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Full-Text Articles in Taxation

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams Aug 2028

Evaluating Competing Perspectives Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Bulgaria, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

When explaining and tackling the undeclared economy in Central
and Eastern Europe, participants have been conventionally viewed
as rational economic actors. They engage in undeclared work
when the benefits outweigh the costs. Participation is thus
deterred by increasing the sanctions and/or probability of being
caught. Recently, however, an alternative social actor approach
has emerged which views participants as engaging in undeclared
work when their norms, values and beliefs (i.e. citizen morale) do
not align with laws and regulations (i.e. state morale). Here, therefore,
initiatives to develop greater symmetry between civic and
state morale are pursued. To evaluate ...


Tackling Undeclared Work In The Agricultural Sector, Colin C. Williams Nov 2018

Tackling Undeclared Work In The Agricultural Sector, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This study evaluates the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of undeclared work in the agricultural, forestry and fishing sector (henceforth ‘agricultural sector’) in the EU and how this can be tackled. To do so, the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of undeclared work in the agricultural sector, along with its systemic drivers, are analysed. This analysis then provides the evidence base for an analysis of how undeclared work can be tackled. To identify how to achieve this, an analysis is undertaken of the legislative and institutional frameworks, of the policy approaches for tackling undeclared work in the agricultural sector, and an evidence-based ...


Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Nov 2018

Glossary Of Terms: European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This glossary is intended to provide a common understanding of the terminology that is used in the European Platform tackling undeclared work web pages, documents and publications. It does not provide official Platform definitions of the terms listed therein. Where possible, references are provided to the source of the understandings provided.
To facilitate understanding, the terms in the glossary are grouped together rather than presented as an A-Z list.

In the first section, the common understandings about undeclared work and its various sub-types are provided, followed by other related concepts and terms often used for activities related to undeclared work ...


Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi Oct 2018

Explaining And Tackling Under-Declared Employment In Fyr Macedonia: The Employers Perspective, Colin C. Williams, Slavko Bezeredi

Colin C Williams

The aim of this paper is to evaluate how employers who illegally under-report their employees’ salaries to
evade paying the full tax and social contributions owed can be explained and tackled. These employers have
been conventionally explained as rational economic actors doing so when the benefits outweigh the costs,
and thus the solution is to increase the sanctions and/or probability of detection. An alternative social actor
approach, however, explains employers as under-reporting salaries because of their lack of both vertical trust
(i.e., their beliefs are not in symmetry with the laws and regulations) and horizontal trust (i.e ...


Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Tackling Under-Declared Employment In The European Union: Input Paper To Thematic Discussion Of European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The under-declaration of work ranges from employers using unregistered employees, through the under-declaration of income by the formal self-employed and formal businesses, to the misuse of collaborative platforms and the digital economy to conceal the full amount of incomes and social security due.
The objective of this thematic discussion on under-declared employment in the European Union is: (i) to exchange information on what works and what does not, (ii) to generate knowledge about under-declared employment, and (iii) to explore how the Platform activities can contribute to tackling under-declared employment.
The intention is to focus upon two types of under-declaring work ...


Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams Oct 2018

Evaluating Policy Approaches Towards Undeclared Work: Some Lessons From Fyr Of Macedonia, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

To tackle undeclared work, the conventional rational economic actor approach
uses deterrents to ensure that the costs of engaging in undeclared work outweigh
the benefits. Recent years have seen the emergence of a social actor approach
which focuses upon improving tax morale. To analyse the association between
participation in undeclared work and these policy approaches, 2,014 face-toface
interviews, conducted in FYROM in 2015, are reported. Logistic regression
analysis reveals no association between participation in undeclared work and the
perceived level of penalties and risk of detection, but there is an association with
the level of tax morale. The paper ...


Reflective Practice Series: Selected Instructional Models Using Synchronous Video Conferencing Software, Martin W. Sivula Sep 2018

Reflective Practice Series: Selected Instructional Models Using Synchronous Video Conferencing Software, Martin W. Sivula

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

With the vast array of resources available to instructors, one would think that instruction and teaching would yield success for all learners. Now, well into the 21st century has much changed in the classroom? Certainly, movable desks and chairs, advanced audio and visual equipment, and a plethora of all types of technologies which might be able to enhance training and education. Over the last several decades research on individualized instruction, cognitive science, educational psychology, and multimedia instruction (to name a few) have permeated the literature on instruction. With all the research and the vast array of studies on improving ...


Does Trust Prevent Undeclared Work? An Evaluation Of The Social Actor Approach, Colin C. Williams Aug 2018

Does Trust Prevent Undeclared Work? An Evaluation Of The Social Actor Approach, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

In recent decades, a burgeoning literature has brought out of the shadows the magnitude of the undeclared economy. This reveals that the undeclared economy is a persistent feature of contemporary economies. With the equivalent of 17.9 per cent of GDP not declared to the authorities in the European Union in 2016 [1], undeclared work representing 14.3 per cent of gross value added in the private sector in 2013 [2] and 4 per cent of EU28 citizens conducting undeclared work [3], tackling the undeclared economy is not some minor issue. Addressing this practice is important. This is not only ...


Summaries For The 33rd Annual Tei-Sjsu High Tech Tax Institute, Silin Chen, June Hostetter, Sahdia Saiara, Jessica Wong, Cherry Zheng Aug 2018

Summaries For The 33rd Annual Tei-Sjsu High Tech Tax Institute, Silin Chen, June Hostetter, Sahdia Saiara, Jessica Wong, Cherry Zheng

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


The Tao Of The Dao: Taxing An Entity That Lives On A Blockchain, David J. Shakow Aug 2018

The Tao Of The Dao: Taxing An Entity That Lives On A Blockchain, David J. Shakow

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this report, Shakow explains how a decentralized autonomous organization functions and interacts with the U.S. tax system and presents the many tax issues that these structures raise. The possibility of using smart contracts to allow an entity to operate totally autonomously on a blockchain platform seems attractive. However, little thought has been given to how such an entity can comply with the requirements of a tax system. The DAO, the first major attempt to create such an organization, failed because of a programming error. If successful examples proliferate in the future, tax authorities will face significant problems in ...


Marginal Rates Under The Tcja, Reed Shuldiner Jun 2018

Marginal Rates Under The Tcja, Reed Shuldiner

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In this report, Shuldiner argues that although the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act appears to offer an across-the board reduction in individual marginal tax rates augmented by an additional 20 percent reduction in rates on unincorporated business income, the situation is significantly more complex.


Explaining Informal Sector Entrepreneurship In Kosovo: An Institutionalist Perspective, Colin C. Williams May 2018

Explaining Informal Sector Entrepreneurship In Kosovo: An Institutionalist Perspective, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Institutional theory has been widely used to explain entrepreneurship in the informal economy.
A first wave of institutionalist theory argued that informal entrepreneurship resulted from formal
institutional failures and a second wave that such entrepreneurship results from an asymmetry
between the laws and regulations of formal institutions and the unwritten socially shared rules of
informal institutions. This paper evaluates the validity of these two waves of institutionalist explanation
and a new third wave of institutional theory explaining informal entrepreneurship in terms
of a lack of both vertical and horizontal trust. Reporting data from a 2013 survey in Kosovo
involving 500 ...


Evaluating Competing Theories Of Informal Sector Entrepreneurship: A Study Of The Determinants Of Cross-Country Variations In Enterprises Starting-Up Unregistered, Colin C. Williams May 2018

Evaluating Competing Theories Of Informal Sector Entrepreneurship: A Study Of The Determinants Of Cross-Country Variations In Enterprises Starting-Up Unregistered, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

To advance understanding of the reasons for informal sector entrepreneurship, this article evaluates the determinants of
cross-country variations in the extent to which enterprises are unregistered when they start operating. Reporting the
World Bank Enterprise Survey data on 67,515 enterprises across 142 countries, the finding is that one in five (19.9%) of
the formal enterprises surveyed started-up unregistered, although this varies from all enterprises surveyed in some
countries (e.g. Pakistan) to 1% of surveyed enterprises in Slovakia. To explain these cross-country variations, four
competing theories are evaluated which variously assert that nonregistration is determined by either: economic ...


Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns, Colin C. Williams May 2018

Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

1.          Introduction
The aim of this study is to review the range of preventative approaches for tackling undeclared work available to Member States, and to focus upon two types of preventative measure, namely service vouchers and the use of awareness raising campaigns.
2.          Rationales for a preventative approach
·       The rationale for a preventative approach is to shift away from resolving problems after they have occurred towards preventing non-compliance in the first place.
·       Article 1 of Decision (EU) 2016/3441, establishing the Platform, explicitly encourages such a preventative approach. It states that ‘”tackling”, in relation to undeclared work, means preventing, deterring ...


State Aid: How Economic Development Trumps Tax Revenue, Kristen Leigh Purcell May 2018

State Aid: How Economic Development Trumps Tax Revenue, Kristen Leigh Purcell

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Assessment Limits And Timing Of Real Estate Transactions, Sebastien J. Bradley Apr 2018

Assessment Limits And Timing Of Real Estate Transactions, Sebastien J. Bradley

Sebastien J Bradley

Michigan homebuyers face large potential discontinuities in property tax obligations for purchases made around January 1 and May 1 under the state's application of acquisition-value based assessment limits and principal residence (homestead) exemptions, respectively.  Consistent with incentives, roughly 3.7 percent of sales concluded in the first 10 business days of January are thus attributable to timing responses among the subset of properties listed by the largest 25 percent of firms by sales volume.  Underlying this effect is a willingness to stretch the number of days between contract and closing dates by an average of 2 to 4 business ...


Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns: Outputs From Plenary Discussion Of The European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams Apr 2018

Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns: Outputs From Plenary Discussion Of The European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The fourth Plenary meeting of the European Platform Tackling Undeclared Work was held in Brussels on 8-9 March 2018. The first day of this meeting was dedicated to the topic of the preventative approach towards tackling undeclared work, with a focus upon service vouchers and awareness raising. This report summarises the discussions at the meeting, drawing also on the forthcoming study on this topic which has been developed as part of the Platform’s work programme


2018 European Platform Undeclared Work Survey Report: Obstacles To Tackling Undeclared Work At The Cross-Border And National Levels, Bilateral And National Agreements, And Complaint Reporting Tools, Colin C. Williams Apr 2018

2018 European Platform Undeclared Work Survey Report: Obstacles To Tackling Undeclared Work At The Cross-Border And National Levels, Bilateral And National Agreements, And Complaint Reporting Tools, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Responses were received from 45 authorities with responsibilities for tackling undeclared work in 25 Member States (MS), most of whom were labour inspectorates or Ministries of Labour. The issues covered: obstacles to tackling undeclared work at the cross-border and national levels; the use of bilateral and multilateral agreements, and the use of complaint reporting tools in Member States


Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns - Input Paper To Thematic Discussion, Colin C. Williams Apr 2018

Elements Of A Preventative Approach Towards Undeclared Work: An Evaluation Of Service Vouchers And Awareness Raising Campaigns - Input Paper To Thematic Discussion, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

The objective of the thematic discussion on preventative measures for tackling undeclared work, focusing on both service vouchers and awareness raising campaigns, is (i) to exchange information on what works and what does not, (ii) to generate knowledge about these preventative measures, and (iii) to explore how the Platform activities can contribute to developing a preventative approach towards undeclared work.
This thematic discussion will focus attention on three key issues. In Part 1, we will address an issue everyone is aware of but until now has not been discussed, namely why preventative measures are not commonly used in Member States ...


Comparison Of Illinois Individual Income Tax Amounts With Surrounding States--Who Wins, Who Loses?, Mark R. Williams Apr 2018

Comparison Of Illinois Individual Income Tax Amounts With Surrounding States--Who Wins, Who Loses?, Mark R. Williams

Scholar Week 2016 - present

In July 2017 the Illinois General Assembly essentially made permanent the 66 2/3% tax rate increase which was originally enacted in January 2011 but which had sunset after 2014. Since Illinois is a flat tax state, there were some who argued that the Illinois tax rate, even after the increase in 2011 and again in 2017, was lower than surrounding states implying that Illinois taxpayers were still relatively better off than residents of surrounding states. This study provides a brief history of the Illinois individual income tax. This study also compares the individual income tax amounts for Illinois and ...


2nd Place: Budget Disparity In Education, Angelyz Rohena-Franceschini Apr 2018

2nd Place: Budget Disparity In Education, Angelyz Rohena-Franceschini

Harrisburg University Research Symposium

The social issue this project deals with is the budget disparity in America's public schools. This problem is important to investigate because today's children are tomorrow's leaders and if they are not being educated properly, then how do we as a society expect them to lead us in the future.


Do State Marginal Tax Rates Lower State Labor Productivity?, Joseph E. Mcphail, Peter F. Orazem, Rajesh Singh, Rick Stammer Apr 2018

Do State Marginal Tax Rates Lower State Labor Productivity?, Joseph E. Mcphail, Peter F. Orazem, Rajesh Singh, Rick Stammer

Economics Working Papers

There are substantial differences in output per job across states that have persisted over time. This study demonstrates that in the context of a neoclassical growth model, differences in marginal tax rates on income from capital investment, capital ownership, and consumption will lead to persistent differences in labor productivity across states. Conversely, taxes on wages will not alter labor productivity. These theoretical predictions are supported by data on state marginal tax rates and output per job over the 1981- 2015 sample period. Over that period, the mix of state marginal tax rates lower labor productivity by an average of 15 ...


Glossary Of Business Evidence, Paul C. Boyd Apr 2018

Glossary Of Business Evidence, Paul C. Boyd

MBA Faculty Conference Papers & Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Starting-Up Unregistered And Firm Performance In Turkey, Colin C. Williams Mar 2018

Starting-Up Unregistered And Firm Performance In Turkey, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

Recent years have seen a questioning of the negative representation of
informal sector entrepreneurship and an emergent view that it may offer significant
benefits. This paper advances this rethinking by evaluating the relationship between
business registration and future firm performance. Until now, the assumption has been
that starting-up unregistered is linked to weaker firm performance. Using World Bank
Enterprise Survey data on 2494 formal enterprises in Turkey, and controlling for other
determinants of firm performance as well as the endogeneity of the registration
decision, the finding is that formal enterprises that started-up unregistered and spent
longer unregistered have significantly higher ...


Trusting Harvard: The Cost Of Unprincipled Investing (2014), Marcy Murninghan, Robert A.G. Monks Mar 2018

Trusting Harvard: The Cost Of Unprincipled Investing (2014), Marcy Murninghan, Robert A.G. Monks

New England Journal of Public Policy

This article provides a framework for answering two questions: How can Harvard fulfill its fiduciary obligation as an investor in ways that advance its beliefs, values, and commitments? How can Harvard take the lead in creating a curriculum for students, professionals, and the general public about the civic moral obligations of wealth? While aimed at Harvard, the issues covered are relevant to other universities and tax-exempt institutional investors, because they have a special duty to advance the public interest. Commissioned and co-authored by the noted corporate governance and responsible ownership guru Robert A. G. Monks, it calls on Harvard to ...


Constructing Tax Efficient Withdrawal Strategies For Retirees, James Dilellio, Dan Ostrov Feb 2018

Constructing Tax Efficient Withdrawal Strategies For Retirees, James Dilellio, Dan Ostrov

Graziadio Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


The Contemporary Tax Journal Volume 7, No. 1 - Winter 2018 Feb 2018

The Contemporary Tax Journal Volume 7, No. 1 - Winter 2018

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Why Section 179(B)(3)(A)'S Business Income Limitation Does Not Apply To Partnerships And S Corporations, David Randall Jenkins Ph.D. Feb 2018

Why Section 179(B)(3)(A)'S Business Income Limitation Does Not Apply To Partnerships And S Corporations, David Randall Jenkins Ph.D.

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Tax Treatment Of High-Tech Start-Up Costs, June (Yun) Hostetter Cpa Feb 2018

Tax Treatment Of High-Tech Start-Up Costs, June (Yun) Hostetter Cpa

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


R&D Credit Against Payroll Tax Liabilities - The Payroll Tax Credit, Sarah Yaqin Sun Feb 2018

R&D Credit Against Payroll Tax Liabilities - The Payroll Tax Credit, Sarah Yaqin Sun

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.