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The Life And Times Of Landfills, Joshua O. Reno 2016 Binghamton University

The Life And Times Of Landfills, Joshua O. Reno

Journal of Ecological Anthropology

American landfills are primarily understood as distinctly human and spatial creations, when in practice they are as much temporal as spatial and as much non-human as human. Based on a large landfill on the rural periphery of Detroit, this paper explores the emergent and polychronic forms of life fostered by controlled dumping. Landfill employees work with their ecological surroundings to satisfy regulatory directives and assemble ever-growing mountains of waste. The paper introduces the complex, practical negotiations that result by isolating and diagraming the distinct temporal scales at which nonhuman beings and powers aid in and disrupt the process of landfilling.


Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell 2016 University of New Mexico

Ethical Issues In The Use Of Animals In Biomedical And Psychopharmocological Research, John P. Gluck, Jordan Bell

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Rationale: The ethical debate concerning the use of animals in biomedical and pharmacological research continues to be replete with misunderstandings about whether animals have moral standing. Objectives: This article briefly reviews the central ethical positions and their relationship to the basic parameters of research regulation from an international perspective. The issues associated with the validation of animal models will then be discussed. Finally, suggestions for empirical ethics research will be presented. Methods: Recent literature reviews were accessed and analyzed. Results: This review summarizes the pertinent ethical and research literature. Conclusions: In summary, regardless of the ethical perspective one favors, there ...


Gender Differences In Attitudes Toward Animal Research, Jennifer J. Eldridge, John P. Gluck 2016 University of New Mexico

Gender Differences In Attitudes Toward Animal Research, Jennifer J. Eldridge, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Although gender differences in attitudes toward animal research have been reported in the literature for some time, exploration into the nature of these differences has received less attention. This article examines gender differences in responses to a survey of attitudes toward the use of animals in research. The survey was completed by college students and consisted of items intended to tap different issues related to the animal research debate. Results indicated that women were more likely than men to support tenets of the animal protection movement. Likewise, women were more likely than men to favor increased restrictions on animal use ...


Moving Beyond The Welfare Standard Of Psychological Well-Being For Nonhuman Primates: The Case Of Chimpanzees, John P. Gluck 2016 University of New Mexico

Moving Beyond The Welfare Standard Of Psychological Well-Being For Nonhuman Primates: The Case Of Chimpanzees, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Since 1985, the US Animal Welfare Act and Public Health Service policy have required that researchers using nonhuman primates in biomedical and behavioral research develop a plan ‘‘for a physical environment adequate to promote the psychological well-being of primates.’’ In pursuing this charge, housing attributes such as social companionship, opportunities to express species-typical behavior, suitable space for expanded locomotor activity, and nonstressful relationships with laboratory personnel are dimensions that have dominated the discussion. Regulators were careful not to direct a specific set of prescriptions (i.e., engineering standards) for the attainment of these goals, but to leave the design of ...


Animals In Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect Of The Rhetoric Of The Besieged, John P. Gluck, Steven R. Kubacki 2016 University of New Mexico

Animals In Biomedical Research: The Undermining Effect Of The Rhetoric Of The Besieged, John P. Gluck, Steven R. Kubacki

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

It is correctly asserted that the intensity of the current debate over the use of animals in biomedical research is unprecedented. The extent of expressed animosity and distrust has stunned many researchers. In response, researchers have tended to take a strategic defensive posture, which involves the assertation of several abstract positions that serve to obstruct resolution of the debate. Those abstractions include the notions that the animal protection movement is trivial and purely anti-intellectual in scope, that all science is good (and some especially so), and the belief that an ethical consensus can never really be reached between the parties.


Long-Term Effects Of Early Social Isolation In Macaca Mulatta: Changes In Dopamine Receptor Function Following Apomorphine Challenge, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Tom L. Beauchamp, Michael F. Keresztury, Richard B. Mailman 2016 University of North Carolina

Long-Term Effects Of Early Social Isolation In Macaca Mulatta: Changes In Dopamine Receptor Function Following Apomorphine Challenge, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Tom L. Beauchamp, Michael F. Keresztury, Richard B. Mailman

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

The hypothesis that early social isolation results in long-term alterations in dopamine receptor sensitivity was tested using older adult rhesus monkeys. Isolated and control monkeys were challenged with apomorphine (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg), and the drug effects on spontaneous blink rate, stereotyped behavior, and self-injurious behavior were quantified using observational measures. Monoamine metabolites were quantified from cisternal CSF by HPLC-EC, prior to pharmacological challenge. Isolated and control monkeys did not differ in CSF concentrations of HVA, 5-HIAA, or MHPG. At the higher dose, apomorphine significantly increased the rate of blinking, the occurrence of whole-body stereotypies, and the ...


Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck 2016 University of New Mexico

Harry F. Harlow And Animal Research: Reflection On The Ethical Paradox, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

With respect to the ethical debate about the treatment of animals in biomedical and behavioral research, Harry F. Harlow represents a paradox. On the one hand, his work on monkey cognition and social development fostered a view of the animals as having rich subjective lives filled with intention and emotion. On the other, he has been criticized for the conduct of research that seemed to ignore the ethical implications of his own discoveries. The basis of this contradiction is discussed and propositions for current research practice are presented.


Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork 2016 Johns Hopkins University

Social Deprivation Of Infant Rhesus Monkeys Alters The Chemoarchitecture Of The Brain: I. Subcortical Regions, Lee J. Martin, Dawn M. Spicer, Mark H. Lewis, John P. Gluck, Linda C. Cork

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared during the first year of life without social contact develop persistent stereotyped movements, self-directed behaviors, and psychosocial abnormalities, but neurobiological mechanisms underlying the behaviors of socially deprived (SD) monkeys are unknown. Monkeys were reared in total social deprivation for the first 9 months of life; control monkeys were reared socially (SR) with mothers and peers. Subjects were killed at 19-24 yr of age. Because the behaviors of SD monkeys are reminiscent of changes in striatal or amygdalar function, we used immunocytochemistry for substance P (SP), leutine-enkephalin (LENK), somatostatin, calbindin, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) to evaluate ...


Rethinking The Ethics Of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction, Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope Ferdowsian, John P. Gluck 2016 Georgetown University

Rethinking The Ethics Of Research Involving Nonhuman Animals: Introduction, Tom L. Beauchamp, Hope Ferdowsian, John P. Gluck

John P. Gluck, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


Discourse And Wolves: Science, Society, And Ethics, William S. Lynn 2016 Williams College

Discourse And Wolves: Science, Society, And Ethics, William S. Lynn

William Lynn, Ph.D.

Wolves have a special resonance in many human cultures. To appreciate fully the wide variety of views on wolves, we must attend to the scientific, social, and ethical discourses that frame our understanding of wolves themselves, as well as their relationships with people and the natural world. These discourses are a configuration of ideas, language, actions, and institutions that enable or constrain our individual and collective agency with respect to wolves.

Scientific discourse is frequently privileged when it comes to wolves, on the assumption that the primary knowledge requirements are matters of ecology, cognitive ethology, and allied disciplines. Social discourse ...


Animals, Ethics And Geography, William S. Lynn 2016 Green Mountain College

Animals, Ethics And Geography, William S. Lynn

William Lynn, Ph.D.

No abstract provided.


The Ethics Of Wildlife Control In Humanized Landscapes, John Hadidian, Camilla H. Fox, William S. Lynn 2016 The Humane Society of the United States

The Ethics Of Wildlife Control In Humanized Landscapes, John Hadidian, Camilla H. Fox, William S. Lynn

William Lynn, Ph.D.

The 21st century is witness to an unprecedented and rapid growth of human settlements, from urban centers to wilderness vacation resorts. Concurrent with this has been the growing tolerance and acceptance of many wild animals and humans for one another. This has created an expanding ‘zone’ of human-animal contacts, some number of which invariably result in conflicts. While the vast majority of our interactions with wild animals are undoubtedly benign, it is the conflict between wildlife and people that draws particularly close attention from the public. Animals viewed as vertebrate “pests” range from the small to the large, the timid ...


Numerical Competence In A Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah T. Boysen, Gary G. Berntson 2016 The Ohio State University

Numerical Competence In A Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah T. Boysen, Gary G. Berntson

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

A chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), trained to count foods and objects by using Arabic numbers, demonstrated the ability to sum arrays of 0-4 food items placed in 2 of 3 possible sites. To address representational use of numbers, we next baited sites with Arabic numbers as stimuli. In both cases performance was significantly above chance from the first sessions, which suggests that without explicit training in combining arrays, the animal was able to select the correct arithmetic sum for arrays of foods or Arabic numbers under novel test conditions. These findings demonstrate that counting strategies and the representational use of numbers ...


Size Matters: Impact Of Item Size And Quantity On Array Choice By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah T. Boysen, Gary G. Berntson, Kimberly L. Mukobi 2016 The Ohio State University

Size Matters: Impact Of Item Size And Quantity On Array Choice By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Sarah T. Boysen, Gary G. Berntson, Kimberly L. Mukobi

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

The authors previously reported that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed a striking bias to select the larger of 2 candy arrays, despite a reversed reward contingency in which the animals received the smaller, nonselected array as a reward, except when Arabic numerals were used as stimuli. A perceptual or incentive-based interference occurred that was overcome by symbolic stimuli. The authors of the present study examined the impact of element size in choice arrays, using 1 to 5 large and small candies. Five test-sophisticated chimpanzees selected an array from the 2 presented during each trial. Their responses were not optimal, as animals ...


Visual Attention And Its Relation To Knowledge States In Chimpanzees, Pan Troglodytes, Megan J. Bulloch, Sarah T. Boysen, Ellen E. Furlong 2016 The Ohio State University

Visual Attention And Its Relation To Knowledge States In Chimpanzees, Pan Troglodytes, Megan J. Bulloch, Sarah T. Boysen, Ellen E. Furlong

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

Primates rely on visual attention to gather knowledge about their environment. The ability to recognize such knowledge-acquisition activity in another may demonstrate one aspect of Theory of Mind. Using a series of experiments in which chimpanzees were presented with a choice between an experimenter whose visual attention was available and another whose vision was occluded, we asked whether chimpanzees understood the relationship between visual attention and knowledge states. The animals showed sophisticated understanding of attention from the first presentation of each task. Under more complex experimental conditions, the subjects had more difficulty with species-typical processing of attentional cues and those ...


Quantity-Based Interference And Symbolic Representations In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), S. T. Boysen, G. G. Berntson, M. B. Hannan, J. T. Cacioppo 2016 The Ohio State University

Quantity-Based Interference And Symbolic Representations In Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), S. T. Boysen, G. G. Berntson, M. B. Hannan, J. T. Cacioppo

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

Five chimpanzees with training in counting and numerical skills selected between 2 arrays of different amounts of candy or 2 Arabic numerals. A reversed reinforcement contingency was in effect, in which the selected array was removed and the subject received the nonselected candies (or the number of candies represented by the nonselected Arabic numeral). Animals were unable to maximize reward by selecting the smaller array when candies were used as array elements. When Arabic numerals were substituted for the candy arrays, all animals showed an immediate shift to a more optimal response strategy of selecting the smaller numeral, thereby receiving ...


Scale-Model Comprehension By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Sarah T. Boysen, Kimberly L. Mukobi 2016 The Ohio State University

Scale-Model Comprehension By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Sarah T. Boysen, Kimberly L. Mukobi

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

The ability of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to recognize the correspondence between a scale model and its real-world referent was examined. In Experiments 1 and 2, an adult female and a young adult male watched as an experimenter hid a miniature model food in 1 of 4 sites in a scale model. Then, the chimpanzees were given the opportunity to find the real food item that had been hidden in the analogous location in the real room. The female performed significantly above chance, whereas the male performed at chance level. Experiments 3 and 4 tested 5 adult and 2 adolescent chimpanzees ...


Emotional Engagements Predict And Enhance Social Cognition In Young Chimpanzees, Kim A. Bard, Roger Bakeman, Sarah T. Boysen, David A. Leavens 2016 University of Portsmouth

Emotional Engagements Predict And Enhance Social Cognition In Young Chimpanzees, Kim A. Bard, Roger Bakeman, Sarah T. Boysen, David A. Leavens

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint ...


Inferences About Guessing And Knowing By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Daniel J. Povinelli, Kurt E. Nelson, Sarah T. Boysen 2016 Yale University

Inferences About Guessing And Knowing By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Daniel J. Povinelli, Kurt E. Nelson, Sarah T. Boysen

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

The visual perspective-taking ability of 4 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was investigated. The subjects chose between information about the location of hidden food provided by 2 experimenters who randomly alternated between two roles (the guesser and the knower). The knower baited 1 of 4 obscured cups so that the subjects could watch the process but could not see which of the cups contained the reward. The guesser waited outside the room until the food was hidden. Finally, the knower pointed to the correct cup while the guesser pointed to an incorrect one. The chimpanzees quickly learned to respond to the knower ...


The Effect Of Response Contingencies On Scale Model Task Performance By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Sarah T. Boysen 2016 Yale University

The Effect Of Response Contingencies On Scale Model Task Performance By Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Valerie A. Kuhlmeier, Sarah T. Boysen

Sarah Boysen, Ph.D.

The effects of modified procedures on chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes) performance in a scale model comprehension task were examined. Seven chimpanzees that previously participated in a task in which they searched an enclosure for a hidden item after watching an experimenter hide a miniature item in the analogous location in a scale model were retested under procedures incorporating response costs. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees were trained under procedures that rewarded only item retrievals occurring on the 1st search attempt. During test trials, 6 chimpanzees performed above chance, including 4 that were previously unsuccessful under the original procedures (V. A. Kuhlmeier, S ...


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