Efficiency Of Decoupled Farm Programs Under Distortionary Taxation, 2016 Iowa State University
Efficiency Of Decoupled Farm Programs Under Distortionary Taxation, Giancarlo Moschini, Paolo Sckokai
When lump-sum taxation is not feasible, decoupled transfers to farmers (which require raising government revenue) will entail welfare loss somewhere in the economy. Assuming the government's objective is to assure a given welfare level for farmers, we show that when decoupling is possible, free trade is always superior to some tariff protection for a small country, even under Distortionary taxation. As expected, for a large country there is scope for an optimal tariff policy that improves the terms of trade. However, we show a separation between the exercise of market power through an optimal tariff, and the interaction of ...
Social Security Taxation And Intergenerational Risk Sharing, 2016 Iowa State University
Social Security Taxation And Intergenerational Risk Sharing, Walter Enders, Harvey E. Lapan
The life cycle hypothesis has become the dominant mode used to analyze the effects of a social security system on private saving, the labor/leisure choice, and social welfare. As both Barro and Samuelson indicate, a fully funded Social Security program (in a world of certainty) would drive out an equivalent amount of private saving. If the interest rate is r, the effects of a payment of a dollar into the social security pool while young would just offset* the effects of receiving (1+r) dollars as a transfer when retired. Papers by Diamond, Hi», and Samuelson, among others, have ...
Endogenous Labor Supply, Rigid Factor Prices And A Second Best Solution, 2016 Iowa State University
Endogenous Labor Supply, Rigid Factor Prices And A Second Best Solution, Harvey E. Lapan
The conventional wisdom asserts that distortions due to factor price rigidities should be eliminated by subsidies. However, we argue that the success of this policy rests upon the fact that the return to the factor is a pure rent. If factor supply is endogenous, then subsidies to employers and taxes on factor owners are needed to support the optimal solution. Since we believe this policy combination works only by assuming away the problem, we then devise a model to study the optimal policies in a second best world. Our results show that, in general, both factor subsidies (or taxes) and ...
Differential Effects Of Monetary Policy On The U.S. Agricultural And Nonagricultural Sectors, 2016 Iowa State University
Differential Effects Of Monetary Policy On The U.S. Agricultural And Nonagricultural Sectors, Wallace E. Huffman, Suchada V. Langley
The possible adverse effects of monetary policy on the agricultural sector have been the focus of several recent papers (e.g., Johnson, 1980; Gardner, 1981; Chambers, 1984; Starleaf et al. 1985; Falk et al. 1985; and Rausser, 1985). Rausser (1985) and Staraoulis et al. (1985) have hypothesized that raacroeconoraic externalities are imposed upon agriculture because prices are relatively sticky in the nonagricultural sector.
Obstacles To Tax Reform: Income Definition And Capital Gains Taxation, 2016 Merrimack College
Obstacles To Tax Reform: Income Definition And Capital Gains Taxation, Nicholas Santosuosso
Honors Program Capstone Projects
The Great Recession of 2007-2009 sparked widespread economic anxiety among the American public while setting the tone for the debate over economic policy to capture center stage in the 2012 Presidential election cycle. Concern over growing budget deficits and wealth concentration in the wake of the Recession caused much of this attention to shift onto the fiscal policy of the United States. Public dissatisfaction with the federal income tax code remains pervasive today, and 72 percent of Americans believe that the tax system needs either a major or complete overhaul, according to Pew Research Center (Doherty 2013). Support for such ...
America's Tax System And How To Fix It, 2016 Liberty University
America's Tax System And How To Fix It, Brendan O. Smith
Senior Honors Theses
Abraham Lincoln signed into law the first national income tax on August 5, 1861. Since 1913, the content of the Internal Revenue Code has increased from the 27-page tax law of that year to over 5000 pages today. As time has passed and the length of this document has increased, so has the expense and complexity of abiding by its statutes. The inefficiencies of the current system indicate that something must be done about the United States tax system, but no one has agreed on what to do. Many proposals to correct the problem have been brought forward over the ...
Burgers, Doughnuts, And Expatriations: An Analysis Of The Tax Inversion Epidemic And A Solution Presented Through The Lens Of The Burger King-Tim Hortons Merger, 2016 College of William & Mary Law School
Burgers, Doughnuts, And Expatriations: An Analysis Of The Tax Inversion Epidemic And A Solution Presented Through The Lens Of The Burger King-Tim Hortons Merger, Chris Capurso
William & Mary Business Law Review
Currently, the concept of tax inversion is a major corporate phenomenon. In the United States, companies pay taxes on all earnings, whether or not they were accumulated here. With one of the highest corporate tax rates in the world, this is a major expense for U.S. corporations competing in the world market. While most companies simply deal with the tax burden, some U.S. corporations buy foreign companies and relocate the company headquarters to the acquisitions home country. This corporate expatriation allows companies to avoid U.S. taxes on earnings in a number of ways. This Note will ...
Round-Tripping Of Domestic Profits Under The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, 2016 Drexel University
Round-Tripping Of Domestic Profits Under The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Sebastien Bradley
Sebastien J Bradley
Public Finance And Tax Equity In The Arabian Gulf Monarchies, 2016 Kennesaw State University
Public Finance And Tax Equity In The Arabian Gulf Monarchies, Timothy Mathews
Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective
This study examines notions of public finance equity in the six Arabian Gulf monarchies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Because of unique characteristics of government expenditures and revenues in these monarchies, many of the standard concepts of public finance (such as the Benefits Principle, Ability-to-Pay Principle, Vertical Equity, and Horizontal Equity) do not provide relevant insights. Consequently, four innovative notions of equity are reviewed and discussed: Within Group Horizontal Equity; Within Group Vertical Equity; Favored Group Horizontal Equity; and Favored Group Vertical Equity. Finally, these four conceptions of equity are applied to a ...
The Benefits Of Having A Comprehensive Financial Plan For The Average Consumer, And The Necessary Components Comprised To Make An Effective And Efficient Plan, Nicholas M. Lund
CMC Senior Theses
Socioeconomic changes in American society over the past few decades, as well as an overwhelming amount of uncertainty and misconceptions, have resulted in a majority of Americans to fall short of their financial goals in the short-term, the mid-term, and the long-term. Without proper preparation and financial planning, it is likely that these Americans, and many more, will be unable to reach these goals as well as retire comfortably. Many Americans are overwhelmed with the immense amount of financial information, tools and resources, and as a consequence are unable to plan their finances efficiently and effectively. Americans need a better ...
Cost-Benefit Analysis And Distributional Weights: An Overview, 2016 Duke Law School
Cost-Benefit Analysis And Distributional Weights: An Overview, Matthew D. Adler
Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is insensitive to distributional concerns. A policy that improves the lives of the rich, and makes the poor yet worse off, will be approved by CBA as long as the policy’s aggregate monetized benefits are positive. Distributional weights offer an apparent solution to this troubling feature of the CBA methodology: adjust costs and benefits with weighting factors that are inversely proportional to the well-being levels (as determined by income and also perhaps non-income attributes such as health) of the affected individuals.
Indeed, an academic literature dating from the 1950s discusses how to specify distributional weights ...
Problematic Self-Directed Retirement Plan Activities, 2015 Unaffiliated
Problematic Self-Directed Retirement Plan Activities, David Jenkins
David Randall Jenkins
My paper “Section 4975(e)(2)(G) Management and Investment Risk Diversification Standards” teaches the retirement plan (self-dealing activity, incidental benefit) bright line is quantified and defined by public policy’s management and investment risk diversification standards. Such retirement plan risk diversification policy compliance results in transforming generally proscribed Sections 4975(c)(1)(D), (E), or (F) prohibited transaction self-dealing activities into incidental benefits. My paper “Prohibited Transaction Chinese Walls” teaches eviscerating the self-dealing activity nexus plan asset element by and through properly invoking plan asset rule exceptions enables transforming specifically proscribed Sections 4975(c)(1)(A), (B), or (C ...
Investor Valuations Of Japan's Adoption Of A Territorial Tax Regime: Quantifying The Direct And Competitive Effects Of International Tax Reform, Sebastien Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Makoto Hasegawa
Sebastien J Bradley
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act: The Most Revolutionary Piece Of Tax Legislation Since The Introduction Of The Income Tax, 2015 University of Connecticut
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act: The Most Revolutionary Piece Of Tax Legislation Since The Introduction Of The Income Tax, Alexander Szwakob
Honors Scholar Theses
With taxation of income being the most significant source of revenue, most national governments consider tax evasion prevention to be one of the priorities of their tax agencies. In the United States, tax evasion has been a significant concern of the Internal Revenue Service ever since the modern income tax was instituted with the passing of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913. Over the following century, Congress enacted numerous measures aimed at curbing the illegal practice, but, as often is the case, both individuals and institutions desiring to not abide by the law found new ways to outsmart the tax authorities ...
The Tax Treatment Of Fringe Benefits, 2015 Michigan State University and W.E. Upjohn Institute
The Tax Treatment Of Fringe Benefits, Stephen Woodbury, Wei-Jang Huang
Stephen A. Woodbury
Woodbury and Huang use econometric models to investigate how changes in the tax treatment of fringe benefits can be expected to influence the level of benefits and compensation provided by employers, federal revenues, and income inequality.
Knowledge Of Federal Taxation In The Millennial Age, 2015 Iowa State University
Knowledge Of Federal Taxation In The Millennial Age, Jordan Kulow
Honors Projects and Posters
The goal of this study is to build upon previous research, studying the knowledge of taxation in elementary children, by researching the same idea in college-aged students. To do so, students were surveyed regarding various demographics and taxation topics in terms of general knowledge, taxation concepts that are currently relevant to our target subject, and taxation topics that will be relevant to them in the future. Our results showed that students had a moderate level of general knowledge that was consistent across variables. They also showed that in terms of taxation topics that are currently relevant, being older and having ...
Cross-Country Evidence On The Preliminary Effects Of Patent Box Regimes On Patent Activity And Ownership, Sebastien Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Leslie Robinson
Sebastien J Bradley
This paper evaluates the initial impacts of patent box regimes in light of their primary stated objectives: stimulating domestic innovation and retaining mobile patent income to limit base erosion. Despite their lack of nexus requirements, we find that patent box regimes yield a 3 percent increase in new patent applications for every percentage point reduction in the tax rate on patent income. We find no significant impact of these regimes on deterring outward cross-border attribution of patent ownership, or on attracting ownership of foreign inventions. Increased patenting activity hence appears focused on inventions involving co-located (domestic) patent owners and inventors.
The Common Knowledge Of Tax Abuse, 2015 Berkeley Law
The Common Knowledge Of Tax Abuse, Mark Gergen
Mark P. Gergen
No abstract provided.
The Influence Of Tax Law On Securities Innovation In The United States: 1981-1997, Mark Gergen, Paula Schmitz
Mark P. Gergen
No abstract provided.
Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, 2015 University of Massachusetts Boston
Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, Emily Brown, Jeanne Medeiros, Ellen Bruce
As defined benefit pension plans become more and more rare, the responsibility of saving for retirement falls increasingly on individuals. Many studies have been published about the average or median balances in retirement savings accounts and virtually all of them have reached the same conclusion - most Americans aren’t saving enough money to last them through their retirement years.
In this fact sheet we will take a look at one of the factors that contributes to this problem, that is, the availability of loans and hardship withdrawals from 401(k) retirement accounts, which can lead to lower account balances overall ...