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Cool: How Air Conditioning Changed Everything [Table Of Contents], Salvatore Basile 2016 Fordham University

Cool: How Air Conditioning Changed Everything [Table Of Contents], Salvatore Basile

History

It’s a contraption that makes the lists of “Greatest Inventions Ever”; at the same time, it’s accused of causing global disaster. It has changed everything from architecture to people’s food habits to their voting patterns, to even the way big business washes its windows. It has saved countless lives . . . while causing countless deaths. Most of us are glad it’s there. But we don’t know how, or when, it got there.

It’s air conditioning.

For thousands of years, humankind attempted to do something about the slow torture of hot weather. Everything was tried: water power ...


Los Precios De Los Hoteles En Un Mundo Intercommunicado, Cathy A. Enz 2016 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Los Precios De Los Hoteles En Un Mundo Intercommunicado, Cathy A. Enz

Cathy A. Enz

El desarrollo de internet nos ha demostrado el poder que tienen las redes de comunicación. Debido a su rapidez y agilidad, las redes de comunicación pueden ser incluso más eficaces que las burocracias monolíticas. Las empresas hoteleras han obtenido diversos resultados al intentar usar la Internet para la distribución. Si los hoteleros no entienden el comportamiento de los consumidores o los principios en que se basa la organización de la red, corren el riesgo de que intermediarios de la red les hagan perder ingresos y control sobre sus precios. Mediante este artículo quiero abrir la discusión de cómo la industria ...


The Economics Of Patents: An Overview, Corinne Langinier, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

The Economics Of Patents: An Overview, Corinne Langinier, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

In this paper, we review the economic effects of intellectual property rights and specifically address the economics of the patent system. The production and dissemination of new knowledge is fraught with market failures because knowledge is a public good. Patents provide a second-best solution to the resulting appropriability problem. We review the main benefits and costs of the patent system, focusing on the role that patents play in providing incentives for innovation, in promoting the dissemination of knowledge, and in helping technology transfer and commercialization of new technology. From a more normative perspective, we address the questions of what the ...


Parallel Research, Multiple Intellectual Property Right Protection Instruments, And The Correlation Among R&D Projects, Harun Bulut, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Parallel Research, Multiple Intellectual Property Right Protection Instruments, And The Correlation Among R&D Projects, Harun Bulut, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

The choice of a research path in attacking scientific and technological problems is a significant component of firms' R&D strategy. One of the findings of the patent races literature is that, in a competitive market setting, firms' noncooperative choices of research projects display an excessive degree of correlation, as compared to the socially optimal level. The paper revisits this question in a context in which firms have access to trade secrets, in addition to patents, to assert intellectual property rights (IPR) over their discoveries. We find that the availability of multiple IPR protection instruments can move the paths chosen ...


Patents And Other Intellectual Property Rights, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Patents And Other Intellectual Property Rights, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This article reviews intellectual property rights (IPRs), with some emphasis on the protection of agricultural and life sciences innovations. The main institutional features of IPRs are first discussed, along with a brief historical background and an articulation of the main rationale for the existence of such rights. This is followed by an overview of the principal economic issues related to IPRs. The main benefit/cost trade-offs of allowing patents and other IPRs are explained, and specific issues are then analyzed in some depth, including the scope of patent protection, the effects of patent races, and the problems arising when IPRs ...


Mandates And The Incentive For Environmental Innovation, Matthew S. Clancy, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Mandates And The Incentive For Environmental Innovation, Matthew S. Clancy, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

Mandates are policy tools that are becoming increasingly popular to promote renewable energy use. In addition to mitigating the pollution externality of conventional energy, mandates have the potential to promote R&D investments in renewable energy technology. But how well do mandates perform as innovation incentives? To address this question, we develop a partial equilibrium model with endogenous innovation to examine the R&D incentives induced by a mandate, and compare this policy to two benchmark situations: laissez-faire and a carbon tax. Innovation is stochastic and the model permits an endogenous number of multiple innovators. We find that mandates can ...


Intellectual Property Rights And The World Trade Organization: Retrospect And Prospects, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Intellectual Property Rights And The World Trade Organization: Retrospect And Prospects, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This paper analyzes the main economic issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in the context of the World Trade Organization (WTO). A retrospective view on the establishment of the TRIPS (trade-related aspects of intellectual property rights) Agreement, a still controversial accomplishment of the Uruguay Round of trade liberalization, is provided. The paper reviews the economic rationale for the harmonization of IPRs, drawing both on economic theory considerations as well as emerging empirical evidence. The logic of linking IPR protection and trade in the context of the WTO is also re-examined. Some specific attention is devoted to the implications of ...


Labeling Regulations And Segregation Of First- And Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives And Welfare Effects, GianCarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan 2016 Iowa State University

Labeling Regulations And Segregation Of First- And Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives And Welfare Effects, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey Lapan

Giancarlo Moschini

We review some of the most significant issues and results on the economic effects of genetically modified (GM) product innovation, with emphasis on the question of GM labeling and the need for costly segregation and identity preservation activities. The analysis is organized around an explicit model that can accommodate the features of both first-generation and second-generation GM products. The model accounts for the proprietary nature of GM innovations and for the critical role of consumer preferences vis-à-vis GM products, as well as for the impacts of segregation and identity preservation and the effects of a mandatory GM labeling regulation. We ...


In Medio Stat Virtus: Coexistence Policies For Gm And Non-Gm Production In Spatial Equilibrium, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

In Medio Stat Virtus: Coexistence Policies For Gm And Non-Gm Production In Spatial Equilibrium, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This paper develops a spatial equilibrium model suitable to analyze the economic impacts of measures (such as isolation distances and buffer zones) meant to ensure coexistence between GM and non-GM crops. We show that policies that put the cost of such measures exclusively on GM producers lead to a competitive equilibrium that is biased against GM products (relative to the welfare maximizing allocation). Efficient allocation is restored if the cost of implementing coexistence measures is shared equally between adjacent GM and non-GM farms.


Intellectual Property Rights And Crop-Improving R&D Under Adaptive Destruction, Oleg Yerokhin, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Intellectual Property Rights And Crop-Improving R&D Under Adaptive Destruction, Oleg Yerokhin, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

This paper studies how the strength of intellectual property rights (IPRs) affects investments in biological innovations when the value of an innovation is stochastically reduced to zero because of the evolution of pest resistance. We frame the problem as a research and development (R&D) investment game in a duopoly model of sequential innovation. We characterize the incentives to invest in R&D under two competing IPR regimes, which differ in their treatment of the follow-on innovations that become necessary because of pest adaptation. Depending on the magnitude of the R&D cost, ex ante firms might prefer an intellectual ...


Biotechnology And The Development Of Food Markets: Retrospect And Prospects, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Biotechnology And The Development Of Food Markets: Retrospect And Prospects, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

Biotechnology has had an important impact on the agricultural and food industries over the last twelve years by way of fast and extensive adoption of a few genetically modified (GM) crops. This has produced large efficiency gains, including higher yields and reduced costs of weed and pest control, as well as some environmental benefits. The expected development of crops with additional agronomic traits, and with output traits to improve the nutrition and health attributes of food products, holds the potential for even more pervasive impacts. Full realisation of such promises may require overcoming the constraining effects of restrictive GM product ...


Economic Benefits And Costs Of Biotechnology Innovations In Agriculture, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Economic Benefits And Costs Of Biotechnology Innovations In Agriculture, Giancarlo Moschini

Giancarlo Moschini

The conceptual model necessary for an assessment of biotechnology's economic benefits and costs is outlined, emphasizing the need to account for the proprietary nature of biotechnology innovations. The model is illustrated with an application to Roundup Ready soybeans. The estimated value of this innovation is sizeable, with consumers and innovators claiming the larger share of net benefits. Also, disparities in intellectual property rights protection across countries affect the distribution of benefits. Consumer resistance toward genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the issues of labeling and market segregation complicate the economic evaluation of biotechnology innovations, and a number of related regulation ...


Genetic Information In Agricultural Productivity And Product Development, David A. Hennessy, John A. Miranowski, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Genetic Information In Agricultural Productivity And Product Development, David A. Hennessy, John A. Miranowski, Bruce A. Babcock

John Miranowski

A prominent facet of recent changes in agriculture has been the advent of precision breeding techniques. Another has been an increase in the level of information inputs and outputs associated with agricultural production. This paper identifies ways in which these features may complement in expanding the variety of processed products, the level of productivity, and the rate of change in productivity. Using a martingale concept of "more information," we identify conditions under which more information increases the incentives to invest and engage in product differentiation. A theory on how genetic uniformity can enhance the rate of learning through process experimentation ...


Roundup Ready Soybeans And Welfare Effects In The Soybean Complex, GianCarlo Moschini, HARVEY E. LAPAN, Andrei Sobolevsky 2016 Iowa State

Roundup Ready Soybeans And Welfare Effects In The Soybean Complex, Giancarlo Moschini, Harvey E. Lapan, Andrei Sobolevsky

Harvey Lapan

A stylized three-region world model for the soybean complex is developed to evaluate the welfare effects of Roundup Ready (RR) soybean adoption. The innovation is modeled in a structural way that explicitly accounts for the incentives open to farmers as well as for the pricing of RR soybean seeds by a multinational firm thatholds intellectual property rights. Themodel, calibrated on recent benchmark data, is solved for various scenarios to evaluate the production, price, and welf2U"e impacts of RR soybean adoption. The United States gains substantially from the superior innovation, with the innovator capturing the larger share of the welfare ...


Incomplete Adoption Of A Superior Innovation, HARVEY E. LAPAN, GianCarlo Moschini 2016 Iowa State University

Incomplete Adoption Of A Superior Innovation, Harvey E. Lapan, Giancarlo Moschini

Harvey Lapan

We consider a model in which an innovating monopolist of a technologically superior intermediate input must sell this product to final output producers. Prior research shows that, with complete information, the monopolist's optimal strategy will lead to complete adoption of this technologically superior innovation. In this paper we show that, when the price of some competitively supplied input used in the final product market is endogenous and is altered by adoption of the innovation, then the optimal pricing strategy of the monopolist may lead to incomplete innovation. Thus, the conclusion of complete adoption of the superior technology is partly ...


The Development Of U.S. Agricultural Research And Education: An Economic Perspective, Wallace E. Huffman, Robert E. Evenson 2016 Iowa State University

The Development Of U.S. Agricultural Research And Education: An Economic Perspective, Wallace E. Huffman, Robert E. Evenson

Wallace Huffman

This Centennial year of the Hatch Act, which established state agri cultural experiment stations in the United States, provides an opportunity to reflect on the beginning, development, growth, and impacts of agricultural research and education in the United States, Public sector agricultural research started in the United States in the mid-19th century. Private sector inventive activity started even earlier. Major landmarks in public sector institutions for agricultural research were the establishment of the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1862, the Morrill Act of 1862 giving federal land-grants to each state for the support of a college to teach agri ...


Genetic Information In Agricultural Productivity And Product Development, David A. Hennessy, John A. Miranowski, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Genetic Information In Agricultural Productivity And Product Development, David A. Hennessy, John A. Miranowski, Bruce A. Babcock

David Hennessy

A prominent facet of recent changes in agriculture has been the advent of precision breeding techniques. Another has been an increase in the level of information inputs and outputs associated with agricultural production. This paper identifies ways in which these features may complement in expanding the variety of processed products, the level of productivity, and the rate of change in productivity. Using a martingale concept of "more information," we identify conditions under which more information increases the incentives to invest and engage in product differentiation. A theory on how genetic uniformity can enhance the rate of learning through process experimentation ...


Genetic Information In Agricultural Productivity And Product Development, David A. Hennessy, John A. Miranowski, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Genetic Information In Agricultural Productivity And Product Development, David A. Hennessy, John A. Miranowski, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

A prominent facet of recent changes in agriculture has been the advent of precision breeding techniques. Another has been an increase in the level of information inputs and outputs associated with agricultural production. This paper identifies ways in which these features may complement in expanding the variety of processed products, the level of productivity, and the rate of change in productivity. Using a martingale concept of "more information," we identify conditions under which more information increases the incentives to invest and engage in product differentiation. A theory on how genetic uniformity can enhance the rate of learning through process experimentation ...


Changing The Industry, Spotify, Seth A. Carver 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Changing The Industry, Spotify, Seth A. Carver

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Decline In Non-Duplicate Licensing Letters Of Assurance (Loas) From Product/System Companies For Ieee Standards, Ron D. Katznelson 2016 Bi-Level Technologies

Decline In Non-Duplicate Licensing Letters Of Assurance (Loas) From Product/System Companies For Ieee Standards, Ron D. Katznelson

Ron D. Katznelson

No abstract provided.


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