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The Potential Effect Of Offering Lump Sums In The Social Security Program, Raimond Maurer, Oliver S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek 2015 University of Pennsylvania

The Potential Effect Of Offering Lump Sums In The Social Security Program, Raimond Maurer, Oliver S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

New research reframes the debate about Social Security solvency and moves away from questions of who should bear the greater burden of fixing the system by offering a lump sum payment model as a way to encourage people to delay claiming their Social Security benefits. Under one of the lump sum alternatives presented in this brief, survey participants indicated a willingness to delay claiming Social Security by up to eight months, on average, compared to the status quo, and to continue working for four of them. Delayed claiming would mean additional months or years of Social Security payroll tax contributions ...


Simple Substantial Economic Effect Regulatory Compliance, David Randall Jenkins 2015 Unaffiliated

Simple Substantial Economic Effect Regulatory Compliance, David Randall Jenkins

David Randall Jenkins, Ph.D.

The Internal Revenue Service considers Section 704(b)’s substantial economic effect regulations among the most complex. This course teaches the Treasury Regulations enable simple compliance through (Per Capita: Balances: Ratios) capital account accounting method truncated transitivity, economic effect equivalence, and substantiality’s conclusive presumption. The partnership special allocations public policy mandate is made clear thereby: encourage going concern productivity while discouraging its abandonment.


Evaluating Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work: The Role Of Stakeholder Collaboration In Building Trust And Improving Policy-Making, Colin C. Williams, Anton Kojouharov 2015 University of Sheffield

Evaluating Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work: The Role Of Stakeholder Collaboration In Building Trust And Improving Policy-Making, Colin C. Williams, Anton Kojouharov

Colin C Williams

The aim of this paper is to examine and analyse the realm of policy evaluation approaches and methods as they relate to assessing measures to tackle undeclared work. The discussion is set at the backdrop of a brief review of the more prominent theoretical and conceptual considerations in the policy evaluation literature. The paper then investigates results from policy assessments and evaluations illuminated in the previous GREY working papers, as well as some selected from the Eurofound database. The analysis of a limited sample of available policy evaluations and results demonstrates that a common probable cause of policy failure with ...


Informal Social Support And Older Persons' Psychological Well-Being In Hong Kong, David Rosser PHILLIPS, Oi Ling SIU, Anthony G. O. YEH, Kevin H. C. CHENG 2015 Lingnan University, Hong Kong

Informal Social Support And Older Persons' Psychological Well-Being In Hong Kong, David Rosser Phillips, Oi Ling Siu, Anthony G. O. Yeh, Kevin H. C. Cheng

Prof. PHILLIPS David, Rosser

This paper focuses on the importance and the effectiveness of various types of informal support for older persons’ psychological well-being. It examines the effects of objective measures of informal support (such as size of social networks and frequency of contact) and subjective measures (such as satisfaction with the support received) on psychological well-being of older occupants in different household circumstances (i.e.,living alone, with spouse or relatives, in old urban areas or new towns, in private or public housing). Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with a sample of 518 older persons (224 males, 294 females) aged 60 and ...


Se(C)(3): A Catalyst For Social Enterprise Crowdfunding, Dana Brakman Reiser, Steven A. Dean 2015 Brooklyn Law School

Se(C)(3): A Catalyst For Social Enterprise Crowdfunding, Dana Brakman Reiser, Steven A. Dean

Indiana Law Journal

The emerging consensus among scholars rejects the notion of tax breaks for social enterprises, concluding that such prizes will attract strategic claimants, ultimately doing more harm than good. The SE(c)(3) regime proposed by this Article offers entrepreneurs and investors committed to combining financial returns and social good with a means of broadcasting that shared resolve. Combining a measured tax benefit for mission-driven activities with a heightened burden on shareholder financial gains, the revenue-neutral SE(c)(3) regime would provide investors and funding platforms with a low-cost means of screening out “greenwashed” ventures.


Pass-Through Valuation, Robert M. Hull, David P. Price 2015 Washburn University

Pass-Through Valuation, Robert M. Hull, David P. Price

The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance

Noted scholars argue that (1) economic models of capital taxation have been inadequately adapted to owner-managed enterprises and (2) capital structure researchers have used the wrong models while also improperly measuring key variables. Thus, a model that can overcome these problems should be of interest to academics when teaching capital structure theory and practitioners when determining optimal debt levels. This paper contributes to capital structure practice by using a model that is adaptable to owner-managed enterprises like pass-throughs while also containing relevant variables that are measurable. This paper should be valuable to academics and practitioners in the following ways. First ...


Designing Survey Methods To Evaluate The Undeclared Economy: A Review Of The Options, Colin C. Williams 2015 University of Sheffield

Designing Survey Methods To Evaluate The Undeclared Economy: A Review Of The Options, Colin C. Williams

Colin C Williams

This Working Paper is part of the GREY project which is developing capacities and capabilities in tackling undeclared work. In this Working Paper, the various options available to researchers when designing surveys to tackle undeclared work are evaluated. These issues include the unit of analysis used, the data collection methodology, an array of questionnaire design issues (including the reference period, whether to define the phenomenon for participants, a direct versus gradual approach to sensitive issues, whether to do a supply- and/or demand-side survey; whether to examine the relationship between purchasers and sellers, how to discourage social desirability bias), sample ...


Tax Inertia: A General Framework With Specific Application To Business Tax Reform, Chris William Sanchirico 2015 University of Pennsylvania Law School & Wharton School

Tax Inertia: A General Framework With Specific Application To Business Tax Reform, Chris William Sanchirico

Faculty Scholarship

A surprising degree of bipartisan consensus has lately formed in the United States around two propositions of business tax reform: that something should be done about the “lockout” of US multinationals’ foreign earnings; and that the corporate income tax rate should be reduced. This paper questions whether these two propositions are really consistent. In the process of attempting to provide an answer, it develops a framework for relating and measuring various forms of “tax inertia”: tax-based disincentives to alter investments. Applying this framework, the paper concludes that the current agreement on business tax reform is substantially in disagreement with itself.


Tax Incidence Of The Pennsylvania Lottery: The Influence Of Retail Outlet Location, Thomas Andrews, Cynthia Benzing 2015 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Tax Incidence Of The Pennsylvania Lottery: The Influence Of Retail Outlet Location, Thomas Andrews, Cynthia Benzing

Thomas Andrews

No abstract provided.


The Effect Of The Form Of Tax Incentives On Individuals' Savings Decisions, Julia Camp, David Hulse, Cynthia Vines 2015 Providence College

The Effect Of The Form Of Tax Incentives On Individuals' Savings Decisions, Julia Camp, David Hulse, Cynthia Vines

Julia M. Camp

Congress and the media have both expressed concerns about Americans’ low savings rates. We address these concerns by investigating the extent to which the form of an investment’s tax preference affects individuals’ willingness to choose a tax-preferred vehicle over a less restrictive, but non-tax-preferred, investment. Specifically, we tested the extent to which subjects chose a traditional savings plan versus an investment resembling either a traditional IRA, Roth IRA, or government matching program. We find that subjects are not as sensitive to the form of the tax preference as they are to restrictions on their ability to withdraw funds. This ...


Evidence Of The Lack Of Effectiveness Of Low-Income Savings Incentives, Julia Camp, Teresa Stephenson, Stacy Wade 2015 Providence College

Evidence Of The Lack Of Effectiveness Of Low-Income Savings Incentives, Julia Camp, Teresa Stephenson, Stacy Wade

Julia M. Camp

In view of the government’s propensity to develop programs to encourage savings, we examine a group of individuals to whom these programs are targeted: low- to moderate-income taxpayers. We show that saving for retirement is not a priority in the lives of these taxpayers. The low priority given to saving is often due to immediate necessary costs such as housing, food, and transportation. However, our study shows that even nonessential items and activities such as cable and internet services or travel are often considered more important than saving. We also show that most of the participants were not even ...


Theory And Experiments Exploring Behavioral, Financial, And Public Economics, Matthew John McMahon 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Theory And Experiments Exploring Behavioral, Financial, And Public Economics, Matthew John Mcmahon

Doctoral Dissertations

I study three questions which relate to one another only in that each explores facets of economics. First, I theoretically examine the conditions under which introducing an impure public good decreases total public provision. I introduce a central planner who can tax the private good to correct this and identify the market characteristics that typify this scenario. Second, I test the two standard competing dividend puzzle hypotheses using a laboratory experiment. Evidence from the lab, including variables unobservable in the field, reinforces empirical work supporting the outcome model over the substitute. Last, I obscure from dictators information regarding recipients' income ...


Can Education Improve Tax Compliance? Evidence From Different Forms Of Tax Education, Raymond M. K. WONG, Wai-yee, Agnes LO 2015 City University of Hong Kong

Can Education Improve Tax Compliance? Evidence From Different Forms Of Tax Education, Raymond M. K. Wong, Wai-Yee, Agnes Lo

Hong Kong Institute of Business Studies Working Paper Series

We examine whether tax compliance is improved via different forms of tax education. We argue that different types of tax education have respective impacts on tax compliance. To explore this empirical issue, we conduct a survey related to tax compliance among 205 students taking either a general tax course or a technical tax course in Hong Kong. Our findings suggest that sales tax compliance among undergraduate students was significantly improved if they had been exposed to a general tax education, and income and sales tax compliance among postgraduate students were significantly improved if they had taken a technical tax course.


The Effects Of Gaming Taxation On Capital Investment In Gaming Businesses, Jeremy Pollock 2015 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

The Effects Of Gaming Taxation On Capital Investment In Gaming Businesses, Jeremy Pollock

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Microeconomic theory generally supports the idea of an inverse relationship between taxes and capital investment. The gaming industry however does not operate on a free market equilibrium of supply and demand. Regulation and taxation of this industry can distort competitive forces and, as a result, investment decisions. Forces are described herein which either strengthen or weaken this inverse relationship, as well as how they affect the value of the limited number of casino operating licenses which states grant. Higher tax rates are generally shown to result in small-scale properties, which cater to a narrow base of consumers. In contrast, low ...


Corporate Connections That Advance Careers, 2015 DePaul University

Corporate Connections That Advance Careers

Business Exchange

No abstract provided.


Ending The R&D Tax Credit Stalemate, Nirupama Rao 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Ending The R&D Tax Credit Stalemate, Nirupama Rao

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

The 113th Congress extended the research and development (R&D) tax credit through the end of 2014 by passing the Tax Increase Prevention Act (H.R. 5771), which President Obama signed into law on December 19, 2014. That the fate of this credit in 2015 remains unknown is not surprising. This brief explores the history, logistics, and policy implications of the temporary R&D tax credit, and offers recommendations for additional research that would help determine the merit of making the credit permanent. Using new, restricted-access IRS data and an instrumental variables strategy, the brief offers an unbiased estimation of ...


Estate Taxes And The Investment Decision In Closely Held Firms, Rubin Saposnik, James Tompkins, Roger Tutterow 2015 Georgia State University

Estate Taxes And The Investment Decision In Closely Held Firms, Rubin Saposnik, James Tompkins, Roger Tutterow

James Tompkins

Closely held businesses differ from their publicly held counterparts in the relative importance assigned to planning for estate taxes. When faced with the prospect of an estate taxes liability, owners of closely held businesses may alter their investment behavior. This essay presents a simple model of the investment decision in a closely held business. While finance theory prescribes that firms maximize their value through funding capital projects with positive net present values, this model suggests that the presence of estate taxes may induce the firm to reject projects which, if funded, would add value to the firm. Further, the propensity ...


Can Wealth Taxes Be Justified, Eric Rakowski 2015 Berkeley Law

Can Wealth Taxes Be Justified, Eric Rakowski

Eric Rakowski

No abstract provided.


Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, Emily G. Brown JD, Jeanne Medeiros JD, Ellen Bruce JD 2015 University of Massachusetts Boston

Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, Emily G. Brown Jd, Jeanne Medeiros Jd, Ellen Bruce Jd

Pension Action Center Publications

As defined benefit pension plans become more and more rare, the responsibility of saving for retirement falls increasingly on individuals. Many studies have been published about the average or median balances in retirement savings accounts and virtually all of them have reached the same conclusion - most Americans aren’t saving enough money to last them through their retirement years.

In this fact sheet we will take a look at one of the factors that contributes to this problem, that is, the availability of loans and hardship withdrawals from 401(k) retirement accounts, which can lead to lower account balances overall ...


Splitting Specified Foreign Sourced Income Between Tax Exempt And Taxable Portions: An Optimal Solution (Part 3 Of 3), Teng Aun KHOO, Clement Kai Guan TAN 2015 Singapore Management University

Splitting Specified Foreign Sourced Income Between Tax Exempt And Taxable Portions: An Optimal Solution (Part 3 Of 3), Teng Aun Khoo, Clement Kai Guan Tan

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

No abstract provided.


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