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Racial And Ethnic Differences In Tipping: The Role Of Perceived Descriptive And Injunctive Tipping Norms, Michael Lynn, Zachary W. Brewster 2015 Cornell University

Racial And Ethnic Differences In Tipping: The Role Of Perceived Descriptive And Injunctive Tipping Norms, Michael Lynn, Zachary W. Brewster

Articles and Chapters

In U.S. restaurants, racial and ethnic minorities often tip less than whites. These differences in tipping create numerous problems ranging from discriminatory service to restaurant executives’ reluctance to open restaurants in minority communities. Thus, racial differences in tipping need to be sizably reduced, which requires an understanding of their underlying causes. In this paper, we ask a racially and ethnically diverse sample of respondents in an online survey about how much they would tip in a hypothetical dining scenario, how much their best friend would tip, and how much the average person in their area would tip, as well ...


Service Gratuities And Tipping: A Motivational Framework, Michael Lynn 2015 Cornell University

Service Gratuities And Tipping: A Motivational Framework, Michael Lynn

Articles and Chapters

In many countries around the world, consumers leave voluntary payments of money (called “tips”) to service workers who have served them. Since tips are an expense that consumers are free to avoid, tipping is an anomalous behavior that many economists regard as “irrational” or “mysterious.” In this paper, I present a motivational framework that offers plausible explanations for: (1) why people tip, (2) how tipping norms came into existence and evolve over time, (3) why tipping varies across individuals and situations, (4) why tipping is more common for some occupations than others, and (5) why tipping varies across nations. Many ...


The Process Of Applying For A License In A New Gaming Jurisdiction: Do’S And Don’Ts, Eugene Christiansen, Kimberly Copp 2014 Christiansen Capital Advisors, LLC

The Process Of Applying For A License In A New Gaming Jurisdiction: Do’S And Don’Ts, Eugene Christiansen, Kimberly Copp

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

No abstract provided.


Licensing Vip-Room Contractors Or Gaming Promoters In Macao: The Status Quo And Improvement, Changbin Wang 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Licensing Vip-Room Contractors Or Gaming Promoters In Macao: The Status Quo And Improvement, Changbin Wang

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

No abstract provided.


Exploring The Relationship Between Race And Sports Book Wagering Activity And Daily Slot And Table Game Play, Anthony F. Lucas 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Exploring The Relationship Between Race And Sports Book Wagering Activity And Daily Slot And Table Game Play, Anthony F. Lucas

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Using performance data from three Las Vegas hotel-casinos, time series regression models were employed to better understand the relationship between race and sports book wagering volumes, and slot and table game play. Variables representing both race and sports book wagering volumes failed to produce statistically significant effects in seven of twelve hypothesis tests, within models designed to explain the daily variation in slot and table game play. The results directly extend the work of Abarbanel, Lucas and Singh (2011) by examining the relationship between book wagering levels and table game play, and provide additional empirical tests of the Full Service ...


Are Canadian First Nations Casinos Truly ‘A Sure Thing’? Appraising First Nations Casino In Ontario, Saskatchewan, And Alberta, 2006-2010, Yale D. Belanger Dr. 2014 University of Lethbridge

Are Canadian First Nations Casinos Truly ‘A Sure Thing’? Appraising First Nations Casino In Ontario, Saskatchewan, And Alberta, 2006-2010, Yale D. Belanger Dr.

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

To date a dearth of data has made it difficult to evaluate the success of First Nations casinos in Canada. This paper remedies the situation by presenting a three-province overview (Ontario, Saskatchewan and Alberta) of existing First Nations gaming models. The goal is to highlight the exigencies of each provincial gaming model and to develop a better understanding of what works best for First Nations leaders interested in expanding current operations, and for those seeking entry into the gaming market.


Social And Economic Changes On American Indian Reservations In California: An Examination Of Twenty Years Of Tribal Government Gaming, Randall Akee, Katherine Spilde PhD, Jonathan B. Taylor 2014 UCLA

Social And Economic Changes On American Indian Reservations In California: An Examination Of Twenty Years Of Tribal Government Gaming, Randall Akee, Katherine Spilde Phd, Jonathan B. Taylor

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

No abstract provided.


What Happened To Atlantic City’S Gaming Volume?, Toni Repetti, Soyeon Jung 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

What Happened To Atlantic City’S Gaming Volume?, Toni Repetti, Soyeon Jung

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Atlantic City casinos were hit by the 2007-2009 recession and the addition of legalized gaming in Pennsylvania at about the same time. Results of this study show the opening of the first three Pennsylvania casinos significantly decreased slot coin-in in Atlantic City while the legalization of table games and the opening of the fourth casino significantly decreased table games drop. After taking this into account, the recession had no significant effect on Atlantic City casino volume. To counteract decreased volumes, casino management needs to understand how much gaming volume they are losing to competition and how much to the recession.


Integrating Organisational Change Management And Customer Relationship Management In A Casino, Charlie Chi Cong Mai, Chad Perry, Erwin Loh 2014 Australian Institute of Business

Integrating Organisational Change Management And Customer Relationship Management In A Casino, Charlie Chi Cong Mai, Chad Perry, Erwin Loh

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

This research aims to solve the problem: how can casinos manage organizational change programs, and internal and external customer relationship management (CRM) programs? To find a solution, it uses two stages of qualitative methods: convergent interviewing and case research about four departments of a casino in Australia. After a thorough data analysis of documents and interview data, 12 themes were identified and they led to the development of a model of how organizational change management and CRM can be integrated to improve initiatives in organisations such as casinos. The model has seven core elements: vision, key challenge, objective, measure, strategy ...


Restaurant Food Wastage At The National Level, Laura Abshire 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Restaurant Food Wastage At The National Level, Laura Abshire

The Last Food Mile Conference

No abstract provided.


What Message Does Your Conduct Send? Building Integrity To Boost Your Leadership Effectiveness, Tony Simons 2014 Cornell University

What Message Does Your Conduct Send? Building Integrity To Boost Your Leadership Effectiveness, Tony Simons

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

A suite of studies demonstrates the importance of managers’ acting in keeping with their verbalized commitments and stated beliefs. While this seems to be a logical proposition, the studies explained in this paper demonstrate some of the challenges that arise from conflicting priorities and how to address those conflicts. Although the studies were conducted in the healthcare, hospitality, and aerospace industries, as well as in Belgium and the United States, the results highlight the principle that applies to all industries. Management consistency in speech and action promotes employees’ performance and corporate outcomes. At the same time, perceived management hypocrisy is ...


Managing Context To Improve Cruise Line Service Relationships, Judi Brownell 2014 Cornell University

Managing Context To Improve Cruise Line Service Relationships, Judi Brownell

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

Interactions between customers and service employees have a strong influence on customers’ perceptions of service quality and their overall satisfaction. During service encounters, both physical and social dimensions of the service environment affect interpersonal dynamics and the subsequent relationships that develop. The study described here focuses specifically on the cruise experience and the distinct passenger-service employee relationships that develop during a cruise. An extensive review of related research combined with interviews and observations on six cruises suggests a framework of four specific role relationships: the passenger as expert, the passenger as manager, the passenger as friend, and the passenger as ...


It’S More Than Just A Game: The Effect Of Core And Supplementary Services On Customer Loyalty, Matthew Walsman Ph.D., Michael Dixon Ph.D., Rob Rush, Rohit Verma Ph.D. 2014 Cornell University

It’S More Than Just A Game: The Effect Of Core And Supplementary Services On Customer Loyalty, Matthew Walsman Ph.D., Michael Dixon Ph.D., Rob Rush, Rohit Verma Ph.D.

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

All service providers seek to provide a comprehensive experience for their customers, with the goal of cementing customer loyalty and encouraging future purchases. In most services, we can identify core aspects (e.g., a good night’s sleep at a hotel) and supplementary aspects (e.g., concierge and valet services). For professional sports, the core service is the sporting contest itself, but many other supplementary services may also be included. We use a comprehensive dataset of over 7,000 patrons of a major professional sport in the United States to determine how customers’ satisfaction with core and supplementary services influence ...


An Examination Of Guest Complaints And Complaint Communication Channels: The Medium Does Matter!, Alex M. Susskind Ph.D. 2014 Cornell University

An Examination Of Guest Complaints And Complaint Communication Channels: The Medium Does Matter!, Alex M. Susskind Ph.D.

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

In this study guests of casual-dining restaurants were asked to report how they preferred to complain about service failures they experienced while dining. Guests who reported higher levels of frustration, a higher propensity to complain, and greater information inadequacy generally preferred to complain face-to face to a manager or via a letter written to management. This finding diverges from the expectations created by communication theory, which suggests that face- to-face communication is "richer" than written approaches. Moreover, this study found that complaints lodged face-to-face to nonmanagerial service employees were viewed similarly to complaining via a comment card-a less-rich mode of ...


Relative Risk Premium: A New “Canary” For Hotel Mortgage-Market Distress , Jan A. deRoos Ph.D., Crocker Liu Ph.D., Andrey D. Ukhov 2014 Cornell University

Relative Risk Premium: A New “Canary” For Hotel Mortgage-Market Distress , Jan A. Deroos Ph.D., Crocker Liu Ph.D., Andrey D. Ukhov

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

Lenders’ evaluation of the hotel industry’s prospects can be assessed using a metric called the relative risk premium, which we introduce in this report. Similar to the canary in a coal mine, changes in the relative rates that lenders charge for hotel loans, as compared to those for office buildings, give an early warning of relative hotel loan delinquencies. This metric is based on the practice of lenders charging higher interest rates for hotel loans than on office buildings. The relative risk premium measure is defined as the interest rate on hotels minus interest rate on office buildings. Changes ...


Annual Impact Of Paid Internship Programs At A Hospitality Management Program – A Case Of The Largest Hospitality Management Program In North America, Robertico Croes, Tadayuki Hara 2014 Rosen College of Hospitality Management, University of Central Florida

Annual Impact Of Paid Internship Programs At A Hospitality Management Program – A Case Of The Largest Hospitality Management Program In North America, Robertico Croes, Tadayuki Hara

Journal of Tourism Economics, Policy and Hospitality Management

Hospitality management programs across the nation increasingly favor internship programs in their academic curriculum. Internships play an important role in the reputation of academic program by widening the network with the industry and recruiting prospective students. However, little consideration has been given to the economic impact prompted by internship programs. This study focuses on the economic impact of paid internship over a regional economy. Paid-internship programs prompt economic transactions incurred as a consequence of payment of wages to the internship students in exchange for their labor inputs in the industries’ delivery of goods or services. In 2012, a total of ...


Using Your Pay System To Improve Employees' Performance: How You Pay Makes A Difference, Michael C. Sturman Ph.D. 2014 Cornell University

Using Your Pay System To Improve Employees' Performance: How You Pay Makes A Difference, Michael C. Sturman Ph.D.

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

One goal of many pay plans is to improve employees' performance. This investigation of pay policy assesses the effects on performance of base-pay levels, merit increases, and lump-sum bonuses. The study shows that both "how much" is paid (the amount of the reward) and "how" the money is paid (the relationship that exists between performance and pay) influence employees' future performance levels. As expected, the results show that how much you pay is important. Both raises and bonuses increase future performance, but merit raises had a greater effect than that of bonuses. In this study, the benefit of a 1-percent ...


Competitive Destination Planning: The Case Of Costa Rica, Zhaoping Liu, Sara Lo, Paula Vasconcellos, Judy Siguaw D.B.A., Cathy A. Enz Ph.D. 2014 Cornell University

Competitive Destination Planning: The Case Of Costa Rica, Zhaoping Liu, Sara Lo, Paula Vasconcellos, Judy Siguaw D.B.A., Cathy A. Enz Ph.D.

Center for Hospitality Research Reports

Travelers' attitudes and activities provide a strong indication of the status of a particular destination with regard to whether it is still being discovered or whether it is headed for decline. Using Stanley Plog's long-established continuum of travelers' psychographic types as matched to their preferred destinations, this study examines travelers' habits and attitudes, using a sample of U.S. tourists to Costa Rica. An analysis of that information provides inferences about Costa Rica's status on the continuum of tourism destinations. Although the respondent pool is relatively small and is self-selected, the results suggest that Costa Rica may be ...


Cyborg Service: The Unexpected Effect Of Technology In The Employee–Guest Exchange, Michael D. Giebelhausen 2014 Cornell University School of Hotel Administration

Cyborg Service: The Unexpected Effect Of Technology In The Employee–Guest Exchange, Michael D. Giebelhausen

Research Studies and Reports

Hotels, restaurants, and other hospitality industry operations are experimenting with self-service kiosks, tablet devices, and other technologies intended to augment or replace interactions between guests and front-line employees. While the combination of technology and people is designed to improve service, research suggests that service technologies can impede development of employee-guest rapport and lead to lower service evaluations. The studies presented in this report apply social equity theory to determine when (and why) technology can improve guests’ satisfaction with the service process and when it diminishes the guest experience. Equity theory suggests that when the use of technology prevents guests from ...


Pricing Competition And Channel Coordination In The Tourism Supply Chain With Optional Tours, Qiang Guo, Ye Shi, Junfeng Dong, Xiaolong Guo, Chris K. Anderson 2014 Hainan University

Pricing Competition And Channel Coordination In The Tourism Supply Chain With Optional Tours, Qiang Guo, Ye Shi, Junfeng Dong, Xiaolong Guo, Chris K. Anderson

Articles and Chapters

The authors consider a tourism supply chain that consists of a tour operator in the source market and a local operator at the destination. The tour product is composed of predesigned tours and optional tours. Consumers are sensitive to the price and the availability of optional tours, represented as the ratio of optional tours. The authors analyses how the ratio of optional tours to predesigned tours affects each player’s equilibrium decisions given three different consumer attitudes towards optional tours. They find that, when the channel is coordinated and the ratio of optional tours is sufficiently large, the local operator ...


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