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Influence Of Reduced Leaching On Growth Of Seedlings Of Black Locust Inoculated With Rhizobia, William R. Graves, Sandra R. Anfinson 2017 Iowa State University

Influence Of Reduced Leaching On Growth Of Seedlings Of Black Locust Inoculated With Rhizobia, William R. Graves, Sandra R. Anfinson

William R Graves

Seedlings of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were inoculated with compatible rhizobia and irrigated twice each week with solution containing either 50 or 150 mg nitrogen/L. Leaching fraction treatments of 0, 0.2, or 0.4 were maintained for 6 weeks. Seedlings supplied 50 mg nitrogen/L grew poorly compared co planes supplied 150 mg nitrogen/L regardless of leaching fraction. Dry masses of shoots and of entire planes were lower for seedlings in the 0 and 0.2 leaching fraction treatments compared with chose in the 0.4 treatment. Neither leaching fraction nor applied nitrogen concentration appeared co ...


Have Gender Gaps In Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, And Learning Behaviors Across Two Ecls-K Cohorts, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah T. Lubienski, Jennifer D. Timmer, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller 2017 New York University

Have Gender Gaps In Math Closed? Achievement, Teacher Perceptions, And Learning Behaviors Across Two Ecls-K Cohorts, Joseph R. Cimpian, Sarah T. Lubienski, Jennifer D. Timmer, Martha B. Makowski, Emily K. Miller

Emily Miller

Studies using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten Class of 1998–1999 (ECLS-K:1999) revealed gender gaps in mathematics achievement and teacher perceptions. However, recent evidence suggests that gender gaps have closed on state tests, raising the question of whether such gaps are absent in the ECLS-K:2011 cohort. Extending earlier analyses, this study compares the two ECLS-K cohorts, exploring gaps throughout the achievement distribution and examining whether learning behaviors might differentially explain gaps more at the bottom than the top of the distribution. Overall, this study reveals remarkable consistency across both ECLS-K cohorts, with the gender gap ...


Relationships Between Mathematics Teacher Preparation And Graduates' Analyses Of Classroom Teaching, James Hiebert, Emily Miller, Dawn Berk 2017 University of Delaware

Relationships Between Mathematics Teacher Preparation And Graduates' Analyses Of Classroom Teaching, James Hiebert, Emily Miller, Dawn Berk

Emily Miller

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relationships between mathematics teacher preparation and graduates’ analyses of classroom teaching. Fifty three graduates from an elementary teacher preparation program completed 4 video-based, analysis-of-teaching tasks in the semester before graduation and then in each of the 3 summers following graduation. Participants performed significantly better on the 3 tasks focused on mathematics topics studied in the program than on the task focused on a mathematics topic not studied in the program. After checking several alternative hypotheses, we conclude that a likely explanation for the performance differences is the mathematical knowledge for ...


The Effects Of Supplemental Instruction On Student Achievement In College Algebra, Rhonda C. Porter 2017 Albany State University

The Effects Of Supplemental Instruction On Student Achievement In College Algebra, Rhonda C. Porter

Georgia Journal of Science

College algebra consistently has a very high number of students performing poorly. An experimental study addressing student performance was conducted. Two college algebra classes each with 25 students and with the same teacher were used, one as the control group and the other as the experimental group. The experimental class included mandatory supplemental instruction for an extra class period per week. T-tests were used to compare performances on each test and homework. A repeated measures 2 X 2 ANOVA was used to compare the students' performance on a pretest and a posttest between each class. The Mann-Whitney U test was ...


Teachers’ Incorporation Of Argumentation To Support Engineering Learning In Stem Integration Curricula, Corey A. Mathis, Emilie A. Siverling, Aran W. Glancy, Tamara J. Moore 2017 California State University, Bakersfield

Teachers’ Incorporation Of Argumentation To Support Engineering Learning In Stem Integration Curricula, Corey A. Mathis, Emilie A. Siverling, Aran W. Glancy, Tamara J. Moore

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

One of the fundamental practices identified in Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) is argumentation, which has been researched in P-12 science education for the previous two decades but has yet to be studied within the context of P-12 engineering education. This research explores how elementary and middle school science teachers incorporated argumentation into engineering design-based STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) integration curricular units they developed during a professional development program. To gain a better understanding of how teachers included argumentation in their curricula, a multiple case study approach was conducted using four STEM integration units. While evidence of argumentation ...


Students’ Successes And Challenges Applying Data Analysis And Measurement Skills In A Fifth-Grade Integrated Stem Unit, Aran W. Glancy, Tamara J. Moore, Selcen Guzey, Karl A. Smith 2017 Purdue University

Students’ Successes And Challenges Applying Data Analysis And Measurement Skills In A Fifth-Grade Integrated Stem Unit, Aran W. Glancy, Tamara J. Moore, Selcen Guzey, Karl A. Smith

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

An understanding of statistics and skills in data analysis are becoming more and more essential, yet research consistently shows that students struggle with these concepts at all levels. This case study documents some of the struggles four groups of fifth-grade students encounter as they collect, organize, and interpret data and then ultimately attempt to draw conclusions or make decisions based on these data. The activities in which the students engaged were part of an integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) unit that had students collecting and analyzing data both in the context of learning science concepts and in the ...


Undergraduate Engineers And Teachers: Can Students Be Both?, Malinda S. Zarske, Maia L. Vadeen, Janet Y. Tsai, Jacquelyn F. Sullivan, Denise W. Carlson 2017 University of Colorado Boulder

Undergraduate Engineers And Teachers: Can Students Be Both?, Malinda S. Zarske, Maia L. Vadeen, Janet Y. Tsai, Jacquelyn F. Sullivan, Denise W. Carlson

Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research (J-PEER)

Today’s college-aged students are graduating into a world that relies on multidisciplinary talents to succeed. Engineering college majors are more likely to find jobs after college that are outside of STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields, including jobs in healthcare, management, and social services. A survey of engineering undergraduate students at the University of Colorado Boulder in November 2012 indicated a desire by students to simultaneously pursue secondary teacher licensure alongside their engineering degrees: 25 percent ‘‘agreed’’ or ‘‘strongly agreed’’ that they ‘‘would be interested in earning grades 7–12 science or math teaching licenses while [they] earn ...


Using “Tapestries” To Document The Collective Mathematical Thinking Of Small Groups, Alayne Armstrong 2017 University of Regina

Using “Tapestries” To Document The Collective Mathematical Thinking Of Small Groups, Alayne Armstrong

The Qualitative Report

A challenge in mathematics education research has been to document the complex nature of collective mathematical learning. This paper describes a method of data analysis that offers a visual representation of collective discourse during mathematical tasks. Using data extracts from a study of small groups in a middle years classroom, I color code collective utterances to create a “tapestry,” a type of transcript that offers researchers the ability to move between individual and collective planes of focus during analysis. The nature of collective thinking is revealed by tapestries, including how utterances bump against each other, the role of utterances evolves ...


Formative Assessment And Its Influence On Classroom Community In Biocalculus, Rebecca A. Dibbs, Daniel Rios, Brian Christopher 2017 Texas A&M University-Commerce

Formative Assessment And Its Influence On Classroom Community In Biocalculus, Rebecca A. Dibbs, Daniel Rios, Brian Christopher

The Qualitative Report

Most of the attrition from STEM majors occurs between the first two semesters of calculus, and prospective life science majors are one of the groups with the highest attrition rate. One of the largest factors for students that persist in STEM major beyond the first semester of calculus was a sense of community and a perceived connection with their instructor. Since building a sense of community is one of the stated purposes of formative assessment, we investigated how instructor and student perceptions of the purpose of formative assessment contributed to the formation of classroom community in a calculus for life ...


The Specific Surface Area Values For Iowa Tills, Keith E. Schilling, Brian L. Gedlinske 2017 Selected Works

The Specific Surface Area Values For Iowa Tills, Keith E. Schilling, Brian L. Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Specific surface area is a property used by earth scientists to estimate the proportion of expandable clay minerals in soils. In this study, specific surface area method is shown to compare favorably with standard clay mineralogical techniques in determining gross differences in expandable clay mineral content in tills. The results of over 100 measurements on till samples from Iowa indicate undifferentiated pre-Illinoian tills from southern and southwestern Iowa have the highest specific surface area values of Iowa tills (ranging from nearly 100 to greater than 150 m2/g) and Wisconsinan Dows Formation tills have the lowest average specific surface ...


Theoretical Stem Program Proposal, Nancy L. Ledbetter 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Theoretical Stem Program Proposal, Nancy L. Ledbetter

Transformations

Many schools are turning towards STEM to help students prepare for the future and to mend deficits in science and mathematics programs that are proving less than successful. This article provides background, theoretical support, and a plan for how to transform a school from a traditional model to a model STEM school.


Proof, Proving And Mathematics Curriculum, Thomas Varghese 2017 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

Proof, Proving And Mathematics Curriculum, Thomas Varghese

Transformations

The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, a US based teachers association, strongly encourages teachers to make proof and reasoning an integral part of student mathematics. However, the literature shows that, far from being integral, proving remains compartmentalized within the North American school curriculum and is restricted to a specific mathematical domain. Consequently, students suffer in their understandings and are ill prepared for the rigorous mathematical proving that many of them will encounter later at the postsecondary level. The literature suggests that compartmentalization is mainly due to teacher’s lack of experience in proof and proving and their subsequent inability ...


The Importance Of Using Manipulatives In Teaching Math Today, Joseph M. Furner, Nancy L. Worrell 2017 Florida Atlantic University

The Importance Of Using Manipulatives In Teaching Math Today, Joseph M. Furner, Nancy L. Worrell

Transformations

This paper explores the research and use of mathematics manipulatives in the teaching of mathematics today during an age of technology and standardized testing. It looks at the drawbacks and cautions educators as they use math manipulatives in their instruction. It also explores some cognitive concerns as a teacher goes about teaching with math manipulatives. The paper shares many commonly used math manipulatives used in today’s classrooms and matches them up to some of the Common Core Math Standards that are taught today in classrooms in the USA and around the world.


Weather Factors Influencing Winter Roosts Of American Crows In Central Iowa, Joshua D. Obrecht, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Weather Factors Influencing Winter Roosts Of American Crows In Central Iowa, Joshua D. Obrecht, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

We investigated the effects of season and weather on the winter roosting behavior of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) in central Iowa from January through March 2006. The peak number of birds recorded at a roost in Ames, Story County was 9,000+ in early February, and the number of individuals entering the roost decreased through February and March. Crows tended to enter the roost later in the day as winter neared completion. High wind speed and low light intensity caused individual to enter the roost earlier in the day. Temperature did not affect arrival time of crows. Wind speed, light ...


Food Habits Of The Northern Saw-Whet Owl In Central Iowa: Effects Of Roost Location, Stephen J. Dinsmore, William R. Clark 2017 Iowa State University

Food Habits Of The Northern Saw-Whet Owl In Central Iowa: Effects Of Roost Location, Stephen J. Dinsmore, William R. Clark

Stephen J Dinsmore

During the period 1979-89, 900 northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus) pellets with identifable remains of prey were collected at 18 central Iowa locations. Peromyscus were the most frequent prey consumed, comprising 81.2% of all prey items. Other prey species were voles (Microtus), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), shrews (Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, and Cryptotis parva), and a single unidentified bird. Peromyscus comprised the largest proportion of pellets from different successional stages. There were significant differences for four prey groups (Peromyscus, Microtus, Reithrodontomys, and shrews) among years. Peromyscus and R. megalotis showed significant differences among locations. Microtus and shrews were ...


Range Expansion Of The Great-Tailed Grackle In The 1900s, James J. Dinsmore, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Range Expansion Of The Great-Tailed Grackle In The 1900s, James J. Dinsmore, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

In 1900, the range of the Great-tailed Grackle extended north of the Mexican border only into Texas. Since then, it has expanded its range greatly. It now nests in 14 states and has strayed to an additional eight states and three Canadian provinces. Much of this expansion has occurred since 1960. Great-tails often stray far from their normal range, especially in spring. Most of these strays are single individuals. In states where they have nested, breeding birds typically reach the state a few years after the first reports of the species. Great-tailed Grackles do well in a variety of human ...


Growth Mindset In The Classroom, Luther L. Kiger 2017 South Dakota State University

Growth Mindset In The Classroom, Luther L. Kiger

Empowering Research for Educators

This article discusses how Mindset can effect a students educational and social life.


Emphasis On Test Scores In Education, Lindsay Olson 2017 South Dakota State University

Emphasis On Test Scores In Education, Lindsay Olson

Empowering Research for Educators

This article discusses how too much emphasis on standardized testing can affect student learning as well as teaching in the classroom. It includes a personal interview with a high school teacher as well as an article from the Washington Post regarding a study that was completed involving testing students.


The Language Of Learning In Family And Consumer Sciences: English Language Learners In Career Technical Education, Kali S. Lenhoff 2017 South Dakota State University

The Language Of Learning In Family And Consumer Sciences: English Language Learners In Career Technical Education, Kali S. Lenhoff

Empowering Research for Educators

Family and Consumer Sciences (FCS) content and English as a Second Language (ESL) strategies can be organically incorporated to create a successful education for an English Language Learner (ELL). The first objective of this research project is to discover how prepared Family and Consumer Sciences teachers feel to work with English Language Learners in the classroom. The second objective is to identify practical and effective methods and strategies that are useful for Family and Consumer Sciences teachers instructing English Language Learners. The rationale for this project is that by identifying the challenges faced by English Language Learners in education, teachers ...


Immigrant Parental Involvement In Student Academics, charles tebben 2017 South Dakota State University

Immigrant Parental Involvement In Student Academics, Charles Tebben

Empowering Research for Educators

Abstract

This study is meant to focus discussions about the importance of the involvement of immigrant parents in respect to student academics. In this study I intend to make evident a relationship between parental involvement and student academics, after which I will draw in a conclusion of the resources utilized by my community at the elementary and middle schools. I’m conducting my research study starting at elementary school and running through middle school. I’m eliminating the high school period because of their unique parental involvement complexities which share little constraints and outcomes with the lower levels. To build ...


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