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Ceo Compensation And Risk-Taking At Financial Firms: Evidence From U.S. Federal Loan Assistance, Amar Gande, Swami Kalpathy 2017 Southern Methodist University

Ceo Compensation And Risk-Taking At Financial Firms: Evidence From U.S. Federal Loan Assistance, Amar Gande, Swami Kalpathy

Amar Gande

We examine whether risk-taking among the largest financial firms in the U.S. is related to CEO equity incentives before the 2008 financial crisis.  Using data on U.S. Federal Reserve emergency loans provided to these firms, we find that the amount of emergency loans and total days the loans are outstanding are increasing in pre-crisis CEO risk-taking incentives – “vega”.  Our results are robust to accounting for endogeneity in CEO equity incentives and selection of financial firms into emergency loan programs.  We also rule out the possibility that our results are driven by a bank’s funding base, bank complexity ...


The Modigliani-Miller Theorem At 60: The Long-Overlooked Legal Applications Of Finance’S Foundational Theorem, Michael S. Knoll 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Modigliani-Miller Theorem At 60: The Long-Overlooked Legal Applications Of Finance’S Foundational Theorem, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship

2018 marks the 60th anniversary of the publication of Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller’s The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance, and the Theory of Investment. Widely hailed as the foundation of modern finance, their article, which purports to demonstrate that a firm’s value is independent of its capital structure, is little known by lawyers, including legal academics. That is unfortunate because the Modigliani-Miller capital structure irrelevancy proposition (when inverted) provides a framework that can be extremely useful to legal academics, practicing attorneys and judges.


Amending Corporate Charters And Bylaws, Albert H. Choi, Geeyoung Min 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Amending Corporate Charters And Bylaws, Albert H. Choi, Geeyoung Min

Faculty Scholarship

Recently, courts have embraced the contractarian theory that corporate charters and bylaws constitute a “contract” between the shareholders and the corporation and have been more willing to uphold bylaws unilaterally adopted by the directors. This paper examines the contractarian theory by drawing a parallel between amending charters and bylaws, on the one hand, and amending contracts, on the other. In particular, the paper compares the right to unilaterally amend corporate bylaws with the right to unilaterally modify contract terms, and highlights how contract law imposes various limitations on the modifying party’s discretion. More generally, when the relationship of contracting ...


Credit Risk And Corporate Governance, Olivier Mugisho Mudekereza 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Credit Risk And Corporate Governance, Olivier Mugisho Mudekereza

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Is the executive’s compensation structure influenced by the credit rating assigned to his company? I analyze a panel of U.S. public firms using the random-effects and fixed-effects estimations. Compared to firms with lower credit risk, I find that firms facing higher probability of default provide more incentives for their CEOs.


Ceo Political Ideology And Mergers And Acquisitions Decisions, Ahmed M. Elnahas, Kim Dongnyoung 2017 Eastern Kentucky University

Ceo Political Ideology And Mergers And Acquisitions Decisions, Ahmed M. Elnahas, Kim Dongnyoung

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

We examine the relation between CEOs political ideology and their firms' investment decisions, particularly their M&A decisions. Employing individual financial contributions data for the period from 1993 to 2006, we find that firm's investment decisions vary with CEO's political ideology. Our evidence indicates that Republican CEOs are less likely to engage in M&A activities. When they do undertake acquisitions, they are more likely to use cash as the method of payment, and their targets are more likely to be public firms and to be from the same industry. Further, Republican CEOs tend to avoid high information ...


Hedge Fund Performance And Derivative Hedging, Yongjia Li 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Hedge Fund Performance And Derivative Hedging, Yongjia Li

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is comprised of three essays which focus on hedge fund performance and derivative hedging. The first essay uses ETF returns as proxies for tradable risk factors in hedge fund performance evaluation and identifies contemporaneously relevant risk factors from the entire universe of ETFs. The model provides more informative estimates of alpha and beta coefficients for predicting hedge fund out-of-sample performance compared with other widely used hedge fund factor models. Portfolios of top alpha hedge funds selected by the model generate statistically significant out-of-sample performance that is substantially higher compared with portfolios selected by other models. In addition, the ...


A Haven By Any Other Name: The Role Of Tax Holidays In Corporate Tax Avoidance, Travis K. CHOW, Jeffrey L. HOOPES, Edward L. MAYDEW 2017 Singapore Management University

A Haven By Any Other Name: The Role Of Tax Holidays In Corporate Tax Avoidance, Travis K. Chow, Jeffrey L. Hoopes, Edward L. Maydew

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We undertake the first large-sample examination of foreign tax holiday participation among U.S.corporations. Tax holidays are temporary reductions of tax granted by governments, usually inconjunction with new business investment. We find that foreign tax holidays are economicallyimportant phenomena and participation in them has increased over time. The percentage ofpublicly-traded U.S. firms reporting participation in at least one foreign tax holiday increasedmore than five-fold since the beginning of our sample in 1995. We estimate that the averageforeign tax holiday reduces the firm’s effective tax rate by 4.5 percentage points during theholiday period, which is over four ...


Analyst Effort Allocation And Firms' Information Environment, Rong WANG, Jarrad HARFORD, Feng JIANG, Fei XIE 2017 Singapore Management University

Analyst Effort Allocation And Firms' Information Environment, Rong Wang, Jarrad Harford, Feng Jiang, Fei Xie

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We show that a firm’s information environment is significantly impacted by the characteristics of the other firms its analysts cover. Analysts strategically allocate effort among portfolio firms by devoting more effort to firms that are relatively more important for their career concerns. Specifically, controlling for analyst and firm characteristics, we find that within each analyst’s portfolio, firms ranked relatively higher based on market capitalization, trading volume, or institutional ownership receive more accurate, frequent, and informative earnings forecast revisions and stock recommendation changes that contain greater information content from that analyst. Firms’ relative rank across analysts varies widely, so ...


Entrepreneurship Vs Paid Employment: Multiple Skills And Financing, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof. 2017 Diego Portales University

Entrepreneurship Vs Paid Employment: Multiple Skills And Financing, Felipe Balmaceda Assoc Prof.

Felipe Balmaceda

We present an occupational choice model with risk-averse agents who are heterogeneous in terms of skills and wealth in a setting with financial frictions.  We show that high-income individuals and middle-income individuals endowed with a balanced portfolio of skills upgrade their skills so the resulting portfolio of skills is more balanced and choose entrepreneurship, while middle-income individuals endowed with an unbalanced portfolio of skills and low-income individuals specialize in the skill in which they have an absolute advantage and choose paid employment. Deeper financial development, a more balanced portfolio of skills, lower entrepreneurial risk and a higher liquidation value result ...


Cross Border Public Offering Of Securities In Fostering An Integrated Asean Securities Market: The Experiences Of Singapore, Malaysia And Thailand, Wai Yee WAN 2017 Singapore Management University

Cross Border Public Offering Of Securities In Fostering An Integrated Asean Securities Market: The Experiences Of Singapore, Malaysia And Thailand, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection School Of Law

In 2015, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Economic Community was formally established and its aim was to achieve, among other things, an integrated securities market within ASEAN.

Before the formal establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community, in 2009, with a view towards achieving the objective of securities integration, Singapore, Malaysia and Thailand adopted the ASEAN Disclosure Standards, a set of harmonized disclosure standards for issuers making cross-border initial public offerings (IPOs). These participating Member States also entered into a framework for the expedited review for cross-listings. However, more than 5 years later, there is no documented use of ...


Do High Ceo Pay Ratios Destroy Firm Value?, Qiang CHENG, Tharindra RANASINGHE, Sha ZHAO 2017 Singapore Management University

Do High Ceo Pay Ratios Destroy Firm Value?, Qiang Cheng, Tharindra Ranasinghe, Sha Zhao

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

There is growing public concern over the rapid growth in CEO pay relative to average worker pay (CEO pay ratio). Critics contend that high CEO pay ratios could destroy firm value by damaging employee morale and/or signal CEO rent extraction. In this paper, we use a proprietary dataset to examine the relationship between CEO pay ratio and firm value/performance. Contrary to critics’ arguments, we find that industry-adjusted CEO pay ratios are positively associated with both firm value and performance. We also find that high CEO pay ratios are associated with higher quality acquisitions and stronger CEO turnover-performance sensitivity ...


Director Tenure Diversity And Board Monitoring Effectiveness, Na LI, Aida Sijamic WAHID 2017 Singapore Management University

Director Tenure Diversity And Board Monitoring Effectiveness, Na Li, Aida Sijamic Wahid

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This study examines the impact of director tenure diversity on board effectiveness. We findthat tenure-diverse boards exhibit significantly higher CEO performance-turnoversensitivity and that firms with tenure-diverse audit committees are less likely to experienceaccounting restatements. Furthermore, we document that tenure-diverse compensationcommittees also award less excess compensation and are less likely toovercompensate. Even though tenure-diverse boards seem to exhibit superior monitoringperformance, there is limited evidence that their firms exhibit superior financialperformance. The findings suggest that recent calls for board renewal, to the extent that it would increase tenure diversity rather than just decrease average board tenure, may helpenhance board monitoring.


Chief Financial Officer Demographic Characteristics And Fraudulent Financial Reporting In China, Jiwei WANG, Baolei QI, Jinghui SUN 2017 Singapore Management University

Chief Financial Officer Demographic Characteristics And Fraudulent Financial Reporting In China, Jiwei Wang, Baolei Qi, Jinghui Sun

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

We investigate whether management's cognitions, values and perceptions are associated with fraud for 18 863 firm-years for Chinese listed firms from 2000 to 2014. Demographic characteristics of the chief financial officer (CFO) are used as proxies for management's cognitions, values and perceptions. We find that fraudulent financial reporting is higher when CFOs are younger, male, and have lower education backgrounds. An analysis of inflated earnings, fictitious assets, material omissions and other material misstatements provide similar results, with the exception that CFOs with higher education levels are associated with more inflated earnings. Accounting and Finance


Post-Jgtrra Dividend Planning, Danny A. Pannese, Paul N. Iannone 2017 Sacred Heart University

Post-Jgtrra Dividend Planning, Danny A. Pannese, Paul N. Iannone

Danny Pannese

The JGTRRA reduced the tax rate on dividends for individuals and lowered the accumulated earnings and personal holding company taxes for corporations until 2008. This article reviews some of the planning techniques corporations and shareholders can use to take advantage of the temporarily lower rates. One of the key provisions of the Jobs and Growth Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2003 (JGTRRA), if not the prime emphasis of the legislation, is Section 302's reduction in the individual tax rate on corporate dividends received to 15% (5% for individuals in the 15% and 10% brackets). In an emerging trend, the ...


Bitcoin And The Blockchain As Possible Corporate Governance Tools: Strengths And Weaknesses, Fiammetta S. Piazza 2017 Penn State Law

Bitcoin And The Blockchain As Possible Corporate Governance Tools: Strengths And Weaknesses, Fiammetta S. Piazza

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Estimating The Cost Of Equity In Emerging Markets: A Case Study, Benoit Boyer, Ralph Lim, Bridget Lyons 2017 Sacred Heart University

Estimating The Cost Of Equity In Emerging Markets: A Case Study, Benoit Boyer, Ralph Lim, Bridget Lyons

WCOB Faculty Publications

A firm's weighted average cost of capital is an integral component in capital budgeting decisions and in assessment of the firm's enterprise and equity value. Estimation of the cost of equity is a key component in determining the overall cost of capital. The calculation of the cost of equity for U.S. based corporations is relatively straightforward and is most often estimated as a function of the U.S. risk-free rate, the firm's beta value, and an estimate of the average risk premium associated with equity investments compared to risk free assets. Since U.S. financial markets ...


Ceo Contractual Protection And Debt Contracting, Qiang CHENG, Xia CHEN, Alvis K. LO, Xin WANG 2017 Singapore Management University

Ceo Contractual Protection And Debt Contracting, Qiang Cheng, Xia Chen, Alvis K. Lo, Xin Wang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

CEO employment agreements and severance pay agreements are prevalent among S&P1500 firms. While prior research has examined their impact on corporate decision from shareholders’ perspective, there is little research on their impact from debtholders’ perspective. We examine the effect on debt contracting of CEO contractual protection, in the form of employment agreements and severance pay agreements. We find that compared with other loans, loans issued by firms with CEO contractual protection contain more financial covenants, particularly performance covenants, are more likely to have performance pricing provisions, and have higher loan spreads. We further find that this effect increases with ...


Do Environmentally Friendly Companies Outperform Environmentally Unfriendly Companies In Financial Markets? An Analysis Of Financial Performance & Corporate Social Responsibility, Katherine E. Quinlan 2017 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Do Environmentally Friendly Companies Outperform Environmentally Unfriendly Companies In Financial Markets? An Analysis Of Financial Performance & Corporate Social Responsibility, Katherine E. Quinlan

Honors Theses and Student Projects

Over the last century, the ideology regarding the relationship between humans and the natural world has shifted from a period of major exploitation to a time of conservation and appreciation. Recent catastrophic events such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005, a result of sea level rise and wetland degradation, have really opened the public's eyes to the negative impacts that humans have on the environment, and what will come if we do not change our ways. Implementing sustainability practices has become a norm, if not a necessity, in the corporate world if companies wish to prosper. Using cross-sectional data from ...


Short Interest, Returns, And Unfavorable Fundamental Information, Ferhat AKBAS, Ekkehart BOEHMER, Bilal ERTURK, Sorin SORESCU 2017 Singapore Management University

Short Interest, Returns, And Unfavorable Fundamental Information, Ferhat Akbas, Ekkehart Boehmer, Bilal Erturk, Sorin Sorescu

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

Several months before information becomes public, the level of short interest contains value-relevant information about publicly traded corporations. Short interest predicts future bad news, negative earnings surprises, and downward revisions in analyst earnings forecasts. This informational content is stronger for stocks that are harder to short. We also find that nearly half of the well-known cross-sectional relation between short interest and future stock returns is related to future changes in firms’ value-relevant information. Our results suggest that short interest predicts future returns, in part, due to short sellers’ ability to uncover unfavorable information about firms.


Political Contributions And Firm Performance: Evidence From Lobbying And Campaign Donations, Omer Unsal 2017 University of New Orleans

Political Contributions And Firm Performance: Evidence From Lobbying And Campaign Donations, Omer Unsal

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The following dissertation contains two distinct empirical essays which contribute to the overall field of Financial Economics. Chapter 1 titles as “Corporate Lobbying, CEO Political Ideology and Firm Performance”. We investigate the influence of CEO political orientation on corporate lobbying efforts. Specifically, we study whether CEO political ideology, in terms of manager-level campaign donations, determines the choice and amount of firm lobbying involvement and the impact of lobbying on firm value. We find a generous engagement in lobbying efforts by firms with Republican leaning-managers, which lobby a larger number of bills and have higher lobbying expenditures. However, the cost of ...


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