As American As Apple Inc.: Corporate Ownership And The Fight For Tax Reform, 2016 University of Pennsylvania
As American As Apple Inc.: Corporate Ownership And The Fight For Tax Reform, Penn Wharton Ppi
Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative
Both supporters and critics of the current tax advantages enjoyed by U.S. multinational corporations (MNCs) bolster their arguments with appeals to patriotism: the MNCs and their political supporters argue that allowing inversions or other similar arrangements and instituting another tax holiday for “repatriating” overseas earnings are good for the American economy as a whole; opponents condemn these tax advantages as unpatriotic in depriving the U.S. of enormous sums of needed revenue. But where, precisely, is the “home” to which profits held offshore return? For many purposes, home is where the shareholders are. Determining ownership of U.S. MNCs ...
The Impact Of Increased Cigarette Prices On Cigarette Consumption, 2016 University of Kentucky
The Impact Of Increased Cigarette Prices On Cigarette Consumption, Bohyun Yoo
MPA/MPP Capstone Projects
The objective of this study examines whether the way to raise cigarette prices drastically and discontinuously is effective in reducing cigarette consumption. We use monthly data for cigarette consumption to measure the price elasticity of cigarettes’ demand and adopt real cigarette prices, real individual income, education level, and unemployment rate as independent variables. We consider how consumers adjust their consumption practices in response to the increased prices. After examining the result of regression, we conclude that cigarette real price has a significant association with the reduction in cigarette consumption. If we divide the last twelve years into periods when prices ...
Incentives To Tax Foreign Investors, 2016 Colgate University
Incentives To Tax Foreign Investors, Rishi R. Sharma
Economics Faculty Working Papers
This paper shows that a small country can have incentives to tax inbound FDI even in a setting with perfect competition and free entry. While firms make no aggregate profits worldwide due to free entry, they make taxable profits in foreign production locations because their costs are partly incurred in their home countries. These profits are not perfectly mobile because firm productivity varies across locations. Consequently, the host country does not bear the entire burden of a tax on foreign firms, giving rise to an incentive to impose taxes. The standard zero optimal tax result can be recovered in this ...
Taxing And Subsidizing Foreign Investors, 2016 Colgate University
Taxing And Subsidizing Foreign Investors, Rishi R. Sharma
Economics Faculty Working Papers
Many countries impose taxes on foreign investors while also having in place targeted subsidies and tax incentives that are designed to attract them. This paper shows that such a policy can be optimal from the standpoint of a host country. The government has an incentive to tax inframarginal firms because they are relatively immobile. It also has an incentive to subsidize marginal firms because the economic activity generated by such a subsidy can increase domestic wages in excess of the fiscal cost of the subsidy. These tax and subsidy policies improve host country welfare at the expense of foreigners. This ...
Liberating Trapped Cash: A Case Study Of Trapped Cash At Apple And Microsoft, 2016 Southern Connecticut State University
Liberating Trapped Cash: A Case Study Of Trapped Cash At Apple And Microsoft, Russell P. Engel, Bridget M. Lyons, Danny A. Pannese
WCOB Faculty Publications
The topic of trapped cash, or cash permanently reinvested overseas to avoid tax upon repatriation, has become a hot topic in accounting, finance and policy circles over the past two years. This case study analyzes the activities of two major technology firms, Microsoft and Apple, to liberate enormous holdings of trapped cash. The case prompts a discussion of the topic of trapped cash, stakeholder considerations and tools available to manage cash balances held outside the United States. The focus is to examine the strategies available and those selected by Microsoft and Apple to meet or at least appease stakeholder demands ...
The Cost Of Feeling Good, 2016 University of Central Florida
The Cost Of Feeling Good, Casey M. Field
Honors in the Major Theses
The Cost of Feeling Good attempts to quantify the optimum portfolio returns of Socially Responsible Investment Funds and Dual-Purpose Portfolios. In order to meet the demands of investors who want to create a social impact and generate financial returns, investors can choose two methods. For the purpose of this study, the social returns were quantified and the financial returns were quantified using net present value. In every scenario, the socially responsible investment decision generated higher financial returns. Because of the immediate loss to an investor after choosing the DPP strategy, financially, the SRI fund appears to be the better approach ...
Property Or Currency? The Tax Dilemma Behind Bitcoin, 2016 S.J. Quinney College of Law, University of Utah.
Property Or Currency? The Tax Dilemma Behind Bitcoin, Scott A. Wiseman
Utah Law Review
At Bitcoin’s peak in November 2013, there were 93,000 global transactions made in a single day. These users purchased everyday items such as personal services, food, and real estate. This alone suggests that Bitcoin is not primarily used as a long-term investment tool, but rather is used as a currency and a vehicle for global transactions. Congress and the IRS should regulate it accordingly. Representative Stockman’s Virtual Currency Reform Act offered an attempt to negate the IRS decision and officially classify Bitcoin and other virtual currencies as currency instead of property. A tax reclassification would alleviate typical ...
The Abuse Of Foreign Income Tax Credit, 2016 Georgia Southern University
The Abuse Of Foreign Income Tax Credit, Janki P. Patel
University Honors Program Theses
This analytical study examines the abuse of foreign income tax credit with the provided data from 1996 – 2011. There are various ways to categorize the foreign tax credit, yet this study examines the foreign tax credit taken in various geographic regions. Additionally, it also analyzes the individual foreign tax credit claimed and corporate tax credit claimed to conclude on which unit abuses the credit utmost.
The Benefits Of Having A Comprehensive Financial Plan For The Average Consumer, And The Necessary Components Comprised To Make An Effective And Efficient Plan, Nicholas M. Lund
CMC Senior Theses
Socioeconomic changes in American society over the past few decades, as well as an overwhelming amount of uncertainty and misconceptions, have resulted in a majority of Americans to fall short of their financial goals in the short-term, the mid-term, and the long-term. Without proper preparation and financial planning, it is likely that these Americans, and many more, will be unable to reach these goals as well as retire comfortably. Many Americans are overwhelmed with the immense amount of financial information, tools and resources, and as a consequence are unable to plan their finances efficiently and effectively. Americans need a better ...
Benefit-Cost Analysis And Distributional Weights: An Overview, 2016 Duke Law School
Benefit-Cost Analysis And Distributional Weights: An Overview, Matthew D. Adler
Standard cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is insensitive to distributional concerns. A policy that improves the lives of the rich, and makes the poor yet worse off, will be approved by CBA as long as the policy’s aggregate monetized benefits are positive. Distributional weights offer an apparent solution to this troubling feature of the CBA methodology: adjust costs and benefits with weighting factors that are inversely proportional to the well-being levels (as determined by income and also perhaps non-income attributes such as health) of the affected individuals.
Indeed, an academic literature dating from the 1950s discusses how to specify distributional weights ...
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act: The Most Revolutionary Piece Of Tax Legislation Since The Introduction Of The Income Tax, 2015 University of Connecticut
Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act: The Most Revolutionary Piece Of Tax Legislation Since The Introduction Of The Income Tax, Alexander Szwakob
Honors Scholar Theses
With taxation of income being the most significant source of revenue, most national governments consider tax evasion prevention to be one of the priorities of their tax agencies. In the United States, tax evasion has been a significant concern of the Internal Revenue Service ever since the modern income tax was instituted with the passing of the Sixteenth Amendment in 1913. Over the following century, Congress enacted numerous measures aimed at curbing the illegal practice, but, as often is the case, both individuals and institutions desiring to not abide by the law found new ways to outsmart the tax authorities ...
Knowledge Of Federal Taxation In The Millennial Age, 2015 Iowa State University
Knowledge Of Federal Taxation In The Millennial Age, Jordan Kulow
Honors Projects and Posters
The goal of this study is to build upon previous research, studying the knowledge of taxation in elementary children, by researching the same idea in college-aged students. To do so, students were surveyed regarding various demographics and taxation topics in terms of general knowledge, taxation concepts that are currently relevant to our target subject, and taxation topics that will be relevant to them in the future. Our results showed that students had a moderate level of general knowledge that was consistent across variables. They also showed that in terms of taxation topics that are currently relevant, being older and having ...
Cross-Country Evidence On The Preliminary Effects Of Patent Box Regimes On Patent Activity And Ownership, Sebastien J. Bradley, Estelle Dauchy, Leslie Robinson
Sebastien J Bradley
This paper evaluates the initial impacts of patent box regimes in light of their primary stated objectives: stimulating domestic innovation and retaining mobile patent income to limit base erosion. Despite their lack of nexus requirements, we find that patent box regimes yield a 3 percent increase in new patent applications for every percentage point reduction in the tax rate on patent income. We find no significant impact of these regimes on deterring outward cross-border attribution of patent ownership, or on attracting ownership of foreign inventions. Increased patenting activity hence appears focused on inventions involving co-located (domestic) patent owners and inventors.
The Common Knowledge Of Tax Abuse, 2015 Berkeley Law
The Common Knowledge Of Tax Abuse, Mark P. Gergen
Mark P. Gergen
No abstract provided.
The Influence Of Tax Law On Securities Innovation In The United States: 1981-1997, Mark P. Gergen, Paula Schmitz
Mark P. Gergen
No abstract provided.
Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, 2015 University of Massachusetts Boston
Hardship Withdrawals And Loans: Some Words Of Caution, Emily G. Brown Jd, Jeanne Medeiros Jd, Ellen Bruce Jd
As defined benefit pension plans become more and more rare, the responsibility of saving for retirement falls increasingly on individuals. Many studies have been published about the average or median balances in retirement savings accounts and virtually all of them have reached the same conclusion - most Americans aren’t saving enough money to last them through their retirement years. In this fact sheet we will take a look at one of the factors that contributes to this problem, that is, the availability of loans and hardship withdrawals from 401(k) retirement accounts, which can lead to lower account balances overall ...
On The Use Of The Inflation Tax When Non-Distortionary Taxes Are Available, 2015 Iowa State University
On The Use Of The Inflation Tax When Non-Distortionary Taxes Are Available, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Joseph H. Haslag
Using a pure-exchange overlapping generatior^ model in which money -is valued because of a legal restriction, we show the following: a) a benevolent government may make some use of the inflation t^ in conjunction with a lump-sum income tax on the young, b) the inflation tax will not be used dong with- a lump-sum income tax on the old, and c) the welfare-maximizing monetary policy may-deviate from the Friedman rule (contract the money supply so as to equate the real return on money and other competing stores of value) depending on how fiscal policy is implemented...
The Potential Effect Of Offering Lump Sums In The Social Security Program, 2015 University of Pennsylvania
The Potential Effect Of Offering Lump Sums In The Social Security Program, Raimond Maurer, Oliver S. Mitchell, Ralph Rogalla, Tatjana Schimetschek
Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative
New research reframes the debate about Social Security solvency and moves away from questions of who should bear the greater burden of fixing the system by offering a lump sum payment model as a way to encourage people to delay claiming their Social Security benefits. Under one of the lump sum alternatives presented in this brief, survey participants indicated a willingness to delay claiming Social Security by up to eight months, on average, compared to the status quo, and to continue working for four of them. Delayed claiming would mean additional months or years of Social Security payroll tax contributions ...
Simple Substantial Economic Effect Regulatory Compliance, 2015 Unaffiliated
Simple Substantial Economic Effect Regulatory Compliance, David Randall Jenkins
David Randall Jenkins
The Internal Revenue Service considers Section 704(b)’s substantial economic effect regulations among the most complex. This course teaches the Treasury Regulations enable simple compliance through (Per Capita: Balances: Ratios) capital account accounting method truncated transitivity, economic effect equivalence, and substantiality’s conclusive presumption. The partnership special allocations public policy mandate is made clear thereby: encourage going concern productivity while discouraging its abandonment.
Evaluating Policy Measures To Tackle Undeclared Work: The Role Of Stakeholder Collaboration In Building Trust And Improving Policy-Making, Colin C. Williams, Anton Kojouharov
Colin C Williams
The aim of this paper is to examine and analyse the realm of policy evaluation approaches and methods as they relate to assessing measures to tackle undeclared work. The discussion is set at the backdrop of a brief review of the more prominent theoretical and conceptual considerations in the policy evaluation literature. The paper then investigates results from policy assessments and evaluations illuminated in the previous GREY working papers, as well as some selected from the Eurofound database. The analysis of a limited sample of available policy evaluations and results demonstrates that a common probable cause of policy failure with ...