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How Corporate Culture Impacts Unethical Distortion Of Financial Numbers, Joseph F. Castellano, Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig, Harper A. Roehm 2016 University of Dayton

How Corporate Culture Impacts Unethical Distortion Of Financial Numbers, Joseph F. Castellano, Kenneth Y. Rosenzweig, Harper A. Roehm

Joseph Castellano

The recent accounting scandals have highlighted the critical role that investor confidence in the accuracy and lack of distortion of accounting data plays in the health of capital markets and, indeed, the whole economy. The legal and moral culpability of top-level company managers (as well as auditors) is an issue that will be addressed by the nation in the coming months. Whether or not legal sanctions are imposed on managers, it would be well to examine some of the reasons managers may feel compelled to distort accounting numbers as well as engage in other actions that damage the interests of ...


The Abcs Of Communicating Results, Deborah S. Archambeault, Morgen Rose 2016 University of Dayton

The Abcs Of Communicating Results, Deborah S. Archambeault, Morgen Rose

Deborah Archambeault

Communicating results is an integral part of the internal auditor's job, and The IIA's International Standards for the Professional Practice of Internal Auditing recognizes its importance by specifying in Standard 2420 that communications should be "accurate, objective, clear, concise, constructive, complete, and timely." In its 2009 survey. The Biggest Internal Audit Challenges in the Next Five Years, Protiviti, a global consulting firm, ranked communication with management and the audit committee as one of the biggest challenges facing internal auditing through 2012. Their subsequent 2010 Internal Audit Capabilities and Needs Survey identified presentation skills as the top "need to ...


Standard Costing Variances: Potential Red Flags Of Fraud?, Cecily A. Raiborn, Janet B. Butler, Lucian Zelazny 2016 Texas State University

Standard Costing Variances: Potential Red Flags Of Fraud?, Cecily A. Raiborn, Janet B. Butler, Lucian Zelazny

Lucian Zelazny

This article focuses on how standard cost variances can be used in detecting potential fraudulent activities. Each primary type of variance (material, labor, and overhead) is addressed with a discussion of possible inappropriate causal factors. Additionally, internal controls, graphic techniques, and other methods that can be implemented to combat fraud are provided.


Financial Reporting Quality Of Chinese Reverse Merger Firms: The Reverse Merger Effect Or The China Effect?, Kun-Chih Chen, Qiang CHENG, Ying Chou LIN, Yu-Chen LIN, Xing XIAO 2016 Singapore Management University

Financial Reporting Quality Of Chinese Reverse Merger Firms: The Reverse Merger Effect Or The China Effect?, Kun-Chih Chen, Qiang Cheng, Ying Chou Lin, Yu-Chen Lin, Xing Xiao

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In this paper, we examine why Chinese reverse merger (RM) firms have lower financial reporting quality than U.S. IPO firms. We find that the financial reporting quality of U.S. RM firms is similar to that of matched U.S. IPO firms, but Chinese RM firms exhibit lower financial reporting quality than Chinese ADR firms. We also find that Chinese RM firms exhibit lower financial reporting quality than U.S. RM firms. These results indicate that the use of the RM process is associated with poor financial reporting quality only in firms from China, where legal enforcement and investor ...


Procurement Fraud, Lisa McNamee 2016 La Salle University

Procurement Fraud, Lisa Mcnamee

Economic Crime Forensics Capstones

The 2016 Global Economic Crime Survey conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (2016), states that twenty-two percent of companies have experienced procurement fraud. The statistics have actually decreased since 2014 when twenty-seven percent of companies had experienced procurement fraud. However, procurement fraud is still one of the most costly fraudulent schemes. Despite the reduction, the Department of Defense continues to experience large procurement fraud cases, both in number and dollar value. A recent example is the Supreme Foodservice fraud case, which cost the Defense Logistics Agency $757 million dollars in fraudulent charges. (Jahner, 2014) The Department of Defense Office of Inspector General ...


Regulation Fd: An Alternative Approach To Addressing Information Asymmetry, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulation Fd: An Alternative Approach To Addressing Information Asymmetry, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

This chapter traces the development of the SEC’s use of Regulation Fair Disclosure (FD) to address information asymmetry in the securities markets. The chapter describes the SEC’s developing enforcement policy and notes, in particular, the SEC’s efforts, through its selection and settlement of Regulation FD cases, to provide guidance to corporations and corporate officials about areas of key concern. The chapter concludes by highlighting current areas of particular importance, including disclosure of information through private meetings and the implications of technological innovations such as the internet and social media. The chapter is forthcoming in Research Handbook on ...


Vultures Or Vanguards?: The Role Of Litigation In Sovereign Debt Restructuring, Jill E. Fisch, Caroline M. Gentile 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Vultures Or Vanguards?: The Role Of Litigation In Sovereign Debt Restructuring, Jill E. Fisch, Caroline M. Gentile

Jill Fisch

No abstract provided.


Top Cop Or Regulatory Flop? The Sec At 75, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Top Cop Or Regulatory Flop? The Sec At 75, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

In their forthcoming article, Redesigning the SEC: Does the Treasury Have a Better Idea?, Professors John C. Coffee, Jr., and Hillary Sale offer compelling reasons to rethink the SEC’s role. This article extends that analysis, evaluating the SEC’s responsibility for the current financial crisis and its potential future role in regulation of the capital markets. In particular, the article identifies critical failures in the SEC’s performance in its core competencies of enforcement, financial transparency, and investor protection. The article argues that these failures are not the result, as suggested by the Treasury Department Blueprint, of a balkanized ...


The Mess At Morgan: Risk, Incentives And Shareholder Empowerment, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Mess At Morgan: Risk, Incentives And Shareholder Empowerment, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

The financial crisis of 2008 focused increasing attention on corporate America and, in particular, the risk-taking behavior of large financial institutions. A growing appreciation of the “public” nature of the corporation resulted in a substantial number of high profile enforcement actions. In addition, demands for greater accountability led policymakers to attempt to harness the corporation’s internal decision-making structure, in the name of improved corporate governance, to further the interest of non-shareholder stakeholders. Dodd-Frank’s advisory vote on executive compensation is an example.

This essay argues that the effort to employ shareholders as agents of public values and, thereby, to ...


From Legitimacy To Logic: Reconstructing Proxy Regulation, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

From Legitimacy To Logic: Reconstructing Proxy Regulation, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

No abstract provided.


Confronting The Circularity Problem In Private Securities Litigation, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Confronting The Circularity Problem In Private Securities Litigation, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

Many critics argue that private securities litigation fails effectively either to deter corporate misconduct or to compensate defrauded investors. In particular, commentators reason that damages reflect socially inefficient transfer payments—the so-called circularity problem. Fox and Mitchell address the circularity problem by identifying new reasons why private litigation is an effective deterrent, focusing on the role of disclosure in improving corporate governance. The corporate governance rationale for securities regulation is more powerful than the authors recognize. By collecting and using corporate information in their trading decisions, informed investors play a critical role in enhancing market efficiency. This efficiency, in turn ...


Can Internet Offerings Bridge The Small Business Capital Barrier?, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Can Internet Offerings Bridge The Small Business Capital Barrier?, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

No abstract provided.


Cause For Concern: Causation And Federal Securities Fraud, Jill E. Fisch 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Cause For Concern: Causation And Federal Securities Fraud, Jill E. Fisch

Jill Fisch

The Supreme Court’s decision in Dura Pharmaceuticals dramatically changed federal securities fraud litigation. The Dura decision itself said little, but counseled lower courts to fashion new requirements of causation and harm modeled upon common law tort principles. These instructions have led lower courts to craft a series of confusing and inconsistent decisions that incorporate little of the reasoning upon which the common law principles are based. This Article accepts the Dura challenge and examines both common law causation principles and their applicability to federal securities fraud. In so doing, the Article identifies the failure of the federal courts properly ...


Hedge Fund Activism, Poison Pills, And The Jurisprudence Of Threat, William W. Bratton 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Hedge Fund Activism, Poison Pills, And The Jurisprudence Of Threat, William W. Bratton

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter reviews the single high profile case in which twentieth century antitakeover law has come to bear on management defense against a twenty-first century activist challenge—the Delaware Court of Chancery’s decision to sustain a low-threshold poison pill deployed against an activist in Third Point LLC v. Ruprecht. The decision implicated an important policy question: whether a twentieth century doctrine keyed to hostile takeovers and control transfers appropriately can be brought to bear in a twenty-first century governance context in which the challenger eschews control transfer and instead makes aggressive use of the shareholder franchise. Resolution of the ...


Does Political Giving Impact Shareholder Wealth? Evidence From State Campaign Finance Reforms, Douglas Brian Blank II 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Does Political Giving Impact Shareholder Wealth? Evidence From State Campaign Finance Reforms, Douglas Brian Blank Ii

Doctoral Dissertations

Does corporate political giving actually affect shareholder wealth? While firms value political participation, some lawmakers oppose corporate involvement in politics. Yet, the existing literature has established a correlation between campaign finance and corporate outcomes without fully documenting a causal relation. I use an innovative database of political giving to exploit changes in state campaign finance laws as an exogenous shock to political giving. Specifically, I use the staggered adoption of externally imposed legal limits to political giving across U.S. states to expose how shareholder wealth responds. I find shareholder wealth declines following legally imposed reductions in political giving. The ...


Aggregate Earnings Surprises, Monetary Policy, And Stock Returns, Lindsey A. GALLAO, Rebecca N. HANN, Congcong LI 2016 Singapore Management University

Aggregate Earnings Surprises, Monetary Policy, And Stock Returns, Lindsey A. Gallao, Rebecca N. Hann, Congcong Li

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This paper examines whether the negative association between aggregate earnings and returns is explained by the monetary policy news in aggregate earnings. Using Federal funds futures data to construct a measure of policy news, we find that aggregate earnings convey information about the Fed׳s policy actions. Additionally, the negative aggregate earnings-returns association is muted when we control for policy surprises. This result is more pronounced in periods with negative policy surprises, which tend to trigger a more significant market reaction. Taken together, these results suggest that aggregate earnings convey policy news and the market reacts negatively to policy surprises ...


"Other Information" In An Audit (Part 2), FOO S.L. 2016 Singapore Management University

"Other Information" In An Audit (Part 2), Foo S.L.

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

In light of the new reporting requirements, SSA 720 (Revised) articulates a systematic approach on Other Information (OI) work. It comprises five key elements. These are Obtaining, Reading and Considering, Responding, Reporting and Documentation of OI (Figure 1). Invariably, these enhancements provide useful guidance to the auditors. With additional prescribed work efforts, it also calls for a greater integration of OI work scope with the overall audit planning.


Essays On The Effect Of Board Gender Diversity On Firm Risk, Performance, And Institutions' Ownership Preferences, Jodonnis Rodriguez 2016 Florida International University

Essays On The Effect Of Board Gender Diversity On Firm Risk, Performance, And Institutions' Ownership Preferences, Jodonnis Rodriguez

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation examines the effect of gender diversity on firm risk and financial performance, and on the stock ownership preferences of institutional investors. For the firm risk and financial performance analysis, we use U.S. firms listed on the S&P 500 and NSE-listed Indian companies. The two samples provide our study with the ability to study gender diversity in a developed and emerging market with distinct economic frameworks, cultural traditions, and legal environments.

Our empirical tests show that firms with more gender diversity are less risky and have higher financial performance than firms with less gender influence. These results ...


Does Beating Cash Flow Benchmarks Reduce The Cost Of Debt?, Mauricio A. Melgarejo 2016 Butler University

Does Beating Cash Flow Benchmarks Reduce The Cost Of Debt?, Mauricio A. Melgarejo

Mauricio Melgarejo

This paper examines whether beating previous year cash flow values and analysts' cash flow forecasts impact the firms' cost of debt. Creditors are expected to be more concerned about firm solvency than firm profitability. Accordingly, if lenders have any reference point it may be related to cash flow numbers. This study finds that firms that beat analysts' cash flow forecasts have smaller initial bond yield spreads in the next period and a decrease in their initial bond yield spreads between consecutive periods. This effect is more pronounced at short maturities and for observations with less informative earnings. Firms with lower ...


Have We Solved The Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle?, Kewei HOU, Roger K. LOH 2016 Ohio State University

Have We Solved The Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle?, Kewei Hou, Roger K. Loh

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We propose a simple methodology to evaluate a large number of potential explanations for the negative relation between idiosyncratic volatility and subsequent stock returns (the idiosyncratic volatility puzzle). We find that surprisingly many existing explanations explain less than 10% of the puzzle. On the other hand, explanations based on investors’ lottery preferences, short-term return reversal, and earnings shocks show greater promise in explaining the puzzle. Together they account for 60-80% of the negative idiosyncratic volatility-return relation. Our methodology can be applied to evaluate competing explanations for a broad range of topics in asset pricing and corporate finance.


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