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2018 Full-Text Articles 1865 Authors 786760 Downloads 115 Institutions

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2018 full-text articles. Page 1 of 61.

The Impact Of Sustainability Reporting On Firm Profitability, Lancee L. Whetman 2018 Westminster College, Salt Lake City

The Impact Of Sustainability Reporting On Firm Profitability, Lancee L. Whetman

Undergraduate Economic Review

Using a hand-collected representative sample of 95 publicly traded American firms from various sectors in 2015-2016, I examine how corporate sustainability reporting affects the financial performance of firms. I find a positive and significant effect of sustainability reporting on a firm’s return on equity, return on assets, and profit margin in the subsequent year. However, this relationship is found only for firms with low institutional ownership. These results suggest that sustainability reporting would be a worthwhile use of corporate resources for this subset of firms. Further, corporate sustainability reporting is shown to be an effective substitute for monitoring by ...


Ceo Tenure And Corporate Misconduct: Evidence From Us Banks, John Thornton, Yener Altunbaş, Yurtsev Uymaz 2017 University of East Anglia

Ceo Tenure And Corporate Misconduct: Evidence From Us Banks, John Thornton, Yener Altunbaş, Yurtsev Uymaz

John Thornton

We test for a link between CEO tenure and misconduct by US banks. We find that banks are more likely to commit misconduct when CEOs have a relatively long tenure and banks have relatively poor balance sheets. Large and independent corporate boards can mitigate but not prevent misconduct.


The Seventeenth Annual Albert A. Destefano Lecture On Corporate, Securities & Financial Law At The Fordham Corporate Law Center, Caroline M. Gentile, The Honorable Karen L. Valihura 2017 Fordham University School of Law

The Seventeenth Annual Albert A. Destefano Lecture On Corporate, Securities & Financial Law At The Fordham Corporate Law Center, Caroline M. Gentile, The Honorable Karen L. Valihura

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

No abstract provided.


Regulating A Revolution: From Regulatory Sandboxes To Smart Regulation, Dirk A. Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley, Janos N. Barberis, Douglas W. Arner 2017 Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance, University of Luxembourg

Regulating A Revolution: From Regulatory Sandboxes To Smart Regulation, Dirk A. Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley, Janos N. Barberis, Douglas W. Arner

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Prior to the global financial crisis, financial innovation was viewed very positively, resulting in a laissez-faire, deregulatory approach to financial regulation. Since the crisis the regulatory pendulum has swung to the other extreme. Post-crisis regulation, plus rapid technological change, have spurred the development of financial technology (FinTech). FinTech firms and data-driven financial service providers profoundly challenge the current regulatory paradigm. Financial regulators increasingly seek to balance the traditional regulatory objectives of financial stability and consumer protection with promoting growth and innovation. The resulting regulatory innovations include RegTech, regulatory sandboxes, and special charters. This Article analyzes possible new regulatory approaches, ranging ...


Venture Capital Contract Design: An Empirical Analysis Of The Connection Between Bargaining Power And Venture Financing Contract Terms, Spencer Williams 2017 Stanford Law School Program on Corporate Governance and Practice

Venture Capital Contract Design: An Empirical Analysis Of The Connection Between Bargaining Power And Venture Financing Contract Terms, Spencer Williams

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

This Article presents an empirical analysis of the connection between bargaining power and contract design using an original dataset of over 5,500 equity and debt venture financings from 2004–2015. Using the total supply of venture capital in the U.S. as a measure of relative bargaining power between entrepreneurs and investors, this Article finds that venture capital supply has a statistically significant relationship with price and non-price terms in both equity and debt financings. These results contradict one of three theoretical accounts of bargaining power and support the other two.


Proxy Access And Optimal Standardization In Corporate Governance: An Empirical Analysis, Reilly S. Steel 2017 U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs

Proxy Access And Optimal Standardization In Corporate Governance: An Empirical Analysis, Reilly S. Steel

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

According to the conventional wisdom, “one size does not fit all” in corporate governance. Firms are heterogeneous with respect to their governance needs, implying that the optimal corporate governance structure must also vary from firm to firm. This one-size-does-not-fit-all axiom has featured prominently in arguments against numerous corporate law regulatory initiatives, including the SEC’s failed Rule 14a-11—an attempt to impose mandatory, uniform “proxy access” on all public companies—which the D.C. Circuit struck down for inadequate costbenefit analysis.

This Article presents an alternative theory as to the role of standardization in corporate governance—in which investors ...


A Novel Approach To Defining "Whistleblower" In Dodd-Frank, Ian A. Engoron 2017 J.D. Candidate, Fordham University School of Law

A Novel Approach To Defining "Whistleblower" In Dodd-Frank, Ian A. Engoron

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

Following the Financial Crisis of 2008, trust in the financial industry was at an all-time low as the American taxpayer was forced to bailout the very same institutions responsible for their suffering. In response, Congress passed Dodd-Frank in 2010 to ensure another crisis like 2008 never happen again. Section 78u-6 of the Act provides incentives and protections for whistleblowers who report violations of securities laws. In recent years there has been a divide among circuit courts over the question of whether employees who report violations internally to their bosses—and not directly to the SEC—are protected by the Act ...


Are Overconfident Ceos Better Leaders? Evidence From Stakeholder Commitments, Kenny PHUA, T. Mandy THAM, Chi Shen WEI 2017 Singapore Management University

Are Overconfident Ceos Better Leaders? Evidence From Stakeholder Commitments, Kenny Phua, T. Mandy Tham, Chi Shen Wei

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We find evidence that the leadership of overconfident chief executive officers (CEOs) induces stakeholders to take actions that contribute to the leader's vision. By being intentionally overexposed to the idiosyncratic risk of their firms, overconfident CEOs exhibit a strong belief in their firms’ prospects. This belief attracts suppliers beyond the firm's observable expansionary corporate activities. Overconfident CEOs induce more supplier commitments including greater relationship-specific investment and longer relationship duration. Overconfident CEOs also induce stronger labor commitments as employees exhibit lower turnover rates and greater ownership of company stock in benefit plans.


Ceo Compensation And Risk-Taking At Financial Firms: Evidence From U.S. Federal Loan Assistance, Amar Gande, Swami Kalpathy 2017 Southern Methodist University

Ceo Compensation And Risk-Taking At Financial Firms: Evidence From U.S. Federal Loan Assistance, Amar Gande, Swami Kalpathy

Amar Gande

We examine whether risk-taking among the largest financial firms in the U.S. is related to CEO equity incentives before the 2008 financial crisis.  Using data on U.S. Federal Reserve emergency loans provided to these firms, we find that the amount of emergency loans and total days the loans are outstanding are increasing in pre-crisis CEO risk-taking incentives – “vega”.  Our results are robust to accounting for endogeneity in CEO equity incentives and selection of financial firms into emergency loan programs.  We also rule out the possibility that our results are driven by a bank’s funding base, bank complexity ...


R&D Sensitivity To Asset Sale Proceeds: New Evidence On Financing Constraints And Intangible Investment, Ginka Borisova, James R. Brown 2017 Iowa State University

R&D Sensitivity To Asset Sale Proceeds: New Evidence On Financing Constraints And Intangible Investment, Ginka Borisova, James R. Brown

James R. Brown

We examine the intersection between corporate divestitures of tangible assets and investment in intangible capital (R&D) to provide new tests for the impact financing constraints have on real activity. A positive R&D sensitivity to asset sale proceeds indicates binding financing constraints since cash inflows from tangible asset sales are negatively correlated with productivity shocks and not otherwise connected to intangible investment via non-financial channels. Using a variety of estimation approaches, we document a strong, positive link between cash inflows from fixed asset sales and corporate R&D investment, but only among firms most likely facing binding financing constraints ...


Access To Private Equity And Real Firm Activity: Evidence From Pipes, James R. Brown, Ioannis V. Floros 2017 Iowa State University

Access To Private Equity And Real Firm Activity: Evidence From Pipes, James R. Brown, Ioannis V. Floros

James R. Brown

No abstract provided.


Law, Stock Markets, And Innovation, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen 2017 Iowa State University

Law, Stock Markets, And Innovation, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen

James R. Brown

We study a broad sample of firms across 32 countries and find that strong shareholder protections and better access to stock market financing lead to substantially higher long-run rates of R&D investment, particularly in small firms, but are unimportant for fixed capital investment. Credit market development has a modest impact on fixed investment but no impact on R&D. These findings connect law and stock markets with innovative activities key to economic growth, and show that legal rules and financial developments affecting the availability of external equity financing are particularly important for risky, intangible investments not easily financed with ...


Do Financing Constraints Matter For R&D?, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen 2017 Iowa State University

Do Financing Constraints Matter For R&D?, James R. Brown, Gustav Martinsson, Bruce C. Petersen

James R. Brown

Information problems and lack of collateral value should make R&D more susceptible to financing frictions than other investments, yet existing evidence on whether financing constraints limit R&D is decidedly mixed, particularly in the studies of non-U.S. firms. We study a large sample of European firms and also find little evidence of binding finance constraints when we estimate standard investment-cash flow regressions. However, we find strong evidence that the availability of finance matters for R&D once we directly control for: (i) firm efforts to smooth R&D with cash reserves and (ii) firm use of external equity ...


Profitability Ratios In The Early Stages Of A Startup, Erkki K. Laitinen 2017 University of Vaasa

Profitability Ratios In The Early Stages Of A Startup, Erkki K. Laitinen

The Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance

This study develops a mathematical framework to analyze the time series of profitability ratios in the early stages of a startup. It is assumed that the expenditure of the startup grows at a steady rate and generates a proportionally identical flow of revenue in each period. The profitability in terms of the internal rate of return (IRR) and the lag structure of revenue flows are assumed constant over time in describing the adjustment process towards the steady state. The startup is assumed to expense in each period a constant part of periodic expenditure and beginning-of-the-period assets. The adjustment processes of ...


Trade Secrets Law And Corporate Disclosure: Causal Evidence On The Proprietary Cost Hypothesis, Yinghua Li, Yupeng LIN, Liandong ZHANG 2017 Singapore Management University

Trade Secrets Law And Corporate Disclosure: Causal Evidence On The Proprietary Cost Hypothesis, Yinghua Li, Yupeng Lin, Liandong Zhang

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

This study exploits the staggered adoption of the inevitable disclosure doctrine (IDD) by U.S. state courts as an exogenous shock that generates variations in the proprietary costs of disclosure. We find that firms respond to IDD adoption by reducing the level of disclosure regarding their customers’ identities, supporting the proprietary cost hypothesis. Our results are stronger for firms in industries with a higher degree of entry threats, for firms in more volatile industries, and for firms with a lower degree of external financing dependence. Overall, this study represents one of the first efforts in identifying the causal effect of ...


Protecting The Viability Of The Small Donor In Modern Elections, Ben Miller 2017 Fried Frank, Harris, Shriver & Jacobson LLP

Protecting The Viability Of The Small Donor In Modern Elections, Ben Miller

Arkansas Law Review

Campaign finance reform stands as one of the most important issues in today’s modern elections. From national to municipal contests, the influx of large donations places wealthy individuals—and interests—at odds with the average voter. Over the years, volumes of academic and legislative reforms have been proposed that encompass a wide range of electoral subject matter. From Citizens United to Federal Elections Commission (FEC) control mechanisms, solutions on how to change our campaign finance regulatory regime cover a large and diverse area of law and policy. However, the central theme throughout these reforms is maximizing transparency and curbing ...


The Modigliani-Miller Theorem At 60: The Long-Overlooked Legal Applications Of Finance’S Foundational Theorem, Michael S. Knoll 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Modigliani-Miller Theorem At 60: The Long-Overlooked Legal Applications Of Finance’S Foundational Theorem, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship

2018 marks the 60th anniversary of the publication of Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller’s The Cost of Capital, Corporation Finance, and the Theory of Investment. Widely hailed as the foundation of modern finance, their article, which purports to demonstrate that a firm’s value is independent of its capital structure, is little known by lawyers, including legal academics. That is unfortunate because the Modigliani-Miller capital structure irrelevancy proposition (when inverted) provides a framework that can be extremely useful to legal academics, practicing attorneys and judges.


Making Financial Disclosure More Readable, Clarence GOH, Poh Sun SEOW, Gary PAN 2017 Singapore Management University

Making Financial Disclosure More Readable, Clarence Goh, Poh Sun Seow, Gary Pan

Research Collection School Of Accountancy

There are many benefits tohaving disclosures written in plain English. Investors would be more likely tounderstand the disclosures and to make informed judgments. Investment analystswould also be able to make more timely and accurate recommendations to theirclients if they can understand such disclosures more quickly and easily


Inside Brokers, Frank Weikai LI, Abhiroop MUKHERJEE, Rik SEN 2017 Singapore Management University

Inside Brokers, Frank Weikai Li, Abhiroop Mukherjee, Rik Sen

Research Collection Lee Kong Chian School Of Business

We identify the broker each corporate insider trades through, and show that analystsand mutual fund managers affiliated with such “inside brokers” retain a substantialinformation advantage on the insider’s firm, even after these trades are disclosed.Affiliated analysts issue 10–20% more accurate earnings forecasts, and affiliated fundstrade the insider’s stock much more profitably than their peers, following insider tradesthrough their brokerage. Our results challenge the prevalent perception that informationasymmetry arising from insider trading is acute only before trade disclosure, andsuggest that brokers facilitating these trades are in a unique position to exploit suchan asymmetry.


Amending Corporate Charters And Bylaws, Albert H. Choi, Geeyoung Min 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Amending Corporate Charters And Bylaws, Albert H. Choi, Geeyoung Min

Faculty Scholarship

Recently, courts have embraced the contractarian theory that corporate charters and bylaws constitute a “contract” between the shareholders and the corporation and have been more willing to uphold bylaws unilaterally adopted by the directors. This paper examines the contractarian theory by drawing a parallel between amending charters and bylaws, on the one hand, and amending contracts, on the other. In particular, the paper compares the right to unilaterally amend corporate bylaws with the right to unilaterally modify contract terms, and highlights how contract law imposes various limitations on the modifying party’s discretion. More generally, when the relationship of contracting ...


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