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Racial And Ethnic Differences In Tipping: The Role Of Perceived Descriptive And Injunctive Tipping Norms, Michael Lynn, Zachary W. Brewster 2015 Cornell University

Racial And Ethnic Differences In Tipping: The Role Of Perceived Descriptive And Injunctive Tipping Norms, Michael Lynn, Zachary W. Brewster

Articles and Chapters

In U.S. restaurants, racial and ethnic minorities often tip less than whites. These differences in tipping create numerous problems ranging from discriminatory service to restaurant executives’ reluctance to open restaurants in minority communities. Thus, racial differences in tipping need to be sizably reduced, which requires an understanding of their underlying causes. In this paper, we ask a racially and ethnically diverse sample of respondents in an online survey about how much they would tip in a hypothetical dining scenario, how much their best friend would tip, and how much the average person in their area would tip, as well ...


Service Gratuities And Tipping: A Motivational Framework, Michael Lynn 2015 Cornell University

Service Gratuities And Tipping: A Motivational Framework, Michael Lynn

Articles and Chapters

In many countries around the world, consumers leave voluntary payments of money (called “tips”) to service workers who have served them. Since tips are an expense that consumers are free to avoid, tipping is an anomalous behavior that many economists regard as “irrational” or “mysterious.” In this paper, I present a motivational framework that offers plausible explanations for: (1) why people tip, (2) how tipping norms came into existence and evolve over time, (3) why tipping varies across individuals and situations, (4) why tipping is more common for some occupations than others, and (5) why tipping varies across nations. Many ...


Déjà Vu? An Updated Analysis Of The Gender Wage Gap In The U.S. Hospitality Sector, Susan S. Fleming 2015 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Déjà Vu? An Updated Analysis Of The Gender Wage Gap In The U.S. Hospitality Sector, Susan S. Fleming

Articles and Chapters

Drawing on a random sample of 112,990 people working in the U.S. hospitality sector in 2010, this study found strong evidence that there remains a significant difference in the income of women and men working in the industry, even after accounting for likely explanations such as differences in educational attainment and hours worked, as well as structural forms of discrimination such as occupational crowding. Across the entire hospitality industry, after controlling for these factors, being a woman was associated with a loss of income of $620, relative to a mean income of $11,271 per year. For the ...


The Process Of Applying For A License In A New Gaming Jurisdiction: Do’S And Don’Ts, Eugene Christiansen, Kimberly Copp 2014 Christiansen Capital Advisors, LLC

The Process Of Applying For A License In A New Gaming Jurisdiction: Do’S And Don’Ts, Eugene Christiansen, Kimberly Copp

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

No abstract provided.


Licensing Vip-Room Contractors Or Gaming Promoters In Macao: The Status Quo And Improvement, Changbin Wang 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Licensing Vip-Room Contractors Or Gaming Promoters In Macao: The Status Quo And Improvement, Changbin Wang

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Relationship Between Race And Sports Book Wagering Activity And Daily Slot And Table Game Play, Anthony F. Lucas 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exploring The Relationship Between Race And Sports Book Wagering Activity And Daily Slot And Table Game Play, Anthony F. Lucas

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Using performance data from three Las Vegas hotel-casinos, time series regression models were employed to better understand the relationship between race and sports book wagering volumes, and slot and table game play. Variables representing both race and sports book wagering volumes failed to produce statistically significant effects in seven of twelve hypothesis tests, within models designed to explain the daily variation in slot and table game play. The results directly extend the work of Abarbanel, Lucas and Singh (2011) by examining the relationship between book wagering levels and table game play, and provide additional empirical tests of the Full Service ...


Are Canadian First Nations Casinos Truly ‘A Sure Thing’? Appraising First Nations Casino In Ontario, Saskatchewan, And Alberta, 2006-2010, Yale D. Belanger Dr. 2014 University of Lethbridge

Are Canadian First Nations Casinos Truly ‘A Sure Thing’? Appraising First Nations Casino In Ontario, Saskatchewan, And Alberta, 2006-2010, Yale D. Belanger Dr.

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

To date a dearth of data has made it difficult to evaluate the success of First Nations casinos in Canada. This paper remedies the situation by presenting a three-province overview (Ontario, Saskatchewan and Alberta) of existing First Nations gaming models. The goal is to highlight the exigencies of each provincial gaming model and to develop a better understanding of what works best for First Nations leaders interested in expanding current operations, and for those seeking entry into the gaming market.


Social And Economic Changes On American Indian Reservations In California: An Examination Of Twenty Years Of Tribal Government Gaming, Randall Akee, Katherine Spilde PhD, Jonathan B. Taylor 2014 UCLA

Social And Economic Changes On American Indian Reservations In California: An Examination Of Twenty Years Of Tribal Government Gaming, Randall Akee, Katherine Spilde Phd, Jonathan B. Taylor

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

No abstract provided.


What Happened To Atlantic City’S Gaming Volume?, Toni Repetti, Soyeon Jung 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

What Happened To Atlantic City’S Gaming Volume?, Toni Repetti, Soyeon Jung

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Atlantic City casinos were hit by the 2007-2009 recession and the addition of legalized gaming in Pennsylvania at about the same time. Results of this study show the opening of the first three Pennsylvania casinos significantly decreased slot coin-in in Atlantic City while the legalization of table games and the opening of the fourth casino significantly decreased table games drop. After taking this into account, the recession had no significant effect on Atlantic City casino volume. To counteract decreased volumes, casino management needs to understand how much gaming volume they are losing to competition and how much to the recession.


Integrating Organisational Change Management And Customer Relationship Management In A Casino, Charlie Chi Cong Mai, Chad Perry, Erwin Loh 2014 Australian Institute of Business

Integrating Organisational Change Management And Customer Relationship Management In A Casino, Charlie Chi Cong Mai, Chad Perry, Erwin Loh

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

This research aims to solve the problem: how can casinos manage organizational change programs, and internal and external customer relationship management (CRM) programs? To find a solution, it uses two stages of qualitative methods: convergent interviewing and case research about four departments of a casino in Australia. After a thorough data analysis of documents and interview data, 12 themes were identified and they led to the development of a model of how organizational change management and CRM can be integrated to improve initiatives in organisations such as casinos. The model has seven core elements: vision, key challenge, objective, measure, strategy ...


Restaurant Food Wastage At The National Level, Laura Abshire 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Restaurant Food Wastage At The National Level, Laura Abshire

The Last Food Mile Conference

No abstract provided.


What Message Does Your Conduct Send? Building Integrity To Boost Your Leadership Effectiveness, Tony Simons 2014 Cornell University

What Message Does Your Conduct Send? Building Integrity To Boost Your Leadership Effectiveness, Tony Simons

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

A suite of studies demonstrates the importance of managers’ acting in keeping with their verbalized commitments and stated beliefs. While this seems to be a logical proposition, the studies explained in this paper demonstrate some of the challenges that arise from conflicting priorities and how to address those conflicts. Although the studies were conducted in the healthcare, hospitality, and aerospace industries, as well as in Belgium and the United States, the results highlight the principle that applies to all industries. Management consistency in speech and action promotes employees’ performance and corporate outcomes. At the same time, perceived management hypocrisy is ...


It’S More Than Just A Game: The Effect Of Core And Supplementary Services On Customer Loyalty, Matthew Walsman Ph.D., Michael Dixon Ph.D., Rob Rush, Rohit Verma Ph.D. 2014 Cornell University

It’S More Than Just A Game: The Effect Of Core And Supplementary Services On Customer Loyalty, Matthew Walsman Ph.D., Michael Dixon Ph.D., Rob Rush, Rohit Verma Ph.D.

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

All service providers seek to provide a comprehensive experience for their customers, with the goal of cementing customer loyalty and encouraging future purchases. In most services, we can identify core aspects (e.g., a good night’s sleep at a hotel) and supplementary aspects (e.g., concierge and valet services). For professional sports, the core service is the sporting contest itself, but many other supplementary services may also be included. We use a comprehensive dataset of over 7,000 patrons of a major professional sport in the United States to determine how customers’ satisfaction with core and supplementary services influence ...


Managing Context To Improve Cruise Line Service Relationships, Judi Brownell 2014 Cornell University

Managing Context To Improve Cruise Line Service Relationships, Judi Brownell

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

Interactions between customers and service employees have a strong influence on customers’ perceptions of service quality and their overall satisfaction. During service encounters, both physical and social dimensions of the service environment affect interpersonal dynamics and the subsequent relationships that develop. The study described here focuses specifically on the cruise experience and the distinct passenger-service employee relationships that develop during a cruise. An extensive review of related research combined with interviews and observations on six cruises suggests a framework of four specific role relationships: the passenger as expert, the passenger as manager, the passenger as friend, and the passenger as ...


Communication Richness: Why Some Guest Complaints Go Right To The Top - And Others Do Not, Alex M. Susskind 2014 Cornell University

Communication Richness: Why Some Guest Complaints Go Right To The Top - And Others Do Not, Alex M. Susskind

Articles and Chapters

Despite everyone’s best efforts, restaurant service falls short at times. In those situations, guests perceive a service failure, and many complain. This study of 513 guests in three U.S. markets examines the guest characteristics that seem to drive the channel used for those complaints. Using a framework of media richness theory, the study found that guests who are more educated, more likely to complain, more frustrated, and in need of greater information about the service failure will typically take their complaint directly to management, either face-to-face or via written communication. On the other hand, those who are less ...


Relative Risk Premium: A New “Canary” For Hotel Mortgage-Market Distress , Jan A. deRoos Ph.D., Crocker Liu Ph.D., Andrey D. Ukhov 2014 Cornell University

Relative Risk Premium: A New “Canary” For Hotel Mortgage-Market Distress , Jan A. Deroos Ph.D., Crocker Liu Ph.D., Andrey D. Ukhov

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

Lenders’ evaluation of the hotel industry’s prospects can be assessed using a metric called the relative risk premium, which we introduce in this report. Similar to the canary in a coal mine, changes in the relative rates that lenders charge for hotel loans, as compared to those for office buildings, give an early warning of relative hotel loan delinquencies. This metric is based on the practice of lenders charging higher interest rates for hotel loans than on office buildings. The relative risk premium measure is defined as the interest rate on hotels minus interest rate on office buildings. Changes ...


The Effect Of Tourism Clusters On U.S. Hotel Performance, Angel Peiró-Signes, Maria-del-Val Segarra-Oña, Luis Miret-Pastor, Rohit Verma Ph.D. 2014 Universitat Politècnica de València

The Effect Of Tourism Clusters On U.S. Hotel Performance, Angel Peiró-Signes, Maria-Del-Val Segarra-Oña, Luis Miret-Pastor, Rohit Verma Ph.D.

Articles and Chapters

A cluster is a geographical concentration of interrelated firms. Cluster theory states that the synergies created inside the cluster (by the interactions between firms that compete and those that collaborate) enhance the productivity and innovation of firms and therefore their economic performance. While manufacturing industries have been widely studied from the clustering perspective, service clusters and specifically touristic clusters have received less attention. In this paper, we identify U.S. touristic clusters using a concentration measure, the Location Quotient. Then we check whether hotels located in touristic clusters obtain higher economic results than those hotels located in areas where the ...


The Differential Effects Of The Quality And Quantity Of Online Reviews On Hotel Room Sales, Inès Blal, Michael C. Sturman 2014 Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne, Switzerland

The Differential Effects Of The Quality And Quantity Of Online Reviews On Hotel Room Sales, Inès Blal, Michael C. Sturman

Articles and Chapters

While it is generally accepted that hotel reviews and ratings posted on travel websites drive hotel sales and revenue, the effects of reviews can be parsed into volume (the number of reviews about a hotel) and valence (the ratings in those reviews). This study finds that the two chief aspects of reviews—volume and valence—have different effects on hotels in various chain scale segments. Industry reports and academic studies show that online reviews influence customers’ choice of hotel and thus drive hotels’ revenue per available room (RevPAR). However, the valence of those reviews has a greater effect on luxury ...


Who’S In Charge Now? The Decision Autonomy Of Hotel General Managers, Demian Hodari, Michael C. Sturman 2014 Ecole hôtelière de Lausanne, Switzerland

Who’S In Charge Now? The Decision Autonomy Of Hotel General Managers, Demian Hodari, Michael C. Sturman

Articles and Chapters

The general manager (GM) is the key position in a hotel, but the changing structure of the industry has altered the scope of the GM’s decision-making autonomy. In many hotels, the GM is an employee of a hotel operating firm and is effectively an agent of the operator or owner (and sometimes both parties). These principals have authority over several aspects of hotel operation, although the GM also has responsibility. A study of the GM’s role and authority in 115 upscale European hotels finds a mixed picture in decision autonomy, depending on the individual’s experience and education ...


Annual Impact Of Paid Internship Programs At A Hospitality Management Program – A Case Of The Largest Hospitality Management Program In North America, Robertico Croes, Tadayuki Hara 2014 Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida

Annual Impact Of Paid Internship Programs At A Hospitality Management Program – A Case Of The Largest Hospitality Management Program In North America, Robertico Croes, Tadayuki Hara

Journal of Tourism Economics, Policy and Hospitality Management

Hospitality management programs across the nation increasingly favor internship programs in their academic curriculum. Internships play an important role in the reputation of academic program by widening the network with the industry and recruiting prospective students. However, little consideration has been given to the economic impact prompted by internship programs. This study focuses on the economic impact of paid internship over a regional economy. Paid-internship programs prompt economic transactions incurred as a consequence of payment of wages to the internship students in exchange for their labor inputs in the industries’ delivery of goods or services. In 2012, a total of ...


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