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1866 full-text articles. Page 1 of 49.

Social Network Models Of Task Switching In Social Insect Colonies: Effects Of Social Interactions And Spatial Heterogeneity, Jun Chen 2017 Illinois State University

Social Network Models Of Task Switching In Social Insect Colonies: Effects Of Social Interactions And Spatial Heterogeneity, Jun Chen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Do You Hear What I Hear? Human Perception Of Coyote Group Size, Kyle Brewster, Scott E. Henke, Alfonso Ortega, John Tomecek, Benjamin Turner 2017 Texas A&M University-Kingsville

Do You Hear What I Hear? Human Perception Of Coyote Group Size, Kyle Brewster, Scott E. Henke, Alfonso Ortega, John Tomecek, Benjamin Turner

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Recordings of 1 – 4 coyotes (Canis latrans) that were howling and yip-yapping were played to 427 participants who were asked to estimate the number of coyotes they perceived to hear. Participants were separated by gender (M or F), age group ( 35), resident location (urban, suburban, or rural), and occupation type (rancher/farmer or non-rancher/farmer). Differences between participants concerning gender, age group, resident location, and occupation type were not observed; however, treatment differences were observed. Participants were able to discern differences in the number of coyotes howling with the addition of each coyote; however, participants consistently overestimated the number of ...


Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-7 Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-7 Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an ‘unsolvable problem’ task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward facing or an away facing person. They gazed towards the forward ...


Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take ...


Goats Learn Socially From Humans In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Learn Socially From Humans In A Spatial Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Domestication drives changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to socially learn from humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication shaped the canid brain. However, systematic evidence for social learning from humans in other domestic species is lacking and makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected cognitive abilities difficult. We assessed spatial and social problem-solving abilities in goats (Capra hircus) using a detour task, in which food was placed behind an inward or outward V-shaped hurdle. Goats performed better in the outward than in the inward detour without human demonstration. Importantly, a ...


Cross-Modal Recognition Of Familiar Conspecifics In Goats, Benjamin J. Pitcher, Elodie Briefer, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Cross-Modal Recognition Of Familiar Conspecifics In Goats, Benjamin J. Pitcher, Elodie Briefer, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

When identifying other individuals, animals may match current cues with stored information about that individual from the same sensory modality. Animals may also be able to combine current information with previously acquired information from other sensory modalities, indicating that they possess complex cognitive templates of individuals that are independent of modality. We investigated whether goats (Capra hircus) possess cross-modal representations (auditory–visual) of conspecifics. We presented subjects with recorded conspecific calls broadcast equidistant between two individuals, one of which was the caller. We found that, when presented with a stablemate and another herd member, goats looked towards the caller sooner ...


Animal Euthanasia: Detailed Discussion, Alexandra Kleinfeldt 2017 Florida A&M University College of Law

Animal Euthanasia: Detailed Discussion, Alexandra Kleinfeldt

Student Works

No abstract provided.


Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella 2017 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Roles Of Gabab, Muscarinic And Nicotinic Receptor Signaling In The Acquisition And Expression Of Fructose And Fat-Conditioned Flavor Preferences And Acquisition Of Quinine-Conditioned Flavor Avoidances In Rats, Francis M. Rotella

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In addition to increased intake of sweet solutions by mammals, learning, particularly classically-conditioned “Pavlovian-like” learning, also plays an important role. An orosensory conditioned flavor preference (CFP) can be elicited by pairing one novel flavor (conditioned stimulus, CS+) with a fructose solution and a second novel flavor (CS-) with a saccharin solution. Rats will prefer the CS+ flavor in a subsequent 2-bottle choice test with both flavors mixed in saccharin. Previous pharmacological analyses revealed that systemic administration of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 as well as NMDA, but not opioid, receptor antagonists eliminated the acquisition (learning) of fructose-CFP. Further, expression of ...


How Social Contagion Helps Explain Our Pet Choices, Harold Herzog 2017 Animal Studies Repository

How Social Contagion Helps Explain Our Pet Choices, Harold Herzog

'Animals and Us' Blog Posts

In 1939, Londoners killed 400,000 dogs and cats in four days. Why?


Feline Object Play: The Influence Of Catnip, Keri DeTorres 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Feline Object Play: The Influence Of Catnip, Keri Detorres

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Catnip triggers a unique olfactory response and results in a play-like activity in felines. This invoked response appears similar to, but more exaggerated and intense, than regular play. The play behavior of 24 cats with two identical toys, one of which was infused with catnip, was compared.


Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles 2017 Purdue University

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Miombo Woodlands of Tanzania comprise several habitat types that are home to a great number of flora and fauna. Understanding their responses to increasing human disturbance is important for conservation, especially in places where people depend so directly on their local ecosystem services to survive. Soundscapes are a powerful approach to study complex biomes undergoing change. The sounds emitted by soniferous fauna characterize the acoustic profile of the landscapes they inhabit such that habitats with the highest acoustic abundance are considered as the most diverse and possibly more ecologically resilient. However, acoustic variability within similar habitat types may pose ...


Therapy Dogs For Homesick College Students?, Harold Herzog 2017 Animal Studies Repository

Therapy Dogs For Homesick College Students?, Harold Herzog

'Animals and Us' Blog Posts

New research examines the impact of dog therapy for homesick college students.


People -- Marine Mammal Interactions, Andrew Butterworth, Mark P. Simmonds 2017 University of Bristol

People -- Marine Mammal Interactions, Andrew Butterworth, Mark P. Simmonds

Animal Sciences

Our relationships with marine mammals are complex. We have used them as resources, and in some places this remains the case; viewed them as competitors and culled them (again ongoing in some localities); been so captivated and intrigued by them that we have taken them into captivity for our entertainment; and developed a lucrative eco-tourism activity focused on them in many nations. When we first envisaged this special topic, we had two overarching aims:

Firstly, we hoped to generate critical evaluation of some of our relationships with these animals.

Secondly, we hoped to attract knowledgeable commentators and experts who might ...


Personality Traits As Predictors Of Pair-Housing Compatibility In Garnett's Greater Bushbabies (Otolemur Garnettii), Karen A. Schaffer 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Personality Traits As Predictors Of Pair-Housing Compatibility In Garnett's Greater Bushbabies (Otolemur Garnettii), Karen A. Schaffer

Honors Theses

Continuously refining husbandry strategies to improve the welfare of captive primates is a research priority. A variety of enrichment strategies are employed to allow captive primates opportunities to exercise natural behaviors with the aim of maintaining their psychological health in environments different from those for which they evolved. Arguably the most important of these strategies is social housing, since primates are by definition social animals. Pair housing is often the most logistically feasible method; however, the process of introducing partners to each other comes with risks of stressful conflict that may result in injury, and the necessarily trial-and-error nature of ...


Supplemental Trace Minerals (Zn, Cu, And Mn) As Sulfates Or Hydroxy Trace Mineral Sources For Beef Heifers, Randy Hunter Burnett 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Supplemental Trace Minerals (Zn, Cu, And Mn) As Sulfates Or Hydroxy Trace Mineral Sources For Beef Heifers, Randy Hunter Burnett

Theses and Dissertations

Crossbred heifers (n = 286, 255 ± 4.5 kg initial BW, 295 ± 16.5 d of age) were used over a 2-yr period to determine the effects of mineral source on beef heifer development at 2 locations (n = 71 and n = 72, Fayetteville, blocks 1 and 4; n = 72 in each of 2 breeding groups, Batesville, blocks 2 and 3). Heifers were stratified based on initial BW, age, health, prior research projects, and sire, and then assigned to 6 groups of 12 heifers, that were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 trace mineral treatments. The 2 treatments were trace mineral supplementation ...


Improvement In Simple Artificial Insemination In Sheep Using Chilled Extended Semen And Consideration Of Fertility In Ewes, Mohan Acharya 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Improvement In Simple Artificial Insemination In Sheep Using Chilled Extended Semen And Consideration Of Fertility In Ewes, Mohan Acharya

Theses and Dissertations

Three studies were conducted to improve simple artificial insemination in sheep using chilled extended semen and evaluate methods to predict fertility in ewes. The first study evaluated the effect of semen extenders and storage temperature on motility parameters of ram semen stored for up to 72 h. Single semen collected from each ram was divided into four parts and extended using four extenders: milk, TRIS, TEST, and CJ-2, diluted to 600 million sperm/ml and loaded into 0.25 ml straws for storage at 4 and 15° C. Most of the CASA motility parameters were higher after extension and storage ...


Designing An Authentic Behavioral Research Experience In The Classroom Using Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens, Gianne Souza, Ronald M. Coleman 2017 Abraham Lincoln High School

Designing An Authentic Behavioral Research Experience In The Classroom Using Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta Splendens, Gianne Souza, Ronald M. Coleman

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Recently there have been major shifts in biology education towards emphasizing the teaching of the scientific process to more closely reflect actual scientific practices. Authentic research experiences require the development of many higher order cognitive skills. Creating an authentic research experience that appropriately scaffolds the development of these complex skills while engaging individual student motivation remains challenging in classroom settings. Some common challenges include limited time available for working with large numbers of students, cramped working areas, and limited funding and materials resources. Using the Siamese Fighting Fish, Betta splendens, we have created an economically viable authentic animal behavioral research ...


What's The Deal With "Furries?", Harold Herzog 2017 Animal Studies Repository

What's The Deal With "Furries?", Harold Herzog

'Animals and Us' Blog Posts

What a decade of research reveal about a misunderstood subculture.


Why Kids With Pets Are Better Off, Harold Herzog 2017 Animal Studies Repository

Why Kids With Pets Are Better Off, Harold Herzog

'Animals and Us' Blog Posts

Controversial study helps explain the impact of pets on child development.


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