Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Tourism and Travel Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2595 Full-Text Articles 1876 Authors 589753 Downloads 90 Institutions

All Articles in Tourism and Travel

Faceted Search

2595 full-text articles. Page 1 of 76.

Tsirik - Fold The Leaves So That Others May Be Guided: A Study Of How The Bribri Women Are Preserving Their Culture To Ensure A Sustainable Future For Their Community, Emily R. Blau 2017 SIT Graduate Institute

Tsirik - Fold The Leaves So That Others May Be Guided: A Study Of How The Bribri Women Are Preserving Their Culture To Ensure A Sustainable Future For Their Community, Emily R. Blau

Capstone Collection

Bananas are one of Costa Rica’s largest exports, along with coffee, palm oil, and cocoa. The banana plantations are large-scale, are most often run by multinational companies, and are considered to be run as enclave economies (Equal Exchange, 2016). This monoculture crop production has been globally accused of human rights abuses said to include, but not be limited to, violating the rights of indigenous people and loss in culture and tradition. For this paper, I studied the effects that large-scale agricultural corporations have on the BriBri, a matriarchal and indigenous group who live on the Caribbean coast of Costa ...


Assessing The Effects Of Ecotourism On The Developing World: A Galapagos Case Study, Ife Adelona 2017 Fordham University

Assessing The Effects Of Ecotourism On The Developing World: A Galapagos Case Study, Ife Adelona

Student Theses 2015-Present

Over the past decade, ecological tourism in the Galapagos has gained popularity. The local population of people living in the Galapagos is around 30,000; this includes, permanent residents, temporary residents, and immigrants. Tourist visitation within the 5 human inhabited islands is 200,000 people annually. The romantic idea of a pristine natural environment entices humans from across the globe to visit this World Heritage site. However, the growing attraction of this natural landmark has led to resource exploitation and the commodification of natural landscapes. In recent years, the Galapagos has developed its infrastructure in order to sustain the influx ...


Image And Perception Of The Top Five American Tourist Cities As Represented By Snow Globes, Caitlin Malloy 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Image And Perception Of The Top Five American Tourist Cities As Represented By Snow Globes, Caitlin Malloy

Architecture Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis investigates the connection between popular culture’s perception of place and the physical augmentation of reality. Focusing on the top five tourist cities in America, this disparateness is observed through the lens of a souvenir: the snow globe.

The presentation of the work is broken into two parts: the written portion and the book of diagrams. A total of 45 snow globes (9 for each of the 5 cities) were selected for the study, each carefully analyzed for content to include monuments, colors, text, dimensions, realism, and layout. This resulted in a series of diagrams which graphically express ...


Sustainable Tourism Study Through Solimar International, S silongwengjia 2017 SIT Graduate Institute

Sustainable Tourism Study Through Solimar International, S Silongwengjia

Capstone Collection

This inquiry explores a pragmatic approach of sustainable tourism and its application as a transformative development instrument. It seeks a general understanding of the global tourism sector, looks specifically at an individual tourism enterprise, Solimar International, and examines rural tourism, and its proposed standards. It discusses the opportunities and threats to the culture, ecology, and livelihoods of the residents of destination tourism and the unique experience to geotravelers. It analyzes the theoretical development history of tourism and the integrated approach of Solimar International as a leading agency in the tourism industry sector. And it seeks to understand a new type ...


How Visible Are Sacred Sites Online? : Availability Of European Sacred Site Websites, Onur Akbulut, Yakin Ekin 2017 Mugla Sitki Kocman University Fethiye Faculty of Bussines

How Visible Are Sacred Sites Online? : Availability Of European Sacred Site Websites, Onur Akbulut, Yakin Ekin

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

Sacred sites are places where the spiritual world meets the real world. Every culture in the world seeks to acclaim the mysterious, the divine, the martyred or the extraordinary. There are vast numbers of sacred places of prehistoric, historic and contemporary culture in the world. The internet has become a popular tool for gathering information about sacred sites as well as imagery and other required details related to the travel attraction of sacred sites. The internet sources possess an inevitable impact during the selection process of a sacred destination. This study aims to investigate the online background of sacred sites ...


Commodification Of Islamic Religious Tourism: From Spiritual To Touristic Experience, JAHANZEEB QURASHI 2017 University of Central Lancashire

Commodification Of Islamic Religious Tourism: From Spiritual To Touristic Experience, Jahanzeeb Qurashi

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the government and the local population of Mecca who used to facilitate pilgrims as ‘Guests of Allah’ free of charge have adopted the concept of ‘pay to pray’ (Shackley, 2001 & Woodward, 2004). In other words, given the escalating demand for religious tourism and the desire to achieve maximum economic benefits, the Saudi government is enhancing the hospitality, tourism and telecom sectors in general and transforming Mecca’s tourism infrastructure, in particular, developing it into a contemporary city / tourist destination by injecting US$80 billion into the local economy (Pecenoni et al., 2012). It is unclear, however, what impact this will have on the experience of religious tourists / pilgrims. That is, what effect will this commodification have on the authenticity of the destination (Mecca), the religious ritual (Hajj) and on pilgrims’ experiences? Certainly, it might be hypothesised that the pilgrim’s behaviour is becoming more materialistic, that owing to contemporary highly-branded hospitality services, modern tourism infrastructure and SMART technology in Mecca, the pilgrim’s spiritual experience is being transformed into a touristic experience, an experience which competes with and jeopardises the moralities of the Islamic religious journey of Hajj and the lessons of Prophet Mohammad (PBUH) based on simplicity, equality, and no ostentation.

The purpose of this paper is to begin to address the consequences of this commodification of the Hajj. Specifically, it considers the outcomes of preliminary research (focus groups) conducted in the UK with pilgrims who have performed Hajj within the last three years. This research reveals that, for these pilgrims at least, the Hajj has become commodified; not only has the experience become more ‘touristic’, but they also seek out greater comfort and luxury, indicating that the pilgrimage has become more of a ‘branded’, commercial experience. The research also points to further research that will be necessary to fully comprehend the implications of the commodification of the Hajj for religious tourism more generally.


Living Together With Ancestors: Cultural Heritage And Sacred Places On West Java, Jörgen Hellman 2017 Gothenburg University

Living Together With Ancestors: Cultural Heritage And Sacred Places On West Java, Jörgen Hellman

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

On Java (Indonesia), sacred places (tempat keramat) are powerful and contested sites. Historically they have served as important pilgrimage sites and more recently have also become major tourist attractions. In this paper, I will explore three ways of ‘past presencing’ - the nationalist, the Islamic and the traditional - and how groups representing each of these challenge one another at different sites. Today, sacred places in Indonesia are caught between the political ambitions of some who wish to create national cultural heritage, the aspirations of religious revivalists who want to cleanse the sites of what they consider superstition, and the desires of ...


Exposition Of St. Francis Xavier’S Holy Relics In Goa: An Importance-Performance Analysis, Subhash Kizhakanveatil Bhaskaran Pillai, Kaustubh Kamat, Miriam Scaglione, Carmelita D'Mello, Klaus Weiermair 2017 Goa University

Exposition Of St. Francis Xavier’S Holy Relics In Goa: An Importance-Performance Analysis, Subhash Kizhakanveatil Bhaskaran Pillai, Kaustubh Kamat, Miriam Scaglione, Carmelita D'Mello, Klaus Weiermair

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

Pilgrimage Tourism, one of the oldest forms of travelling, is the largest tourism sector in India; annually more than 70% of domestic tourist movement is for religious purposes which comes to 250 million pilgrims (Jachowski, 2000, Singh, 2016) and accounts for 20% of the revenue generated in the tourism industry (Dewan et al., 2008), hence, making it significant religiously, economically, politically, as well as sociologically. The present study was based on a survey conducted among the visitors who came for the 17th Exposition of St Francis Xavier’s holy relics, a Christian religious event, from 22nd November 2014 to 4th ...


Living Like A Monk: Motivations And Experiences Of International Participants In Templestay, Byunggil Chun, Eugene Y. ROH, Samuel Arvin Spralls III 2017 Dongguk University – Gyeong Ju

Living Like A Monk: Motivations And Experiences Of International Participants In Templestay, Byunggil Chun, Eugene Y. Roh, Samuel Arvin Spralls Iii

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

Templestay has transformed the perception and traditional role of Buddhist monasteries into a hybrid form of leisure and recreational dwelling that transcends religious boundaries. We identify four domains of motivational variables including learning, self-growth, being with nature, and relaxation. Based on data from 299 international participants in Templestay, empirical tests of the hypotheses revealed that motivational domains such as self-growth, nature, and learning exhibited significant differences based on the various socio-demographic backgrounds of international participants. Strategies are suggested for crafting Templestay as a cultural and monastic experience as well as segmenting and targeting international participants based on their needs.


Assessment Of Physical Carrying Capacity For Managing Sustainability At Religious Tourist Destinations, Ravinder Jangra, S.P. Kaushik 2017 Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana

Assessment Of Physical Carrying Capacity For Managing Sustainability At Religious Tourist Destinations, Ravinder Jangra, S.P. Kaushik

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

Increased interest in the sustainability of tourism development has initiated concerns about the capability of tourist destinations. This concept implies a threshold or a number of assumptions that are supported by destinations and due to uncontrolled tourism activity it is essential to regulate and manage visitors as well as destinations. In the recent past, many miss-haps have occurred at famous destinations because such large numbers of visitors are unsupported by the destinations. This study aims to provide a examination of visitor thresholds. It tries to estimate the carrying capacity of Braham Sarovar, a very famous Hindu religious destination in Kurukshetra ...


Comparative Pricing Analysis Of Mecca’S Religious Tourism, Said M. Ladki, Rayan A. Mazeh 2017 Lebanese American University, Beirut, Lebanon

Comparative Pricing Analysis Of Mecca’S Religious Tourism, Said M. Ladki, Rayan A. Mazeh

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

This study compares the costing practices of three religious tourists groups. Specifically, the study compares the costs of Islamic religious tourism to Mecca among three groups: 1) Indonesia and India, 2) Lebanon and Tunisia, 3) Dubai and Qatar. The selection of the three groups was based on the following principle: Group 1: Represents the most populated and less affluent Islamic countries. Group 2: Represents the less affluent Arab States with moderate income Group 3: Represents the richest Arab Islamic countries in the world. Results indicate that countries with wealthy economies charge much higher prices for Hajj packages than those with ...


Terrorism, Tourism And Religious Travellers, Ayesha Chowdhury Ms, Razaq Raj, Kevin Griffin, Alan Clarke Professor 2017 Leeds Law School, Leeds Becket University, UK

Terrorism, Tourism And Religious Travellers, Ayesha Chowdhury Ms, Razaq Raj, Kevin Griffin, Alan Clarke Professor

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

Curiously, while tourism is cited as the world’s largest industry (UNWTO, 2016), it is simultaneously a fragile industry that is highly vulnerable to the impact of the ongoing threat of terrorism. Internationally, terrorism influences the tourist mind-set in a number of ways, in particular it creates fear for travellers and causes economic and social impacts to change the behaviour of people and dissuade them from visiting certain places in the world. Thus, the impact of terrorism has caused tremendous damage to the travel industry. A number of countries which previously depended quite heavily on the tourism industry are suffering ...


Vol. 5(I) - Editorial - List Of Reviewers ~ Conference Calls ~ Report On Annual Conference, Kevin Griffin, Razaq Raj 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Vol. 5(I) - Editorial - List Of Reviewers ~ Conference Calls ~ Report On Annual Conference, Kevin Griffin, Razaq Raj

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

No abstract provided.


Vol. 5(I) - Cover And Table Of Contents, Kevin Griffin, Razaq Raj 2017 Dublin Institute of Technology

Vol. 5(I) - Cover And Table Of Contents, Kevin Griffin, Razaq Raj

International Journal of Religious Tourism and Pilgrimage

No abstract provided.


Ocean's Elevenses 美饌巡航, Mercedes Hutton 2017 Vocational Training Council

Ocean's Elevenses 美饌巡航, Mercedes Hutton

AMBROSIA 客道 : The Magazine of The International Culinary Institute

Catering to discerning passengers on cruise ships is a major undertaking, but it offers wonderful and bountiful rewards.

在郵輪上為高品味的旅客提供高質素的餐飲服務,是一項龐大而重要的任務,然而對廚師而言,這是個難得而又豐盛的經驗。


The Billboard Effect: Still Alive And Well, Chris K. Anderson, Saram Han 2017 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

The Billboard Effect: Still Alive And Well, Chris K. Anderson, Saram Han

Center for Hospitality Research Publications

Changes in the online travel market are causing hotels to rethink their relationships with online travel agencies (OTAs) and to take a closer look at the impact on bookings from listing their properties with OTAs. One outcome of being listed on an OTA is additional bookings on the brand’s own website, a phenomenon that co-author Chris Anderson labeled the billboard effect. In a 2009 study, Anderson presented an experiment in which a group of hotels was listed and then removed from Expedia.com in alternate weeks. This test found that, compared to being hidden, being listed on the site ...


Barcelona Como Destino Turístico Para El Mercado De Lujo, Claudia Plana Castillo 2017 Selected Works

Barcelona Como Destino Turístico Para El Mercado De Lujo, Claudia Plana Castillo

Claudia Plana Castillo

Barcelona y sus lujosos núcleos comerciales junto al mejor hotel de 5 estrellas y gran lujo de la ciudad condal. La ciudad catalana el nuevo mercado del lujo de España.


2016 Happiness Survey: Aruba Happiness & Tourism, Robertico Croes, Manuel A. Rivera, Kelly J. Semrad 2017 University of Central Florida

2016 Happiness Survey: Aruba Happiness & Tourism, Robertico Croes, Manuel A. Rivera, Kelly J. Semrad

Dick Pope Sr. Institute Publications

A research team from the Rosen College of Hospitality Management (RCHM) at the University of Central Florida (UCF) investigated the perception of happiness and satisfaction with life in Aruba. This investigation is the result of an assignment granted by the Aruba Tourism Authority (ATA). This study updates a similar study conducted by the UCF team in 2011. Similar to 2011, this study estimates the impact of tourism on residents’ happiness and satisfaction with life. Aruba is one of the first small island destinations in the world to employ a happiness index as one of its metrics to assess the impact ...


Environmentally Friendly Industries: An Examination Of Ecotourism As The Solution To The Environmental Degradation Caused By The International Tourism Industry, Whitney Michael 2017 Johnson & Wales University

Environmentally Friendly Industries: An Examination Of Ecotourism As The Solution To The Environmental Degradation Caused By The International Tourism Industry, Whitney Michael

Honors Theses – Charlotte Campus

The increasing visibility of ecological alterations due to global climate change have required high-impact industries to reexamine their environmental impact. Transnational organizations such as the United Nations have identified the current management practices of the international tourism industry as a significant contributing factor to global warming. The high volume implications of the large-scale establishments necessary to lodging facilities in the tourism trade are responsible for damages such as resource depletion and pollution. Existing levels of environmental impact show irreparable and imminent damage to the world environment if current methods of the industry are allowed to continue.

New trends in consumer ...


Foreign Exchange Rate Effect On International Gaming Demand: An Examination From An Upscale Las Vegas Casino, Myongjee Yoo, Ashok K. Singh, Kasra Ghaharian 2017 California State Polytechnic University - Pomona

Foreign Exchange Rate Effect On International Gaming Demand: An Examination From An Upscale Las Vegas Casino, Myongjee Yoo, Ashok K. Singh, Kasra Ghaharian

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Las Vegas has developed into one of the world’s top tourist destinations, and the international market has become a vital stream of the city’s revenue. The objective of this study was to understand the foreign exchange rate as a determinant for international gaming demand in the Las Vegas gaming industry. This study applied the econometric modeling method of panel data analysis to secondary data originated from a Las Vegas Strip casino property. This study attempted to validate the foreign exchange effect through empirical investigation. Results of this study showed that foreign exchange rate has an impact on international ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress