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Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Nature In Deconstruction, Russell Chowdhury 2017 Claremont Colleges

Nature In Deconstruction, Russell Chowdhury

The STEAM Journal

This 'desconstructive photography' shows how humans interact with nature.


Pigeons Choose To Gamble In A Categorical Discrimination Task, Nathaniel C. Rice, Elizabeth G. E. Kyonka 2017 1. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense

Pigeons Choose To Gamble In A Categorical Discrimination Task, Nathaniel C. Rice, Elizabeth G. E. Kyonka

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

In slot-machine play, near wins are stimuli that visually approximate winning stimuli but deliver no reinforcers. In two experiments, a categorical discrimination task was embedded in a concurrent chain to investigate how near wins affect preference for probabilistic versus certain food. Pecking in variable-interval initial links produced access to a fixed-ratio (FR) 1-FR 1-FR 1 chain. When all links were red, the chain was a “win” that produced access to food. A “clear loss” chain involved three green stimuli, and in a “near win,” key colors during successive FR 1 links were red, red, and green. In Experiment 1, the ...


Cetacean Exhalation: An Examination Of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Use Of Three Bubble Production Types Through Associated Behaviors., Kelsey Moreno 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Cetacean Exhalation: An Examination Of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Use Of Three Bubble Production Types Through Associated Behaviors., Kelsey Moreno

Dissertations

Bubble production through exhalation is unique to marine mammals due to the combination of their air-breathing physiology and aquatic environment. Multiple types of bubble production are reported in the literature, including bubble netting, trails, bursts, and rings. Unfortunately, apart from bubbles produced to facilitate hunting or play, current understanding of the function of bubble production in cetaceans is limited to anecdotal accounts and author interpretations. This study aims to identify the function of three bubble types though observations of behaviors present before, during, and after bubble production. Instances of bubble trails, bubble bursts, and scant bubbles were selected from underwater ...


Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway

Dissertations

Bottlenose dolphins are an important species of interest because they possess a variety of abilities that are relatively rare in the animal kingdom, one being complex acoustic communication. Signature whistles - distinctive calls that are unique for each individual – are one of the most studied call types, but we know little about how these calls are used in various contexts, such as during an introduction. Looking at the socio-behavioral context in which signature whistles are used is likely the best way of learning how these whistles are used in a particular context (Caldwell, Caldwell, & Tyack, 1990). For this project, the behavior ...


Pink Is The New Bull: The Feminization Of Pit Bulls In Visual And Literary Discourses As A Rescue Tactic, Stephanie Hogue 2017 Kennesaw State University

Pink Is The New Bull: The Feminization Of Pit Bulls In Visual And Literary Discourses As A Rescue Tactic, Stephanie Hogue

Master of Arts in American Studies Capstones

Since the 1980s, pit bulls have been portrayed in a raced, classed, and gendered national discourse that has associated them with minority males of color in low-income urban areas. This discourse has led to a villianization of the breed that has resulted in restrictions on pit bulls and their owners. This project seeks to explore the raced, classed, and gendered representations of pit bulls in cultural productions and the nuanced ways in which the intersectional identities ascribed to pit bulls have impacted their status as acceptable pets in the United States.

I aim to demonstrate that through visual and literary ...


Piglet Gut Microbiota Responses To Exposure To Outdoor Simulated Environment And Formula Feeding, Nguyen Vo 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Piglet Gut Microbiota Responses To Exposure To Outdoor Simulated Environment And Formula Feeding, Nguyen Vo

Theses and Dissertations

Several lines of evidence suggest that early-life gut microbiota composition is a crucial determinant of the susceptibility to diseases later in life. Understanding the evolution of early-life gut microbiota and critical factors that can modify this microbial community will espouse the prevention or reversion of health risk originating from dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in the early stage. In this research, we hypothesized that alterations in the environment (simulation of rural conditions by soil exposure) and feeding mode (breastmilk versus formula milk) will have significant impacts on the establishment of the gut microbiota in early life. At first, in literature ...


A Study Of The Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Goats Obtained From Northwest Arkansas, Christine Rose Weingartz 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Study Of The Prevalence Of Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Goats Obtained From Northwest Arkansas, Christine Rose Weingartz

Theses and Dissertations

Parasitic helminths have always been an issue in small ruminant production; pathogens that pose great negative impact on goat health and productivity. Insufficient work has been done to document the prevalence of parasitic helminths in the United States, especially in the south and southeast, where the largest goat populations are found.

The aim of this study was to survey the prevalence of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in goats in Northwestern Arkansas. Gastrointestinal tracts were examined from 41 goats of various locations around Northwest Arkansas. Worm species were identified and population burdens were determined. Coprology was correlated with the actual worm ...


Fighting Against Bullfighting: Tackling Spain's Bloody Tradition, Genevieve Hoyt 2017 Salve Regina University

Fighting Against Bullfighting: Tackling Spain's Bloody Tradition, Genevieve Hoyt

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

Bullfighting has grown to be a serious problem in Spain, bringing severe animal cruelty, economic controversies, and a national identity crisis. This paper synthesizes research from a variety of sources to comprehensively evaluate the problems bullfighting causes in Spain, and it also proposes two policy options to attempt to resolve these issues. While banning bullfighting entirely may seem like an easy fix, it would also provoke a number of issues. This paper will ultimately conclude that bullfighting will likely come to an end on its own. Still, anti-bullfighting groups should continue their protests in order to decrease popularity and encourage ...


Animal Welfare Frames: How Social Media Messages Bridge The Gap Between The Protein Industry And Consumers, Olivia Norton 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Animal Welfare Frames: How Social Media Messages Bridge The Gap Between The Protein Industry And Consumers, Olivia Norton

Theses and Dissertations

The two articles in this thesis used content analysis to analyze and compare animal welfare related website and Twitter content of the top five animal protein producing companies in the United States. In the first article, the animal welfare website content of Cargill, Tyson Foods Inc., Smithfield, JBS® and Sysco were analyzed for persuasive frames, common topics, and key terminology to describe their corporate positions on animal welfare. Sysco’s main page devoted to animal welfare dominated the word count with 1,045 words, while JBS®’s main animal welfare page used only 265 words to communicate the company’s ...


Ondov's "Heavenly Horse Stories: Inspirational Stories From Life In The Saddle" (Book Review), Lisa Hayes 2017 Indiana Wesleyan University

Ondov's "Heavenly Horse Stories: Inspirational Stories From Life In The Saddle" (Book Review), Lisa Hayes

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterizing Mekk1: Candidate Behavioural Isolation Gene, Caryn Dooner

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Behavioural isolation can occur due to divergence in aspects of courtship and mating, and can contribute to reproductive isolation. The purpose of this study is to determine how a gene, Mekk1, contributes to female rejection behaviour between D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Unique polymorphisms were identified within D. simulans Mekk1 that could contribute to behaviour, most of which are non-coding. Both transcripts of Mekk1 appear to be expressed at similar levels in D. simulans and D. melanogaster. These data also indicate that Mekk1 may be expressed in a specific region of the brain called the mushroom body, which has previously ...


Trump Veganism: A Political Survey Of American Vegans In The Era Of Identity Politics, Corey Lee Wrenn 2017 Monmouth University

Trump Veganism: A Political Survey Of American Vegans In The Era Of Identity Politics, Corey Lee Wrenn

Dietary Choice and Foods of Animal Origin

Often stereotyped as being apathetic to the human suffering, the American vegan movement has historically failed to build alliances with other social justice movements. As intersectional feminism gains a foothold in the movement and external political crises challenge the movement’s frame of reference, the role that identity plays in movement progress has become a serious concern. Using the 2016 election as a flashpoint, this article considers if the identity backlash characterized by the Trump campaign finds parallels in the American vegan movement. A survey of 287 American vegans finds limited evidence of Trump veganism, defined here as a single-issue ...


Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. McElligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani 2017 University of Turin

Vocal Individuality And Species Divergence In The Contact Calls Of Banded Penguins, Livio Favaro, Claudia Gili, Cristiano Da Rugna, Guido Gnone, Chiara Fissore, Daniel Sanchez, Alan G. Mcelligott, Marco Gamba, Daniela Pessani

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Penguins produce contact calls to maintain social relationships and group cohesion. Such vocalisations have recently been demonstrated to encode individual identity information in the African penguin. Using a source-filter theory approach, we investigated whether acoustic cues of individuality can also be found in other Spheniscus penguins and the acoustic features of contact calls have diverged within this genus. We recorded vocalisations from two ex-situ colonies of Humboldt penguin and Magellanic penguin (sympatric and potentially interbreeding in the wild) and one ex-situ group of African penguins (allopatric although capable of interbreeding with the other two species in captivity). We measured 14 ...


Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Display Audience-Dependent Human-Directed Gazing Behaviour In A Problem-Solving Task, Christian Nawroth, Jemma M. Brett, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Domestication is an important factor driving changes in animal cognition and behaviour. In particular, the capacity of dogs to communicate in a referential and intentional way with humans is considered a key outcome of how domestication as a companion animal shaped the canid brain. However, the lack of comparison with other domestic animals makes general conclusions about how domestication has affected these important cognitive features difficult. We investigated human-directed behaviour in an ‘unsolvable problem’ task in a domestic, but non-companion species: goats. During the test, goats experienced a forward-facing or an away-facing person. They gazed towards the forward-facing person earlier ...


Social Effects On Vocal Ontogeny In An Ungulate, The Goat, Capra Hircus, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Social Effects On Vocal Ontogeny In An Ungulate, The Goat, Capra Hircus, Elodie F. Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Vocal plasticity is the ability of an individual to modify its vocalizations according to its environment. Humans benefit from an extreme form of vocal plasticity, allowing us to produce a wide range of sounds. This capacity to modify sounds has been shown in three bird orders and in a few nonhuman mammal species, all characterized by complex vocal communication systems. In other mammals, there is no evidence for a social impact on vocal development. We investigated whether contact calls were affected by social environment and kinship during early ontogeny in goats, a highly vocal and social species. To test the ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take ...


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