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Better Work And Global Governance, Paul Alois 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Better Work And Global Governance, Paul Alois

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation is a case study of Better Work, a program run by the International Labor Organization and the International Finance Corporation. It aims to improve working conditions and productivity in the apparel industry. The purpose of this case study is to examine the role that international organizations can play in global governance. The research presented here comes from interviews, document analysis, and an examination of quantitative data on factories’ working conditions. In-person interviews were conducted in the United States, Switzerland, Vietnam, and Indonesia; many phone interviews took place with individuals in other countries. Both publicly available documents and internal ...


Fashioning Desire At B. Altman & Co.: Ethics And Consumer Culture In Early Department Stores, Tessa Maffucci 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Fashioning Desire At B. Altman & Co.: Ethics And Consumer Culture In Early Department Stores, Tessa Maffucci

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We live in an age of fast fashion. Clothing is produced in greater volumes than ever before and the lifecycle of each garment keeps getting shorter and shorter. Many items are manufactured to be worn only one time and then thrown away—as disposable as a cup of coffee. There is much to be learned about our current fashion ecosystem by looking into the past. Beyond the garments themselves we must understand the larger historical and sociological context in which these articles of clothing were produced. How does the shopping environment shape the buying habits and fashion trends of an ...


Two Dimensions Of Union Commitment Based On The Theory Of Reasoned Action: Cross-Cultural Comparison, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Magnus Sverke 2016 Cornell University

Two Dimensions Of Union Commitment Based On The Theory Of Reasoned Action: Cross-Cultural Comparison, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Magnus Sverke

Sarosh Kuruvilla

Following Friedman and Harvey's (1986) call for additional theory development of the union commitment construct, this study applies the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980; Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) to the study of union commitment. The theory is tested using questionnaire data from diverse samples of 1,914 professional union members from Sweden and 1,088 blue-collar union members from the United States of America. Confirmatory factor analysis results of LISREL 7 indicate support for the two dimensions of union commitment posited by the theory - Union Attitudes and Opinions, and Pro-Union Behavioural Intentions. The construct validity of the dimensions is demonstrated ...


Union Participation In Japan: Do Western Theories Apply?, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Jack Fiorito, Mitsuru Wakabayashi 2016 Cornell University

Union Participation In Japan: Do Western Theories Apply?, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Jack Fiorito, Mitsuru Wakabayashi

Sarosh Kuruvilla

This study investigates the validity in Japan of union participation models developed in North America. The results of ordinary least squares analysis suggest that members' participation in unions is positively related to many of the same factors in Japan as in North America: for example, length of union membership, pay, dissatisfaction regarding pay and working conditions, degree of interaction with others in the work group, and perceptions of the union's effectiveness and its democratic character. Some findings at odds with those of Western studies, however, are that older workers and better-educated workers are less (rather than more) likely than ...


Tripartism And Economic Reforms In Singapore And South Korea, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Mingwei Liu 2016 Cornell University

Tripartism And Economic Reforms In Singapore And South Korea, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Mingwei Liu

Sarosh Kuruvilla

[Excerpt] The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of peak-level tripartism on economic reforms in Singapore and South Korea. Specifically, the paper attempts to answer the question of whether tripartism alters the pace, the sequence, the mix, or the content of economic reforms or the environment in which the reforms are implemented. It also seeks to obtain evidence on the impact of tripartism on specific measurable outcomes.


Swedish Professionals And Gender Inequalities, Charles W. Mueller, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson 2016 University of Iowa

Swedish Professionals And Gender Inequalities, Charles W. Mueller, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson

Sarosh Kuruvilla

The match of ideology and policy regarding gender equality in a corporatist society like Sweden should result in reduced gender inequality in access to supervisory authority and in earnings. The magnitude and form of this inequality is studied for a national sample of 1,359 full-time members of the professional union SACO in 1987-88. We find that Swedish professional women have only 68% of the supervisory positions that men have and 77% of the earnings that men have. These differences are not explained by process differences; human capital, family status, and structural variables generally produce access to authority and earnings ...


Industrial Dispute Resolution In India In Theory And Practice, Paul Lansing, Sarosh Kuruvilla 2016 University of Iowa

Industrial Dispute Resolution In India In Theory And Practice, Paul Lansing, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Sarosh Kuruvilla

[Excerpt] The recent tragic incident at the Union Carbide Plant in Bhopal, India has focused international attention on some of the problems of industrialization in developing countries. Of particular interest has been the issue of whether the cases filed against Union Carbide should be tried in Indian or American courts. Disputes of this nature indicate the increasing necessity for world-wide comprehension of the laws and regulations governing industry in developing countries, particularly for the developed economies that invest in countries with developing economies.

India is one example of a developing economy that has recently opened its doors to international investment ...


Hrm Strategies, Informality And Re-Regulation In East Asian Employment Relations, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Sun-wook Chung 2016 Cornell University

Hrm Strategies, Informality And Re-Regulation In East Asian Employment Relations, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Sun-Wook Chung

Sarosh Kuruvilla

[Excerpt] Although employment relations (defined as labour relations and human resources management (HRM)) institutions and practices generally tend to be stable over long periods of time, that cannot be said to be the case in the three largest economies of East Asia, i.e. China, Japan and South Korea (hereafter Korea), during the last two decades (see chapters 5, 7 and 8). In this contribution, we briefly review the most significant development in East Asian employment relations, i.e. the growth of a variety of non-standard employment arrangements which we subsume under the term ‘informality’ in all three countries. We ...


Globalization, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Tashlin Lakhani 2016 Cornell University

Globalization, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Tashlin Lakhani

Sarosh Kuruvilla

[Excerpt] While the chapters in the previous section examined employment relations in different national contexts, in this chapter we focus on employment relations in the international or global context. We begin by outlining different perspectives on globalization and examine how globalization has evolved over time. Based on this discussion, we provide a definition of globalization which best accounts for contemporary patterns of global interdependence. We then provide a brief overview of the arguments for and against globalization and discuss the implications that economic globalization presents for employment relations.


Job Reservation In India, Paul Lansing, Sarosh Kuruvilla 2016 University of Iowa

Job Reservation In India, Paul Lansing, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Sarosh Kuruvilla

[Excerpt] The concept of job reservation relies upon government intervention into the labor relations area in order to promote the rights of some particular portion of the population. The reasons for this intervention may come from diverse rationales but usually can be reduced to a political one. For example, after the miners’ riots of 1922 in South Africa, the government reserved certain jobs in the mining industry for whites only. In the United States, as a result of the civil rights movement of the 1960s, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission was established to assist blacks and other minorities from discrimination ...


The Development Of Members’ Attitudes Toward Their Unions: Sweden And Canada, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Kurt Wetzel 2016 Cornell University

The Development Of Members’ Attitudes Toward Their Unions: Sweden And Canada, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Daniel G. Gallagher, Kurt Wetzel

Sarosh Kuruvilla

This study examines two widely researched attitudes of union members-satisfaction with and commitment to their union-using 1987-88 data on 1,675 union members in professional occupations in Sweden and 476 blue- and white-collar union members in Canada. The authors find, first, that union commitment and union satisfaction are theoretically and empirically different constructs. Second, tests of a theoretical model of union attitude formation indicate that different (though overlapping) sets of factors influence union commitment and union satisfaction. One finding is that activities and processes that provide members with greater information about the union, such as new member orientation programs, newsletters ...


Swedish Wage-Earner Funds: An Experiment In Economic Democracy, Jonas Pontusson, Sarosh Kuruvilla 2016 Cornell University

Swedish Wage-Earner Funds: An Experiment In Economic Democracy, Jonas Pontusson, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Sarosh Kuruvilla

This article analyzes the performance of the "wage-earner funds" established in Sweden in 1983 - collective share-holding funds financed by special payroll and profits taxes. The authors' analysis indicates that although the wage-earner funds generally met the financial objectives set by the 1983 legislation, their significance in promoting "wage solidarity" (wage determination based on the work performed rather than on firm or industry profitability) and in providing workers with substantial influence over corporate decisions was limited by the size of their stockholdings and the seven-year (1984-90) restriction on the inflow of revenues into the funds. The authors conclude that the funds ...


Business Divestment In South Africa: In Who’S Best Interest?, Paul Lansing, Sarosh Kuruvilla 2016 University of Iowa

Business Divestment In South Africa: In Who’S Best Interest?, Paul Lansing, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Sarosh Kuruvilla

In recent years, there has been considerable pressure on corporations doing business in South Africa to divest and withdraw from that country. While this moral view espouses withdrawal, this article seeks to provide insight into the practical consequences of divestment. One of the questions addressed is how does foreign divestment affect Black South Africans, those who are supposed to benefit from a divestment policy.


American Trade Unions And Public Approval: Can Unions Please All Of The People All Of The Time?, Paul Jarley, Sarosh Kuruvilla 2016 Louisiana State University

American Trade Unions And Public Approval: Can Unions Please All Of The People All Of The Time?, Paul Jarley, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Sarosh Kuruvilla

Public opinion about labor unions has long been viewed as an important determinant of industrial relations outcomes. Yet, analyses of changes in union popularity over time have been largely qualitative and have focused on the impact of short-term idiosyncratic events. This paper provides a quantitative analysis of the determinants of American public approval of unions from 1936 to 1991. Hypotheses relating to the union wage advantage, strike activity, the national unemployment rate, and World War II, receive the strongest support. The implications of these results for organized labor and future research on attitudes toward unions are discussed.


Globalization, Logics Of Action, International Labor Standards And National Government Roles, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Anil Verma 2016 Cornell University

Globalization, Logics Of Action, International Labor Standards And National Government Roles, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Anil Verma

Sarosh Kuruvilla

In an earlier article, (Frenkel and Kuruvilla, 2002) we argued that the interplay between three different logics of action, i.e., the logic of competition, the logic of industrial peace, and the logic of employment-income protection determines the employment relations pattern in any given nation. We demonstrated the operation of this logic of action framework in selected Asian countries. We also demonstrated that changes in one logic to another underlie changes and transformations in industrial relations systems, with evidence form Asian countries.

In this article, we examine how the logics underlying industrial relations systems play out in terms of the ...


Economic Development Strategy, Government Labour Policy And Firm-Level Industrial Relations Practices In Malaysia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ponniah Arudsothy 2016 Cornell University

Economic Development Strategy, Government Labour Policy And Firm-Level Industrial Relations Practices In Malaysia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Ponniah Arudsothy

Sarosh Kuruvilla

[Excerpt] Malaysia is one of the fastest-growing economies in the world and is in many ways, a Third World success story. Twenty years of sustained growth and diversification have reduced the economy’s reliance on primary products like tin and rubber. Malaysia is still the world’s largest exporter of tin, rubber, and palm oil, and a significant producer of oil, natural gas, and timber. More recently it has become one of the largest manufacturers of semiconductors, and a sizeable producer of electronic and electrical products and textiles. Exports account for about 61 per cent of GNP, making the economy ...


A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of Union Commitment In Australia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson 2016 Cornell University

A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Of Union Commitment In Australia, Sarosh Kuruvilla, Roderick D. Iverson

Sarosh Kuruvilla

This paper evaluates the applicability of the different factor structures of union commitment identified in previous studies to the Australian case. Confirmatory factor analysis results using LISREL VII suggest that union commitment is best represented by four distinct factors, ‘union loyalty ’, ‘responsibility to the union’, ‘willingness to work for the union’, and ‘belief in unionism’ in this sample of Australian workers. OLS regression results indicate that the four factors are differentially related to a set of common predictor variables. White-collar workers reported higher levels of commitment than blue-collar workers. Participation in leadership positions and previous experience with union handling of ...


Does Dual Commitment Underlie Company And Union Commitment? Evidence From Australia, Sweden, And The United States, Roderick D. Iverson, Sarosh Kuruvilla 2016 University of Melbourne

Does Dual Commitment Underlie Company And Union Commitment? Evidence From Australia, Sweden, And The United States, Roderick D. Iverson, Sarosh Kuruvilla

Sarosh Kuruvilla

Using diverse data from union members in Australia, Sweden, and the United States, this paper develops a new approach to study the dual commitment construct. Specifically, the paper investigates whether dual commitment (i.e., simultaneous commitment to the company and the union) represents a latent second-order factor underlying both union and company commitment factors. Accordingly, alternative models of the factor structure of union and company commitment are analysed to find the best fitting first-order models using the confirmatory factor analysis technique of LISREL VII. These best fitting factors are then subjected to second-order confirmatory factor analysis. The results using this ...


Annexe - Les Jours De Grève En 2014-2015.Pdf, Kurt Vandaele 2016 ETUI

Annexe - Les Jours De Grève En 2014-2015.Pdf, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

Enfin, l’annexe statistique rédigée par Kurt Vandaele montre que, à une année 2014 où le nombre de jours de grève a été exceptionnellement élevé, essentiellement en raison du mouvement d’ampleur survenu à l’automne au niveau interprofessionnel, a succédé une année 2015 où, pour ce qui concerne la première partie de l’année (correspondant aux statistiques disponibles), les actions de grève sont revenues à un niveau nettement plus bas, plus proche de la moyenne des deux dernières décennies. Ce constat résume en quelque sorte l’évolution de la conflictualité sociale en Belgique depuis une vingtaine d’années : en ...


Annexe - Les Jours De Grève En 2014-2015.Pdf, Kurt Vandaele 2016 ETUI

Annexe - Les Jours De Grève En 2014-2015.Pdf, Kurt Vandaele

Kurt Vandaele

Enfin, l’annexe statistique rédigée par Kurt Vandaele montre que, à une année 2014 où le nombre de jours de grève a été exceptionnellement élevé, essentiellement en raison du mouvement d’ampleur survenu à l’automne au niveau interprofessionnel, a succédé une année 2015 où, pour ce qui concerne la première partie de l’année (correspondant aux statistiques disponibles), les actions de grève sont revenues à un niveau nettement plus bas, plus proche de la moyenne des deux dernières décennies. Ce constat résume en quelque sorte l’évolution de la conflictualité sociale en Belgique depuis une vingtaine d’années : en ...


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