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Public Finance And Tax Equity In The Arabian Gulf Monarchies, Timothy Mathews 2016 Kennesaw State University

Public Finance And Tax Equity In The Arabian Gulf Monarchies, Timothy Mathews

Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective

This study examines notions of public finance equity in the six Arabian Gulf monarchies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Because of unique characteristics of government expenditures and revenues in these monarchies, many of the standard concepts of public finance (such as the Benefits Principle, Ability-to-Pay Principle, Vertical Equity, and Horizontal Equity) do not provide relevant insights. Consequently, four innovative notions of equity are reviewed and discussed: Within Group Horizontal Equity; Within Group Vertical Equity; Favored Group Horizontal Equity; and Favored Group Vertical Equity. Finally, these four conceptions of equity are applied to a ...


The Benefits Of Having A Comprehensive Financial Plan For The Average Consumer, And The Necessary Components Comprised To Make An Effective And Efficient Plan, Nicholas M. Lund 2016 Claremont McKenna College

The Benefits Of Having A Comprehensive Financial Plan For The Average Consumer, And The Necessary Components Comprised To Make An Effective And Efficient Plan, Nicholas M. Lund

CMC Senior Theses

Socioeconomic changes in American society over the past few decades, as well as an overwhelming amount of uncertainty and misconceptions, have resulted in a majority of Americans to fall short of their financial goals in the short-term, the mid-term, and the long-term. Without proper preparation and financial planning, it is likely that these Americans, and many more, will be unable to reach these goals as well as retire comfortably. Many Americans are overwhelmed with the immense amount of financial information, tools and resources, and as a consequence are unable to plan their finances efficiently and effectively. Americans need a better ...


Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act: The Most Revolutionary Piece Of Tax Legislation Since The Introduction Of The Income Tax, Alexander Szwakob 2015 University of Connecticut

Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act: The Most Revolutionary Piece Of Tax Legislation Since The Introduction Of The Income Tax, Alexander Szwakob

Honors Scholar Theses

With taxation of income being the most significant source of revenue, most national governments consider tax evasion prevention to be one of the priorities of their tax agencies. In the United States, tax evasion has been a significant concern of the Internal Revenue Service ever since the modern income tax was instituted with the passing of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913. Over the following century, Congress enacted numerous measures aimed at curbing the illegal practice, but, as often is the case, both individuals and institutions desiring to not abide by the law found new ways to outsmart the tax authorities ...


Cross-Country Evidence On The Preliminary Effects Of Patent Box Regimes On Patent Activity And Ownership, Sebastien J. Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Leslie Robinson 2015 Drexel University

Cross-Country Evidence On The Preliminary Effects Of Patent Box Regimes On Patent Activity And Ownership, Sebastien J. Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Leslie Robinson

Sebastien J Bradley

This paper evaluates the initial impacts of patent box regimes in light of their primary stated objectives: stimulating domestic innovation and retaining mobile patent income to limit base erosion. Despite their lack of nexus requirements, we find that patent box regimes yield a 3 percent increase in new patent applications for every percentage point reduction in the tax rate on patent income. We find no significant impact of these regimes on deterring outward cross-border attribution of patent ownership, or on attracting ownership of foreign inventions. Increased patenting activity hence appears focused on inventions involving co-located (domestic) patent owners and inventors.


Assessment Limits And Timing Of Real Estate Transactions, Sebastien J. Bradley 2015 Drexel University

Assessment Limits And Timing Of Real Estate Transactions, Sebastien J. Bradley

Sebastien J Bradley

Michigan homebuyers face large potential discontinuities in tax obligations for purchases made around January 1 and May 1 under the state's application of acquisition-value based assessment limits and principal residence (homestead) exemptions, respectively. Consistent with incentives, roughly 3.7 percent of sales concluded in the first 10 business days of January are thus attributable to timing responses among the subset of properties listed by the largest 25 percent of firms by sales volume. Underlying this effect is a willingness to stretch the number of days between contract and closing dates by an average of 2 to 4 business days ...


Simple Substantial Economic Effect Regulatory Compliance, David Randall Jenkins 2015 Unaffiliated

Simple Substantial Economic Effect Regulatory Compliance, David Randall Jenkins

David Randall Jenkins

The Internal Revenue Service considers Section 704(b)’s substantial economic effect regulations among the most complex. This course teaches the Treasury Regulations enable simple compliance through (Per Capita: Balances: Ratios) capital account accounting method truncated transitivity, economic effect equivalence, and substantiality’s conclusive presumption. The partnership special allocations public policy mandate is made clear thereby: encourage going concern productivity while discouraging its abandonment.


Evaluating Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work: The Role Of Stakeholder Collaboration In Building Trust And Improving Policy-Making, Colin C. Williams, Anton Kojouharov 2015 University of Sheffield

Evaluating Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work: The Role Of Stakeholder Collaboration In Building Trust And Improving Policy-Making, Colin C. Williams, Anton Kojouharov

Colin C Williams

The aim of this paper is to examine and analyse the realm of policy evaluation approaches and methods as they relate to assessing measures to tackle undeclared work. The discussion is set at the backdrop of a brief review of the more prominent theoretical and conceptual considerations in the policy evaluation literature. The paper then investigates results from policy assessments and evaluations illuminated in the previous GREY working papers, as well as some selected from the Eurofound database. The analysis of a limited sample of available policy evaluations and results demonstrates that a common probable cause of policy failure with ...


Pass-Through Valuation, Robert M. Hull, David P. Price 2015 Washburn University

Pass-Through Valuation, Robert M. Hull, David P. Price

The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance

Noted scholars argue that (1) economic models of capital taxation have been inadequately adapted to owner-managed enterprises and (2) capital structure researchers have used the wrong models while also improperly measuring key variables. Thus, a model that can overcome these problems should be of interest to academics when teaching capital structure theory and practitioners when determining optimal debt levels. This paper contributes to capital structure practice by using a model that is adaptable to owner-managed enterprises like pass-throughs while also containing relevant variables that are measurable. This paper should be valuable to academics and practitioners in the following ways. First ...


Round-Tripping Of Domestic Profits Under The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Sebastien J. Bradley 2015 Drexel University

Round-Tripping Of Domestic Profits Under The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Sebastien J. Bradley

Sebastien J Bradley

The American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 provided a substantial tax benefit to U.S. multinational corporations in the form of a temporary 85 percent deduction for repatriated dividends. An unforeseen consequence of this tax holiday may have also been to induce firms to reallocate earnings toward low-tax foreign subsidiaries for immediate repatriation and thereby escape higher rates of corporate income taxation. I estimate this unconventional form of round-tripping to have increased reported earnings among repatriating affiliates by $17 billion, suggesting moderate aggregate effects of a large temporary reduction in the repatriation tax on short-run income reallocation activity. Results involving ...


Se(C)(3): A Catalyst For Social Enterprise Crowdfunding, Dana Brakman Reiser, Steven A. Dean 2015 Brooklyn Law School

Se(C)(3): A Catalyst For Social Enterprise Crowdfunding, Dana Brakman Reiser, Steven A. Dean

Indiana Law Journal

The emerging consensus among scholars rejects the notion of tax breaks for social enterprises, concluding that such prizes will attract strategic claimants, ultimately doing more harm than good. The SE(c)(3) regime proposed by this Article offers entrepreneurs and investors committed to combining financial returns and social good with a means of broadcasting that shared resolve. Combining a measured tax benefit for mission-driven activities with a heightened burden on shareholder financial gains, the revenue-neutral SE(c)(3) regime would provide investors and funding platforms with a low-cost means of screening out “greenwashed” ventures.


Designing Survey Methods To Evaluate The Undeclared Economy: A Review Of The Options, Colin C. Williams 2015 University of Sheffield

Designing Survey Methods To Evaluate The Undeclared Economy: A Review Of The Options, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This Working Paper is part of the GREY project which is developing capacities and capabilities in tackling undeclared work. In this Working Paper, the various options available to researchers when designing surveys to tackle undeclared work are evaluated. These issues include the unit of analysis used, the data collection methodology, an array of questionnaire design issues (including the reference period, whether to define the phenomenon for participants, a direct versus gradual approach to sensitive issues, whether to do a supply- and/or demand-side survey; whether to examine the relationship between purchasers and sellers, how to discourage social desirability bias), sample ...


Tax Inertia: A General Framework With Specific Application To Business Tax Reform, Chris William Sanchirico 2015 University of Pennsylvania Law School & Wharton School

Tax Inertia: A General Framework With Specific Application To Business Tax Reform, Chris William Sanchirico

Faculty Scholarship

A surprising degree of bipartisan consensus has lately formed in the United States around two propositions of business tax reform: that something should be done about the “lockout” of US multinationals’ foreign earnings; and that the corporate income tax rate should be reduced. This paper questions whether these two propositions are really consistent. In the process of attempting to provide an answer, it develops a framework for relating and measuring various forms of “tax inertia”: tax-based disincentives to alter investments. Applying this framework, the paper concludes that the current agreement on business tax reform is substantially in disagreement with itself.


Theory And Experiments Exploring Behavioral, Financial, And Public Economics, Matthew John McMahon 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Theory And Experiments Exploring Behavioral, Financial, And Public Economics, Matthew John Mcmahon

Doctoral Dissertations

I study three questions which relate to one another only in that each explores facets of economics. First, I theoretically examine the conditions under which introducing an impure public good decreases total public provision. I introduce a central planner who can tax the private good to correct this and identify the market characteristics that typify this scenario. Second, I test the two standard competing dividend puzzle hypotheses using a laboratory experiment. Evidence from the lab, including variables unobservable in the field, reinforces empirical work supporting the outcome model over the substitute. Last, I obscure from dictators information regarding recipients' income ...


Can Education Improve Tax Compliance? Evidence From Different Forms Of Tax Education, Raymond M. K. WONG, Wai-yee, Agnes LO 2015 City University of Hong Kong

Can Education Improve Tax Compliance? Evidence From Different Forms Of Tax Education, Raymond M. K. Wong, Wai-Yee, Agnes Lo

Hong Kong Institute of Business Studies Working Paper Series

We examine whether tax compliance is improved via different forms of tax education. We argue that different types of tax education have respective impacts on tax compliance. To explore this empirical issue, we conduct a survey related to tax compliance among 205 students taking either a general tax course or a technical tax course in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that sales tax compliance among undergraduate students was significantly improved if they had been exposed to a general tax education, and income and sales tax compliance among postgraduate students were significantly improved if they had taken a technical tax course.


Investor Valuations Of Japan's Adoption Of A Territorial Tax Regime: Quantifying The Direct And Competitive Effects Of International Tax Reform, Sebastien J. Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Makoto Hasegawa 2015 Drexel University

Investor Valuations Of Japan's Adoption Of A Territorial Tax Regime: Quantifying The Direct And Competitive Effects Of International Tax Reform, Sebastien J. Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Makoto Hasegawa

Sebastien J Bradley

Despite an extensive literature on the normative implications of different international tax regimes and an empirical literature addressing individual specific predictions, there exists little evidence encompassing the broad range of effects of taxing corporations' foreign-source income on a worldwide or territorial basis. This paper takes a more comprehensive quantitative approach by examining stock market reactions surrounding four events over the course of which Japan's 2009 adoption of a dividend exemption system was developed into proposed law. Using an event study methodology which leverages individual firm characteristics and accounts for contemporaneous financial market developments, we find that Japanese firms with ...


Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, Emily G. Brown JD, Jeanne Medeiros JD, Ellen Bruce JD 2015 University of Massachusetts Boston

Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, Emily G. Brown Jd, Jeanne Medeiros Jd, Ellen Bruce Jd

Pension Action Center Publications

As defined benefit pension plans become more and more rare, the responsibility of saving for retirement falls increasingly on individuals. Many studies have been published about the average or median balances in retirement savings accounts and virtually all of them have reached the same conclusion - most Americans aren’t saving enough money to last them through their retirement years.

In this fact sheet we will take a look at one of the factors that contributes to this problem, that is, the availability of loans and hardship withdrawals from 401(k) retirement accounts, which can lead to lower account balances overall ...


Re-Investment Allowance, Investment Tax Credit, And The Reality Of Corporate Cash Flow In Nigeria, Daibi W. Dagogo 2015 Rivers State University of Science and Technology

Re-Investment Allowance, Investment Tax Credit, And The Reality Of Corporate Cash Flow In Nigeria, Daibi W. Dagogo

Daibi W Dagogo

This study examines the influences of tax incentives on cash flow of manufacturing corporations in Nigeria. To do this, research questions were raised, hypotheses were formulated, sixty (60) quoted manufacturing companies in Nigeria constituted the sample of this study and secondary data from Nigeria Stock Exchange fact book were complemented with ordinal data collected via questionnaire. The stated hypotheses were statistically tested with paired t-test of two means from the same sample. T-test was eventually used because of the ordinal data, which might not satisfy the condition of normal distribution. Our findings revealed that tax incentives significantly increased the mean ...


Splitting Specified Foreign Sourced Income Between Tax Exempt And Taxable Portions: An Optimal Solution (Part 3 Of 3), Teng Aun KHOO, Clement Kai Guan TAN 2015 Singapore Management University

Splitting Specified Foreign Sourced Income Between Tax Exempt And Taxable Portions: An Optimal Solution (Part 3 Of 3), Teng Aun Khoo, Clement Kai Guan Tan

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

No abstract provided.


Designing Focus Groups And Experiments To Evaluate Policy Approaches And Measures For Tackling Undeclared Work, Marina Polak, Lyubomir Mishkov, Colin C. Williams 2015 University of Sheffield

Designing Focus Groups And Experiments To Evaluate Policy Approaches And Measures For Tackling Undeclared Work, Marina Polak, Lyubomir Mishkov, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The aim of this Working Paper is to review the literature on conducting focus groups and experiments in the field of tax non-compliance and undeclared work, and then to set set a range of possible uses of focus groups and experiments to evaluate the feasibility of various policy measures in the context of Bulgaria, Croatia and Macedonia.


Foreign Source Income Tax Exemption And Pooling System: Which Works Better? (Part 2 Of 3), Clement Kai Guan TAN, Teng Aun KHOO 2015 Nanyang Technological University

Foreign Source Income Tax Exemption And Pooling System: Which Works Better? (Part 2 Of 3), Clement Kai Guan Tan, Teng Aun Khoo

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

When is it better to claim Foreign Source Income under the Pooling System rather than on the Foreign Source Income Exemption


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