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Contextual Fear Learning And Memory In Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Contextual Fear Learning And Memory In Alternative Stress Coping Styles, Matthew R. Baker, Ryan Y. Wong

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Animals frequently must overcome stressors, and the ability to encode and recall these salient experiences is essential to an individual’s survival. Across many taxa, studies have documented two alternative stress coping styles (proactive and reactive) that differ in behavior, cognition, stress physiology, and underlying neuromolecular mechanisms. The role of stress in cognitive traits (e.g. learning and memory) has been well documented, however, the influence of an animal’s stress coping style on learning and memory capabilities is only beginning to be understood. Here, we developed a contextual fear learning paradigm to characterize learning and memory differences between proactive ...


Hunting A Home: The Abandonment And Neglect Of Hunting Dogs, Jamie B. Walker 2018 Germanna Community College

Hunting A Home: The Abandonment And Neglect Of Hunting Dogs, Jamie B. Walker

Exigence

Each year, an immeasurable number of hunting dogs are found in emaciated, malnourished or even abusive conditions due to neglect and abandonment by their owners. These dogs, primarily hounds, have increasingly become a burden on animal shelters and have cast a negative light on hunting with dogs, particularly in Virginia. The difficulty in identifying the owners of these dogs has stymied law enforcement and animal welfare authorities for years. Mandatory microchipping, now compulsory in England, may be the key to protecting talented working dogs from neglect, cruelty and abandonment by uncaring owners. These microchips can allow abandoned animals to lead ...


Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Addressing The Challenges Of Conducting Observational Studies In Sheep Abattoirs, Elyssa Payne, Melissa Starling, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

The competing needs of maintaining productivity within abattoirs, and maintaining high standards of animal welfare, provide fertile grounds for applied research in animal behavior. However, there are challenges involved in capturing useful behavioral data from the supply chain (from paddock to processing plant). The challenges identified in this report are based on a review of the scientific literature as well as field study observations. This article describes those challenges as they relate to collecting behavioral data on livestock-herding dogs, humans and livestock as they interact in abattoirs, and provides insights and recommendations for others embarking on animal studies in confined ...


Valuable Behavioural Phenotypes In Australian Farm Dogs, P. D. McGreevy, C. M. Wade, E. R. Arnott, J. B. Early 2018 University of Sydney

Valuable Behavioural Phenotypes In Australian Farm Dogs, P. D. Mcgreevy, C. M. Wade, E. R. Arnott, J. B. Early

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

This report presents findings regarding the ways to optimise the performance of livestock working dogs in Australia. The methods available to optimise dog performance include both environmental and genetic factors. The objectives of this study were to identify objective measures of desirable behavioural phenotypes in Australian livestock working dogs and explore genetic parameters of these 'quality of working life' traits within the Kelpie breed. The document reports on genotyping that reveals gene-behaviour associations and describes heritability estimates that underpin a database for potential estimated breeding value (EBV) calculations.


Environmental Factors Associated With Success Rates Of Australian Stock Herding Dogs, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Jonathan B. Early, Claire M. Wade, Paul D. McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Environmental Factors Associated With Success Rates Of Australian Stock Herding Dogs, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Jonathan B. Early, Claire M. Wade, Paul D. Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

This study investigated the current management practices associated with stock herding dogs on Australian farms. A parallel goal was to determine whether these practices and the characteristics of the dog handlers were associated with success rates. Success rate refers to the proportion of dogs acquired by the farmer that were retained as working dogs. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were obtained through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. Using logistic regression, significant associations were identified between success rate and seven variables: dog breed, housing method, trial participation, age of ...


The Effect Of Noseband Tightening On Horses’ Behavior, Eye Temperature, And Cardiac Responses, Kate Fenner, Samuel Yoon, Peter White, Melissa Starling, Paul McGreevy 2018 Kandoo Equine

The Effect Of Noseband Tightening On Horses’ Behavior, Eye Temperature, And Cardiac Responses, Kate Fenner, Samuel Yoon, Peter White, Melissa Starling, Paul Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Restrictive nosebands are common in equestrian sport. This is concerning, as recent evidence suggests that very tight nosebands can cause a physiological stress response, and may compromise welfare. The objective of the current study was to investigate relationships that noseband tightness has with oral behavior and with physiological changes that indicate a stress response, such as increases in eye temperature (measured with infrared thermography) and heart rate and decreases in heart rate variability (HRV). Horses (n = 12) wearing a double bridle and crank noseband, as is common in dressage at elite levels, were randomly assigned to four treatments: unfastened noseband ...


Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul McGreevy, Michael Valenzuela 2018 University of Sydney

Human Induced Rotation And Reorganization Of The Brain Of Domestic Dogs, Taryn Roberts, Paul Mcgreevy, Michael Valenzuela

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Domestic dogs exhibit an extraordinary degree of morphological diversity. Such breed-to-breed variability applies equally to the canine skull, however little is known about whether this translates to systematic differences in cerebral organization. By looking at the paramedian sagittal magnetic resonance image slice of canine brains across a range of animals with different skull shapes (N = 13), we found that the relative reduction in skull length compared to width (measured by Cephalic Index) was significantly correlated to a progressive ventral pitching of the primary longitudinal brain axis (r = 0.83), as well as with a ventral shift in the position of ...


Strong Selection For Behavioural Resilience In Australian Stock Working Dogs Identified By Selective Sweep Analysis, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Lincoln Peek, Jonathan B. Early, Annie Y. H. Pan, Bianca Haase, Tracy Chew, Paul D. McGreevy, Claire M. Wade 2018 University of Sydney

Strong Selection For Behavioural Resilience In Australian Stock Working Dogs Identified By Selective Sweep Analysis, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Lincoln Peek, Jonathan B. Early, Annie Y. H. Pan, Bianca Haase, Tracy Chew, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Claire M. Wade

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Background: Working dog handlers and breeders have strong opinions on characteristics that are desirable in the breeds that they use to handle stock. Most of these characteristics are related to conformation or behaviour. This study explored whether the genetics underlying desirable working behaviour traits might be identified by selective sweep analysis; a method that identifies long regions of strong homozygosity combined with allelic divergence from a comparison group. For this analysis, we compared genomic haplotype architecture in two breeds derived from common founder stock but subjected to divergent selective pressures. The breeds studied were the Australian Kelpie, which is registered ...


Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. McGreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell 2018 University of Sydney

Dog Behavior Co-Varies With Height, Bodyweight And Skull Shape, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Dana Georgevsky, Johanna Carrasco, Michael Valenzuela, Deborah L. Duffy, James A. Serpell

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

Dogs offer unique opportunities to study correlations between morphology and behavior because skull shapes and body shape are so diverse among breeds. Several studies have shown relationships between canine cephalic index (CI: the ratio of skull width to skull length) and neural architecture. Data on the CI of adult, show-quality dogs (six males and six females) were sourced in Australia along with existing data on the breeds’ height, bodyweight and related to data on 36 behavioral traits of companion dogs (n = 8,301) of various common breeds (n = 49) collected internationally using the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ ...


Estimating The Economic Value Of Australian Stock Herding Dogs, E. R. Arnott, J. B. Early, C. M. Wade, P. D. McGreevy 2018 University of Sydney

Estimating The Economic Value Of Australian Stock Herding Dogs, E. R. Arnott, J. B. Early, C. M. Wade, P. D. Mcgreevy

Paul McGreevy, Ph.D.

This study aimed to estimate the value of the typical Australian herding dog in terms of predicted return on investment. This required an assessment of the costs associated with owning herding dogs and estimation of the work they typically perform. Data on a total of 4,027 dogs were acquired through The Farm Dog Survey which gathered information from 812 herding dog owners around Australia. The median cost involved in owning a herding dog was estimated to be a total of AU$7,763 over the period of its working life. The work performed by the dog throughout this time ...


The Wolf Is Back By Robert Priest, Kelly Shepherd 2018 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

The Wolf Is Back By Robert Priest, Kelly Shepherd

The Goose

Review of Robert Priest's The Wolf is Back.


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard von Borell 2018 Martin Luther University

A Note On Pigs’ Knowledge Of Hidden Objects, Christian Nawroth, Mirjam Ebersbach, Eberhard Von Borell

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Object permanence is the notion that objects continue to exist even when they are out of observer’s sight. This ability is adaptive for free ranging animals who have to cope with a dangerous and highly changeable environment and allows them to be aware of predators sneaking in their proximity or to keep track of conspecifics or food sources, even when out of sight. Farm animals might also benefit from object permanence because the ability to follow the trajectory of hidden food or objects may lead to a higher predictability of subjects’ environment, which in turn might affect the level ...


Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. McElligott 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Individual Personality Differences In Goats Predict Their Performance In Visual Learning And Non-Associative Cognitive Tasks, Christian Nawroth, Pamela M. Prentice, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Variation in common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk–reward trade–offs and behavioural flexibility. To date, only a few studies have examined the effects of consistent behavioural traits on both learning and cognition. We investigated whether certain personality traits (‘exploration’ and ‘sociability’) of individuals were related to cognitive performance, learning flexibility and learning style in a social ungulate species, the goat (Capra hircus). We also investigated whether a preference for feature cues rather than impaired learning abilities can explain performance variation in a visual discrimination task. We found that personality scores were consistent ...


Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti 2018 University of Trieste, Department of Life Sciences

Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The time was ripe for Marino’s review of chickens’ cognitive capacities. The research community, apart from expressing gratitude for Marino’s work, should now use it to increase public awareness of chickens’ abilities. People’s views on many animals are ill-informed. Scientists need to communicate and engage with the public about the relevance and societal implications of their findings.


Nature In Deconstruction, Russell Chowdhury 2017 Claremont Colleges

Nature In Deconstruction, Russell Chowdhury

The STEAM Journal

This 'desconstructive photography' shows how humans interact with nature.


Pigeons Choose To Gamble In A Categorical Discrimination Task, Nathaniel C. Rice, Elizabeth G. E. Kyonka 2017 1. United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense

Pigeons Choose To Gamble In A Categorical Discrimination Task, Nathaniel C. Rice, Elizabeth G. E. Kyonka

Analysis of Gambling Behavior

In slot-machine play, near wins are stimuli that visually approximate winning stimuli but deliver no reinforcers. In two experiments, a categorical discrimination task was embedded in a concurrent chain to investigate how near wins affect preference for probabilistic versus certain food. Pecking in variable-interval initial links produced access to a fixed-ratio (FR) 1-FR 1-FR 1 chain. When all links were red, the chain was a “win” that produced access to food. A “clear loss” chain involved three green stimuli, and in a “near win,” key colors during successive FR 1 links were red, red, and green. In Experiment 1, the ...


Cetacean Exhalation: An Examination Of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Use Of Three Bubble Production Types Through Associated Behaviors., Kelsey Moreno 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Cetacean Exhalation: An Examination Of Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Use Of Three Bubble Production Types Through Associated Behaviors., Kelsey Moreno

Dissertations

Bubble production through exhalation is unique to marine mammals due to the combination of their air-breathing physiology and aquatic environment. Multiple types of bubble production are reported in the literature, including bubble netting, trails, bursts, and rings. Unfortunately, apart from bubbles produced to facilitate hunting or play, current understanding of the function of bubble production in cetaceans is limited to anecdotal accounts and author interpretations. This study aims to identify the function of three bubble types though observations of behaviors present before, during, and after bubble production. Instances of bubble trails, bubble bursts, and scant bubbles were selected from underwater ...


Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Signature Whistle Production During A Bottlenose Dolphin Group Integration, Megan S. Broadway

Dissertations

Bottlenose dolphins are an important species of interest because they possess a variety of abilities that are relatively rare in the animal kingdom, one being complex acoustic communication. Signature whistles - distinctive calls that are unique for each individual – are one of the most studied call types, but we know little about how these calls are used in various contexts, such as during an introduction. Looking at the socio-behavioral context in which signature whistles are used is likely the best way of learning how these whistles are used in a particular context (Caldwell, Caldwell, & Tyack, 1990). For this project, the behavior ...


Pink Is The New Bull: The Feminization Of Pit Bulls In Visual And Literary Discourses As A Rescue Tactic, Stephanie Hogue 2017 Kennesaw State University

Pink Is The New Bull: The Feminization Of Pit Bulls In Visual And Literary Discourses As A Rescue Tactic, Stephanie Hogue

Master of Arts in American Studies Capstones

Since the 1980s, pit bulls have been portrayed in a raced, classed, and gendered national discourse that has associated them with minority males of color in low-income urban areas. This discourse has led to a villianization of the breed that has resulted in restrictions on pit bulls and their owners. This project seeks to explore the raced, classed, and gendered representations of pit bulls in cultural productions and the nuanced ways in which the intersectional identities ascribed to pit bulls have impacted their status as acceptable pets in the United States.

I aim to demonstrate that through visual and literary ...


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