America's Tax System And How To Fix It, 2016 Liberty University
America's Tax System And How To Fix It, Brendan O. Smith
Senior Honors Theses
Abraham Lincoln signed into law the first national income tax on August 5, 1861. Since 1913, the content of the Internal Revenue Code has increased from the 27-page tax law of that year to over 5000 pages today. As time has passed and the length of this document has increased, so has the expense and complexity of abiding by its statutes. The inefficiencies of the current system indicate that something must be done about the United States tax system, but no one has agreed on what to do. Many proposals to correct the problem have been brought forward over the ...
Obstacles To Tax Reform: Income Definition And Capital Gains Taxation, 2016 Merrimack College
Obstacles To Tax Reform: Income Definition And Capital Gains Taxation, Nicholas Santosuosso
Honors Senior Capstone Projects
The Great Recession of 2007-2009 sparked widespread economic anxiety among the American public while setting the tone for the debate over economic policy to capture center stage in the 2012 Presidential election cycle. Concern over growing budget deficits and wealth concentration in the wake of the Recession caused much of this attention to shift onto the fiscal policy of the United States. Public dissatisfaction with the federal income tax code remains pervasive today, and 72 percent of Americans believe that the tax system needs either a major or complete overhaul, according to Pew Research Center (Doherty 2013). Support for such ...
Burgers, Doughnuts, And Expatriations: An Analysis Of The Tax Inversion Epidemic And A Solution Presented Through The Lens Of The Burger King-Tim Hortons Merger, 2016 College of William & Mary Law School
Burgers, Doughnuts, And Expatriations: An Analysis Of The Tax Inversion Epidemic And A Solution Presented Through The Lens Of The Burger King-Tim Hortons Merger, Chris Capurso
William & Mary Business Law Review
Currently, the concept of tax inversion is a major corporate phenomenon. In the United States, companies pay taxes on all earnings, whether or not they were accumulated here. With one of the highest corporate tax rates in the world, this is a major expense for U.S. corporations competing in the world market. While most companies simply deal with the tax burden, some U.S. corporations buy foreign companies and relocate the company headquarters to the acquisitions home country. This corporate expatriation allows companies to avoid U.S. taxes on earnings in a number of ways. This Note will ...
Positive And Normative Judgments Implicit In U.S. Tax Policy, And The Costs Of Unequal Growth And Recessions, 2016 University of Pennsylvania
Positive And Normative Judgments Implicit In U.S. Tax Policy, And The Costs Of Unequal Growth And Recessions, Benjamin B. Lockwood, Matthew Weinzierl
Business Economics and Public Policy Papers
Calculating the welfare implications of changes to economic policy or shocks requires economists to decide on a normative criterion. One approach is to elicit the relevant moral criteria from real-world policy choices, converting a normative decision into a positive inference, as in the recent surge of “inverse-optimum” research. We find that capitalizing on the potential of this approach is not as straightforward as we might hope. We perform the inverse-optimum inference on U.S. tax policy from 1979 through 2010 and argue that the results either undermine the normative relevance of the approach or challenge conventional assumptions upon which economists ...
Six Tax Reforms For 2016, 2016 Singapore Management University
Six Tax Reforms For 2016, Yee Loong Sum
Research Collection School Of Accountancy
Offers some fresh ideas on how to make Singapore more business-friendly and socially aware.
Round-Tripping Of Domestic Profits Under The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, 2016 Drexel University
Round-Tripping Of Domestic Profits Under The American Jobs Creation Act Of 2004, Sebastien Bradley
Sebastien J Bradley
Public Finance And Tax Equity In The Arabian Gulf Monarchies, 2016 Kennesaw State University
Public Finance And Tax Equity In The Arabian Gulf Monarchies, Timothy Mathews
Journal of Global Initiatives: Policy, Pedagogy, Perspective
This study examines notions of public finance equity in the six Arabian Gulf monarchies of Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Because of unique characteristics of government expenditures and revenues in these monarchies, many of the standard concepts of public finance (such as the Benefits Principle, Ability-to-Pay Principle, Vertical Equity, and Horizontal Equity) do not provide relevant insights. Consequently, four innovative notions of equity are reviewed and discussed: Within Group Horizontal Equity; Within Group Vertical Equity; Favored Group Horizontal Equity; and Favored Group Vertical Equity. Finally, these four conceptions of equity are applied to a ...
Incentives To Tax Foreign Investors, 2016 Colgate University
Incentives To Tax Foreign Investors, Rishi R. Sharma
Economics Faculty Working Papers
This paper shows that a small country can have incentives to tax inbound FDI even in a setting with perfect competition and free entry. While firms make no aggregate profits worldwide due to free entry, they make taxable profits in foreign production locations because their costs are partly incurred in their home countries. These profits are not perfectly mobile because firm productivity varies across locations. Consequently, the host country does not bear the entire burden of a tax on foreign firms, giving rise to an incentive to impose taxes. The standard zero optimal tax result can be recovered in this ...
Taxing And Subsidizing Foreign Investors, 2016 Colgate University
Taxing And Subsidizing Foreign Investors, Rishi R. Sharma
Economics Faculty Working Papers
Many countries impose taxes on foreign investors while also having in place targeted subsidies and tax incentives that are designed to attract them. This paper shows that such a policy can be optimal from the standpoint of a host country. The government has an incentive to tax inframarginal firms because they are relatively immobile. It also has an incentive to subsidize marginal firms because the economic activity generated by such a subsidy can increase domestic wages in excess of the fiscal cost of the subsidy. These tax and subsidy policies improve host country welfare at the expense of foreigners. This ...
Impacts Of The National Rental Affordability Scheme On Rental Housing Investment: Changes In Investment Profiles And Investor Satisfaction, Isara Khanjanasthiti, Geroge Earl, Lynne Armitage
Faculty of Society and Design Publications
INTRODUCTION: In Australia, as is the case for many countries around the world, housing affordability is a major problem affecting families on or below average incomes. The impact is particularly severe in the major capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. Projections suggest that in the next decade median house price in these cities will exceed one million dollars. To increase the supply of affordable housing, the Australian Government, in partnership with all state governments, initiated a National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS) in 2008. One of the key objectives of NRAS is to increase the supply of new affordable rental ...
Liberating Trapped Cash: A Case Study Of Trapped Cash At Apple And Microsoft, 2016 Southern Connecticut State University
Liberating Trapped Cash: A Case Study Of Trapped Cash At Apple And Microsoft, Russell P. Engel, Bridget M. Lyons, Danny A. Pannese
WCOB Faculty Publications
The topic of trapped cash, or cash permanently reinvested overseas to avoid tax upon repatriation, has become a hot topic in accounting, finance and policy circles over the past two years. This case study analyzes the activities of two major technology firms, Microsoft and Apple, to liberate enormous holdings of trapped cash. The case prompts a discussion of the topic of trapped cash, stakeholder considerations and tools available to manage cash balances held outside the United States. The focus is to examine the strategies available and those selected by Microsoft and Apple to meet or at least appease stakeholder demands ...
Economic And Taxation Benefits Of The National Rental Affordability Scheme, 2016 Bond University
Economic And Taxation Benefits Of The National Rental Affordability Scheme, Isara Khanjanasthiti, George Earl, Lynne Armitage
Faculty of Society and Design Publications
INTRODUCTION: Australia is experiencing a housing affordability crisis, a problem primarily affecting families on low-to-moderate incomes. The median house price continues to increase and is currently more than five times the gross annual median household income. 1 To stimulate additional supply of affordable rental dwellings throughout Australia, the Australian Government, in partnership with state governments, implemented the National Rental Affordability Scheme (NRAS) in 2008. As at December 2015, 37,217 new rental dwellings had been approved under NRAS, of which 30,037 had been built and either tenanted or available for rent. More than 622 million dollars of government funding ...
The Impact Of Increased Cigarette Prices On Cigarette Consumption, 2016 University of Kentucky
The Impact Of Increased Cigarette Prices On Cigarette Consumption, Bohyun Yoo
MPA/MPP Capstone Projects
The objective of this study examines whether the way to raise cigarette prices drastically and discontinuously is effective in reducing cigarette consumption. We use monthly data for cigarette consumption to measure the price elasticity of cigarettes’ demand and adopt real cigarette prices, real individual income, education level, and unemployment rate as independent variables. We consider how consumers adjust their consumption practices in response to the increased prices. After examining the result of regression, we conclude that cigarette real price has a significant association with the reduction in cigarette consumption. If we divide the last twelve years into periods when prices ...
As American As Apple Inc.: Corporate Ownership And The Fight For Tax Reform, 2016 University of Pennsylvania
As American As Apple Inc.: Corporate Ownership And The Fight For Tax Reform, Penn Wharton Ppi
Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative
Both supporters and critics of the current tax advantages enjoyed by U.S. multinational corporations (MNCs) bolster their arguments with appeals to patriotism: the MNCs and their political supporters argue that allowing inversions or other similar arrangements and instituting another tax holiday for “repatriating” overseas earnings are good for the American economy as a whole; opponents condemn these tax advantages as unpatriotic in depriving the U.S. of enormous sums of needed revenue. But where, precisely, is the “home” to which profits held offshore return? For many purposes, home is where the shareholders are. Determining ownership of U.S. MNCs ...
Property Or Currency? The Tax Dilemma Behind Bitcoin, 2016 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah.
Property Or Currency? The Tax Dilemma Behind Bitcoin, Scott A. Wiseman
Utah Law Review
At Bitcoin’s peak in November 2013, there were 93,000 global transactions made in a single day. These users purchased everyday items such as personal services, food, and real estate. This alone suggests that Bitcoin is not primarily used as a long-term investment tool, but rather is used as a currency and a vehicle for global transactions. Congress and the IRS should regulate it accordingly. Representative Stockman’s Virtual Currency Reform Act offered an attempt to negate the IRS decision and officially classify Bitcoin and other virtual currencies as currency instead of property. A tax reclassification would alleviate typical ...
The Benefits Of Having A Comprehensive Financial Plan For The Average Consumer, And The Necessary Components Comprised To Make An Effective And Efficient Plan, Nicholas M. Lund
CMC Senior Theses
Socioeconomic changes in American society over the past few decades, as well as an overwhelming amount of uncertainty and misconceptions, have resulted in a majority of Americans to fall short of their financial goals in the short-term, the mid-term, and the long-term. Without proper preparation and financial planning, it is likely that these Americans, and many more, will be unable to reach these goals as well as retire comfortably. Many Americans are overwhelmed with the immense amount of financial information, tools and resources, and as a consequence are unable to plan their finances efficiently and effectively. Americans need a better ...
The Cost Of Feeling Good, 2016 University of Central Florida
The Cost Of Feeling Good, Casey M. Field
Honors in the Major Theses
The Cost of Feeling Good attempts to quantify the optimum portfolio returns of Socially Responsible Investment Funds and Dual-Purpose Portfolios. In order to meet the demands of investors who want to create a social impact and generate financial returns, investors can choose two methods. For the purpose of this study, the social returns were quantified and the financial returns were quantified using net present value. In every scenario, the socially responsible investment decision generated higher financial returns. Because of the immediate loss to an investor after choosing the DPP strategy, financially, the SRI fund appears to be the better approach ...
The Abuse Of Foreign Income Tax Credit, 2016 Georgia Southern University
The Abuse Of Foreign Income Tax Credit, Janki P. Patel
University Honors Program Theses
This analytical study examines the abuse of foreign income tax credit with the provided data from 1996 – 2011. There are various ways to categorize the foreign tax credit, yet this study examines the foreign tax credit taken in various geographic regions. Additionally, it also analyzes the individual foreign tax credit claimed and corporate tax credit claimed to conclude on which unit abuses the credit utmost.
Benefit-Cost Analysis And Distributional Weights: An Overview, 2016 Duke Law School
Benefit-Cost Analysis And Distributional Weights: An Overview, Matthew D. Adler
Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is insensitive to distributional concerns. A policy that improves the lives of the rich, and makes the poor yet worse off, will be approved by CBA as long as the policy’s aggregate monetized benefits are positive. Distributional weights offer an apparent solution to this troubling feature of the CBA methodology: adjust costs and benefits with weighting factors that are inversely proportional to the well-being levels (as determined by income and also perhaps non-income attributes such as health) of the affected individuals.
Indeed, an academic literature dating from the 1950s discusses how to specify distributional weights ...
Problematic Self-Directed Retirement Plan Activities, 2015 Unaffiliated