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Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: What Do We Know, What Do We Not Know, And Where Do We Go?, Eva Thanheiser, Christine Browning, Alden Edson, Jane-Jane Lo, Ian Whitacre, Dana Olanoff, Crystal Morton 2014 Portland State University

Prospective Elementary Mathematics Teacher Content Knowledge: What Do We Know, What Do We Not Know, And Where Do We Go?, Eva Thanheiser, Christine Browning, Alden Edson, Jane-Jane Lo, Ian Whitacre, Dana Olanoff, Crystal Morton

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

The authors reviewed 112 research studies from 1978 to 2012 on prospective elementary teachers' content knowledge in five content areas: whole numbers and operations, fractions, decimals, geometry and measurement, and algebra. Looking across these studies, this final paper identifies the trends and common themes in terms of the counts and types of studies and commonalities among findings. Analyses of the counts show that the number of articles published each year focusing on prospective teacher (PT) content knowledge is increasing. Most articles across the content areas show that PTs tend to rely on procedures rather than concepts. However, the focus of ...


Mathematical Content Knowledge For Teaching Elementary Mathematics: A Focus On Whole-Number Concepts And Operations, Eva Thanheiser, Ian Whitacre, George J. Roy 2014 Portland State University

Mathematical Content Knowledge For Teaching Elementary Mathematics: A Focus On Whole-Number Concepts And Operations, Eva Thanheiser, Ian Whitacre, George J. Roy

Mathematics and Statistics Faculty Publications and Presentations

This report represents part of a recent effort to summarize the state of knowledge of prospective elementary teachers' (PTs') mathematics content knowledge and the development thereof. Extensive reviews of the research literature were conducted by a recent PME-NA Working Group across various content areas. This report focuses on whole number and operations. Research in this area is scarce. What we do know from the literature is that PTs' knowledge of whole number and operations is insufficient and in need of improvement. PTs reason about whole numbers and operations in ways that are tied to the standard algorithms. At the same ...


The Discipline Of History And The “Modern Consensus In The Historiography Of Mathematics”, Michael N. Fried 2014 Claremont Colleges

The Discipline Of History And The “Modern Consensus In The Historiography Of Mathematics”, Michael N. Fried

Journal of Humanistic Mathematics

Teachers and students of mathematics often view history of mathematics as just mathematics as they know it, but in another form. This view is based on a misunderstanding of the nature of history of mathematics and the kind of knowledge it attempts to acquire. Unfortunately, it can also lead to a deep sense of disappointment with the history of mathematics itself, and, ultimately, a misunderstanding of the historical nature of mathematics. This kind of misunderstanding and the disappointment following from it--both raised to the level of resentment--run through the paper "A Critique of the Modern Consensus in the Historiography of ...


Parts Of The Whole: Strategies For The Spread Of Quantitative Literacy: What Models Can Tell Us, Dorothy Wallace 2014 University of South Florida

Parts Of The Whole: Strategies For The Spread Of Quantitative Literacy: What Models Can Tell Us, Dorothy Wallace

Numeracy

Two conceptual frameworks, one from graph theory and one from dynamical systems, have been offered as explanations for complex phenomena in biology and also as possible models for the spread of ideas. The two models are based on different assumptions and thus predict quite different outcomes for the fate of either biological species or ideas. We argue that, depending on the culture in which they exist, one can identify which model is more likely to reflect the survival of two competing ideas. Based on this argument we suggest how two strategies for embedding and normalizing quantitative literacy in a given ...


Quantitative Reasoning Learning Progression: The Matrix, Robert L. Mayes, Jennifer Forrester, Jennifer Schuttlefield Christus, Franziska Peterson, Rachel Walker 2014 University of South Florida

Quantitative Reasoning Learning Progression: The Matrix, Robert L. Mayes, Jennifer Forrester, Jennifer Schuttlefield Christus, Franziska Peterson, Rachel Walker

Numeracy

The NSF Pathways Project studied the development of environmental literacy in students from grades six through high school. Learning progressions for environmental literacy were developed to explicate the trajectory of learning. The Pathways QR research team supported this effort by studying the role of quantitative reasoning (QR) as a support or barrier to developing environmental literacy. An iterative research methodology was employed which included targeted student interviews to establish QR learning progression progress variables and elements comprising those progress variables, development of a QR learning progression framework, and closed-form QR assessments to verify the progression. In this paper the focus ...


History Of Numeracy Education And Training For Print Journalists In England, Steven Harrison 2014 University of South Florida

History Of Numeracy Education And Training For Print Journalists In England, Steven Harrison

Numeracy

If the history of journalism education has been a footnote to accounts of the profession’s development, then the history of numeracy training for journalists must be considered a footnote to a footnote. Despite the universally acknowledged centrality of numbers to a clear understanding of the world, many journalism students and entrants are proudly number-phobic; it is even suggested that an aversion to maths is a key reason why some choose journalism as a career. This study traces the development of numeracy education for journalists in England. It is only with the incipient professionalisation of journalism from the mid-19th century ...


Looking At The Multiple Meanings Of Numeracy, Quantitative Literacy, And Quantitative Reasoning, H. L. Vacher 2014 University of South Florida

Looking At The Multiple Meanings Of Numeracy, Quantitative Literacy, And Quantitative Reasoning, H. L. Vacher

Numeracy

The subject of this journal goes by a variety of names: numeracy, quantitative literacy, and quantitative reasoning. Some authors use the terms interchangeably. Others see distinctions between them. Study of psycholinguistic and ontological concepts laid out in the literature of WordNet and familiarity with the papers in this journal suggests a vocabulary matrix consisting of four rows (word senses) and three columns (word forms, namely numeracy, QL, and QR). The four word senses correspond to four sets of synonyms: {numeracy}, {numeracy, QL}, {QL, QR}, and {numeracy, QL, QR}. Each of the word forms is polysemous: “numeracy” points to the first ...


Retention And Success Of Underrepresented Minorities In Stem At University Of Massachusetts Boston: A Pilot Study Of The Impact Of Freshman Success Communities, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Alvine Sangang, Liliana Mickle 2014 University of Massachusetts Boston

Retention And Success Of Underrepresented Minorities In Stem At University Of Massachusetts Boston: A Pilot Study Of The Impact Of Freshman Success Communities, Michael P. Johnson Jr., Alvine Sangang, Liliana Mickle

Michael P. Johnson

Today’s college graduates are facing a complex world in which the demand for a sophisticated skill set is ever increasing; this is even more salient in the Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields. Therefore, the success of students majoring in STEM appears critical for meeting the market demand for such degrees. Unfortunately, current rates of success in STEM suggest that there are a number of challenges impeding STEM major completion, particularly for underrepresented minorities. In the academic year 2011, the share of underrepresented minorities (URM) receiving STEM degrees in the University of Massachusetts system was 8.7%. In ...


Carl F. Craver And Lindley Darden: In Search Of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across The Life Sciences, Stuart Glennan 2014 Butler University

Carl F. Craver And Lindley Darden: In Search Of Mechanisms: Discoveries Across The Life Sciences, Stuart Glennan

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Carl Craver and Lindley Darden are two of the foremost proponents of a recent approach to the philosophy of biology that is often called the New Mechanism. In this book they seek to make available to a broader readership insights gained from more than two decades of work on the nature of mechanisms and how they are described and discovered. The book is not primarily aimed at specialists working on the New Mechanism, but rather targets scientists, students and teachers who are looking for a broad, philosophically and historically informed image of discovery in the life sciences.


Beliefs Of Efficacy And Elementary Teachers’ Computational Skills, Vanessa Hinton, Margaret Flores, Kate Simmons 2014 Georgia Southern University

Beliefs Of Efficacy And Elementary Teachers’ Computational Skills, Vanessa Hinton, Margaret Flores, Kate Simmons

Georgia Educational Researcher

Early mathematics content that is taught in elementary school lays the foundation for students’ advanced mathematics performance. Thus, researchers show it is important that pre-service elementary teachers build a strong background in numbers and operations, as well as efficacy beliefs in mathematics instruction. This study expands the literature in the investigation of pre-service teachers’ efficacy beliefs and mathematical knowledge by making comparisons of pre-service elementary teachers’ views of efficacy to their overall ability in computation skills. Results show that elementary pre-service teachers who demonstrated lower scores in efficacy beliefs also had significantly lower computation scores. Implications for teacher preparation are ...


Geometry: A Medium To Facilitate Geometric Reasoning Among Sixth Grade African-American Males, Olufunke Adefope 2014 Georgia Southern University

Geometry: A Medium To Facilitate Geometric Reasoning Among Sixth Grade African-American Males, Olufunke Adefope

Georgia Educational Researcher

In this article, the author describes how a curricular unit that provided opportunities for active engagement and participation was used to support the geometric reasoning of sixth grade African American (AA) male students. The curricular unit was designed to support students’ understanding of quadrilaterals. Data sources (pre- and post-tests, video recordings of classroom episodes, mathematics interviews) were analyzed through quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings showed that students improved in their understanding of quadrilateral classifications. Specifically, students were able to use their knowledge of geometry to evaluate the relationships between pairs of quadrilaterals. However, levels of understanding were varied. Little research ...


Alpha, Beta, Launch: A Newbie's Guide To Educational Video Game Development, Colleen Krahulik, Lori Goszczynski 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Alpha, Beta, Launch: A Newbie's Guide To Educational Video Game Development, Colleen Krahulik, Lori Goszczynski

Journal of Interactive Humanities

This paper details the process we went through to develop an educational video game, which includes: research on implementing video games into the classroom, vendor selection, video game design, and curriculum development. Throughout the video game development process, we faced challenges such as budget, time constraint, and varying areas of expertise. This paper serves as a guideline for similar organizations interested in educational video game development.

Play game on desktop or tablet: www.avma.org/videogame

Play within browser: https://www.avma.org/KB/K12/videogame/index.html


Dynamic Variables Of Science Classroom Discourse In Relation To Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs, Sibel Kaya 2014 Edith Cowan University

Dynamic Variables Of Science Classroom Discourse In Relation To Teachers’ Instructional Beliefs, Sibel Kaya

Australian Journal of Teacher Education

The current study examines if the occurence of dynamic variables namely, authentic questions, uptake, high-level evaluation and student questions in primary science classrooms vary by teachers’ instructional beliefs. Twelve 4th grade teachers from two different schools volunteered to participate in the study. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to determine teachers’ instructional beliefs, classroom practices and dynamic variables of classroom discourse. Results showed that teachers were more teacher-centred in their classroom practices than their instructional beliefs. There were no differences among teachers with different instructional beliefs in terms ...


Common Core Math: A Guide, Stephanie J. Eaton 2014 Western Oregon University

Common Core Math: A Guide, Stephanie J. Eaton

Honors Senior Theses/Projects

The state of Oregon has been realigning, reformatting, essentially re-creating its educational math standards every few years for over a decade. For today’s parents, this not only means that an entirely new system is being used to teach their children math than when they went to school themselves, but that their children are learning a completely new way of looking and dealing with math altogether. The progression of alterations made to standards has led to a more content-oriented curriculum, which aims toward deeper student understanding of the same math concepts taught years ago. Current standards point their focus away ...


High School Students' Perceptions Of Their Internship Experiences And The Related Impact On Career Choices And Changes, Michael Papadimitriou 2014 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

High School Students' Perceptions Of Their Internship Experiences And The Related Impact On Career Choices And Changes, Michael Papadimitriou

Online Journal for Workforce Education and Development

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to illuminate STEM students’ perceptions of internship experiences and to examine the impact of these experiences on career and college major choices and retention in the science career pipeline. Background: Many high schools operate internship programs with the purpose of providing authentic work experiences. Through these experiences, students are forced to confront the unrealistic nature of their personal perceptions of practice, and are then exposed to the nuances of practice and authentic skills of practice. Methods: Students were asked to complete an internship questionnaire as part of the senior exit process along ...


Why Do Undergraduate Women Persist As Stem Majors? A Study At Twotechnological Universities, Ronald Brandt 2014 Seton Hall University

Why Do Undergraduate Women Persist As Stem Majors? A Study At Twotechnological Universities, Ronald Brandt

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Women continue to be underrepresented in STEM fields despite significant policy efforts to increase the number of qualified women. Prior research focused on access for women into advanced high school mathematics and science courses. Parity has been achieved in academic prerequisites for STEM studies in higher education, yet the number of women majoring in STEM has remained static. Recent research has focused on the socio-cultural obstacles that women face, including a lower self-confidence in their abilities, bias and gender stereotypes.

A survey was undertaken to examine the self-confidence, opinions and backgrounds of female students persisting as STEM majors at two ...


Exploring The Factors That Influence And Motivate Female Students To Enroll And Persist In Collegiate Stem Degree Programs: A Mixed Methods Study, Rosemary L. Edzie 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Exploring The Factors That Influence And Motivate Female Students To Enroll And Persist In Collegiate Stem Degree Programs: A Mixed Methods Study, Rosemary L. Edzie

Educational Administration: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Nationally, the need for an increase in interest, enrollment, and degrees awarded from science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) degree programs continues to suffer. While students are enrolling in collegiate STEM degree programs, it is not occurring at a rate that meets the workforce demand. In addition to the concern that there is not a sufficient amount of collegiate STEM majors, there is a concern over too few females enrolling and persisting in collegiate STEM degree programs.

This mixed methods sequential exploratory research study considered the factors that influence and motivate undergraduate female students to enroll and persist in collegiate ...


Elementary School Teachers' Interpretation And Promotion Of Creativity In The Learning Of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Study, Yinjing Shen 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Elementary School Teachers' Interpretation And Promotion Of Creativity In The Learning Of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Study, Yinjing Shen

Open Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Creativity is important for young children learning mathematics. Comparing the investment theory of creativity and national standards and principles for early mathematics shows that doing mathematics is more than applying rules and procedures; rather, learning mathematics takes a lot of creativity. However, much literature claimed that creativity for young children in the learning of mathematics was not adequately supported by teachers in the classroom due to teachers’ poor college preparation in mathematics content knowledge, teachers’ negativity towards creative students, teachers’ occupational pressure, low quality curriculum, and the like. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a model ...


The Importance Of Writing In Mathematics: Why Writing Allows For A Deeper Understanding Of The Mathematical Content, Cory Quealy 2014 St. John Fisher College

The Importance Of Writing In Mathematics: Why Writing Allows For A Deeper Understanding Of The Mathematical Content, Cory Quealy

Undergraduate Review: a Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

When learning a new subject or course material, writing can be an essential tool for a deeper understanding of content. The importance of writing in mathematics is no different—yet in mathematics, writing seems to be the odd-ball out (exception). However, in classrooms where students have little depth of understanding mathematics, writing can be a vital instrument in the learning process. A common misconception when learning mathematics is that it is all numbers and memorizing equations—when in fact writing is a main component and first step to developing a deeper understanding of the mathematical content. As students continue to ...


Shoot For The Moon! The Mentors And The Middle Schoolers Explore The Intersection Of Design Thinking And Stem, Maureen P. Carroll Ph.D. 2014 Purdue University

Shoot For The Moon! The Mentors And The Middle Schoolers Explore The Intersection Of Design Thinking And Stem, Maureen P. Carroll Ph.D.

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

This paper describes the journey of a group of university students as they worked with underserved middle school students as mentors in a STEM-based afterschool program. Design thinking provided a frame within which students learned how to be mentors, how to create user-centered learning experiences, and how to share their experiences as developing STEM professionals with middle school students.


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