) has accelerated FPGA adoption in various applications due to their low initial cost and the ability to quickly prototype a design. Multi-tenancy, in which multiple users execute circuitry in the same FPGAs simultaneously with logical isolation, reduces cloud FPGA usage cost and increases FPGA utilization. Multi-tenancy introduces new security challenges, such as remote side-channel and fault injection attacks, that cannot be addressed with traditional countermeasures against attacks. In this …


Safe Kids Car, Nathan Keenan, Jackson Piper, Kyle Law, Anthony Meniru Jan 2023

Safe Kids Car, Nathan Keenan, Jackson Piper, Kyle Law, Anthony Meniru

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The main goal of this project is to retrofit toy vehicles, such as Powerwheels cars, with safety systems that can protect the driver and those around the driver. Such systems will include lights, including headlights and taillights, and an automatic braking system, which will activate in the face of an inevitable collision. The system will also work with the driver to prevent collisions, providing warnings of impending danger.

Keywords: toy vehicles, collision detection, collision avoidance, automatic braking system, DC motors, automatic headlights.


A Phase Change Memory And Dram Based Framework For Energy-Efficient And High-Speed In-Memory Stochastic Computing, Supreeth Mysore Jan 2023

A Phase Change Memory And Dram Based Framework For Energy-Efficient And High-Speed In-Memory Stochastic Computing, Supreeth Mysore

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have proven to be highly effective in various fields related to Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML). However, the significant computational and memory requirements of CNNs make their processing highly compute and memory-intensive. In particular, the multiply-accumulate (MAC) operation, which is a fundamental building block of CNNs, requires enormous arithmetic operations. As the input dataset size increases, the traditional processor-centric von-Neumann computing architecture becomes ill-suited for CNN-based applications. This results in exponentially higher latency and energy costs, making the processing of CNNs highly challenging.

To overcome these challenges, researchers have explored the Processing-In Memory (PIM) …


Wireless Kick Pedal, Jacob Wise, Ryan Kinyo, Bradley Toth, Ian Zanath Jan 2023

Wireless Kick Pedal, Jacob Wise, Ryan Kinyo, Bradley Toth, Ian Zanath

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of the project is to build a wireless kick pedal that allows accessibility to drummers that have leg or foot disabilities and add versatility to multi-instrumentalists looking to add percussion while playing another instrument. The proposed pedal is designed in two main parts, a wearable band that tracks the player’s movement, and a hammer mechanism that receives actuation commands from the wearable band to move the hammer and deliver a drumbeat. The band is designed to be worn on several parts of the body, including the ankle, knee, thigh, or even the arm depending on the user’s situation. …


Wireless Environmental Weather Monitor, Joel Christie-Millett, Nathan Schroeder, Sylvester Wilson, Matthew Szijarto Jan 2023

Wireless Environmental Weather Monitor, Joel Christie-Millett, Nathan Schroeder, Sylvester Wilson, Matthew Szijarto

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this senior design/honors project is to create a device that monitors environmental conditions in order to detect a wildfire. This device should notify a user of the status of the environment. The device should also last for 6 months without any human interaction. My role on the team is to design the power supply system that maximizes efficiency and uses renewable energy.


Performance Evaluation Of Face Mask Detection For Real-Time Implementation On An Rpi, Ivan George L. Tarun, Vidal Wyatt M. Lopez, Pamela Anne C. Serrano, Patricia Angela R. Abu, Rosula Reyes, Ma. Regina Justina Estuar Jan 2023

Performance Evaluation Of Face Mask Detection For Real-Time Implementation On An Rpi, Ivan George L. Tarun, Vidal Wyatt M. Lopez, Pamela Anne C. Serrano, Patricia Angela R. Abu, Rosula Reyes, Ma. Regina Justina Estuar

Department of Information Systems & Computer Science Faculty Publications

Mask-wearing remains to be one of the primary protective measures against COVID-19. To address the difficulty of manual compliance monitoring, face mask detection models considerate of both frontal and angled faces were developed. This study aimed to test the performance of the said models in classifying multi-face images and upon running on a Raspberry Pi device. The accuracies and inference speeds were measured and compared when inferencing images with one, two, and three faces and on the desktop and the Raspberry Pi. With an increasing number of faces in an image, the models’ accuracies were observed to decline, while their …


Towards Multipronged On-Chip Memory And Data Protection From Verification To Design And Test, Senwen Kan, Jennifer Dworak Dec 2022

Towards Multipronged On-Chip Memory And Data Protection From Verification To Design And Test, Senwen Kan, Jennifer Dworak

Computer Science and Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Modern System on Chips (SoCs) generally include embedded memories, and these memories may be vulnerable to malicious attacks such as hardware trojan horses (HTHs), test access port exploitation, and malicious software. This dissertation contributes verification as well as design obfuscation solutions aimed at design level detection of memory HTH circuits as well as obfuscation to prevent HTH triggering for embedded memory during functional operation. For malicious attack vectors stemming from test/debug interfaces, this dissertation presents novel solutions that enhance design verification and securitization of an IJTAG based test access interface. Such solutions can enhance SoC protection by preventing memory test …


High-Performance Vlsi Architectures For Lattice-Based Cryptography, Weihang Tan Dec 2022

High-Performance Vlsi Architectures For Lattice-Based Cryptography, Weihang Tan

All Dissertations

Lattice-based cryptography is a cryptographic primitive built upon the hard problems on point lattices. Cryptosystems relying on lattice-based cryptography have attracted huge attention in the last decade since they have post-quantum-resistant security and the remarkable construction of the algorithm. In particular, homomorphic encryption (HE) and post-quantum cryptography (PQC) are the two main applications of lattice-based cryptography. Meanwhile, the efficient hardware implementations for these advanced cryptography schemes are demanding to achieve a high-performance implementation.

This dissertation aims to investigate the novel and high-performance very large-scale integration (VLSI) architectures for lattice-based cryptography, including the HE and PQC schemes. This dissertation first presents …


Low Power Multi-Channel Interface For Charge Based Tactile Sensors, Samuel Hansen Dec 2022

Low Power Multi-Channel Interface For Charge Based Tactile Sensors, Samuel Hansen

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Analog front end electronics are designed in 65 nm CMOS technology to process charge pulses arriving from a tactile sensor array. This is accomplished through the use of charge sensitive amplifiers and discrete time filters with tunable clock signals located in each of the analog front ends. Sensors were emulated using Gaussian pulses during simulation. The digital side of the system uses SAR (successive approximation register) ADCs for sampling of the processed sensor signals.

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