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First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

First Thirty Days Of Life: Examining Calf Behavioral Development In Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus Leucas) And Pacific White-Sided Dolphins (Lagenorhyncus Obliquidens) At One Zoological Facility, Kendal Smith

Master's Theses

Cetacean development is important for general comparative understanding and the implementation of informed husbandry policies. Due to the inaccessibility of many of these species in the wild, researchers can study managed care populations to better understand basic developmental patterns of cetaceans, as well as to improve husbandry policies for facility animals. However, no previous studies have attempted to observe the behavioral development of Pacific white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhyncus obliquidens). Eight beluga whale calves and four Pacific white-sided dolphin calves were observed for the first 30 days of life to determine the developmental trajectory of several typically monitored behaviors. The first occurrence ...


A Global Reassessment Of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins, Laetitia Nunny, Mark P. Simmonds 2019 Wild Animal Welfare

A Global Reassessment Of Solitary-Sociable Dolphins, Laetitia Nunny, Mark P. Simmonds

Personality

Dolphins are typically regarded as highly social animals. However, some individuals live apart from their own species and may come to socialize with people through a recognized series of stages which are presented and expanded on in this paper. The term “solitary-sociable dolphins” has been used to describe these animals and such individuals have been identified from several different species and reported in many parts of the world. In many instances, the interactions with people that may follow their original isolation, and which typically become more intense over time, have created situations where the welfare of the animal has been ...


On The Brink Of Extinction: The Fate Of The Pacific Northwest's Southern Resident Killer Whales, Sabrina Wilk 2019 Claremont Colleges

On The Brink Of Extinction: The Fate Of The Pacific Northwest's Southern Resident Killer Whales, Sabrina Wilk

Pomona Senior Theses

The killer whales that roam the northeastern Pacific Ocean have been the objects of studies since the 1970s, making them the most well-studied population of orcas in the world. Three distinct ecotypes of killer whales (Orcinus orca), known as residents, transients, and offshores, share these waters. The ecotypes are morphologically and behaviorally distinct to the extent that some scientists consider them separate species, with residents eating salmon, transients specializing on marine mammals, and offshores preferring Pacific sleeper sharks and Pacific halibut. Resident populations have endeared themselves to the region's locals with their striking black and white markings and their ...


Human And Nonhuman Animals: Towards Equality, Catherine Price 2019 University of Warwick

Human And Nonhuman Animals: Towards Equality, Catherine Price

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that we should not consider humans as unique and superior to nonhuman animals. Ecofeminism advocates the respectful treatment of humans, nonhuman animals, and the environment.


Anthropocentrism: Practical Remedies Needed, Helen Kopnina 2019 The Hague University of Applied Sciences

Anthropocentrism: Practical Remedies Needed, Helen Kopnina

Animal Sentience

It is true that one of the harmful consequences of creating categories where one group is unique and superior to others is that it justifies discriminating against the inferior groups. And outright abuse of nonhuman animals is indeed morally unjustifiable. But what is to be done about it?


Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that the cognitive differences between humans and nonhuman animals do not make humans superior to animals. I suggest that humans have domain-general cognitive abilities that make them superior in causing uniquely complex changes in the world not caused by any other species. The ability to conceive of and articulate a claim of rights is an example. However, possession of superior cognitive ability does not entitle humans to superior moral status. It is sentience, not cognitive complexity, that is the basis for the assignment of rights and the protections under the law that accompany them.


Portraits With A Posthumous Voice: Reinforcing And Contesting Social Norms In The Heterotopic Museum And Cemetery, Matthew J. Crissey 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Portraits With A Posthumous Voice: Reinforcing And Contesting Social Norms In The Heterotopic Museum And Cemetery, Matthew J. Crissey

Museum Studies Theses

Abstract

The following paper qualitatively analyzes and documents over 500 memorial-photographs/etched portraits on tombstones in ten Western New York cemeteries. This paper covers fourteen topics, ranging from religion to gang-violence. A juxtaposition of portraits exhibited within the Smithsonian National Portrait Gallery with memorial-portraits on tombstones revealed heterotopic environments creating a public forum enabling the reinforcing or contestation of social ideologies. In other words, the author observed the similarities of identities and social norms publicly expressed on tombstones and gallery portraits.

A Social Constructionist approach enabled the study to examine how one social phenomenon contributes to the shaping of a ...


Painted Ferocity: The Social Behaviors Of African Wild Dogs, Threats To Survival, And Resulting Conservation Initiatives, Alexis Valdes 2018 Liberty University

Painted Ferocity: The Social Behaviors Of African Wild Dogs, Threats To Survival, And Resulting Conservation Initiatives, Alexis Valdes

Senior Honors Theses

African Wild Dogs (Lycaon pictus) are an endangered species of canid from Sub-Saharan Africa. They are very social communal hunters, and are capable of chasing down prey for long stretches of time. Wild dogs benefit a savannah ecosystem by regulating the populations of their prey so that it does not become unhealthy and overgrown. Like many organisms, wild dogs are also in competition with other predators for resources, namely lions and hyenas, who are capable of stealing their kills and occasionally injuring and killing them. Due to the depletion of their wild prey, wild dogs may also prey upon farmers ...


Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optimizing Methods To Determine Metabolizable Energy Values Of Feed Ingredients For Broilers, Skyler P. West

Theses and Dissertations

Determination of metabolizable energy (ME) and amino acid (AA) digestibility values of single feed indigents continues to be two of the most important aspects for successful least-cost poultry feed formulation. It would be advantageous if a common diet type could be utilized to determine both ME and AA digestibility values of feed ingredients within a single assay. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of basal diet type and excreta collection method on the ME value of single feed ingredients determined in broiler chicks using the regression method. In experiment 1, the objective was to investigate the influence of ...


The Effect Of Rem Sleep Deprivation On Spatial Memory In Male And Female Rats, Kaitlyn Heywood 2018 Seton Hall University

The Effect Of Rem Sleep Deprivation On Spatial Memory In Male And Female Rats, Kaitlyn Heywood

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

It is important for an organism to excel in spatial memory abilities. An organism’s survival is dependent on their ability to navigate through their environment to find resources, such as food and water, while being able to navigate home safely. With how important it is to navigate an environment safely, it is important to investigate things that impact spatial memory, such as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation. Sleep research has primarily utilized male rodents to model sleep disturbances studies which cannot be easily studied in human participants. Research has been divided on whether four hours of REM sleep ...


Dynamics Of Social Interactions And Agent Spreading In Ant Colonies: Effects Of Environmental Events And Spatial Heterogeneity, Yun Kang 2018 Arizona State University East

Dynamics Of Social Interactions And Agent Spreading In Ant Colonies: Effects Of Environmental Events And Spatial Heterogeneity, Yun Kang

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Time-Delayed Model Of Apis Mellifera, Jun Chen 2018 Illinois State University

A Time-Delayed Model Of Apis Mellifera, Jun Chen

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris 2018 University of Denver

Prison-Based Dog Training Programs: Standard Protocol, Tyler M. Han, Erin Flynn, Joseph Winchell, Emily Gould, Jaci Gandenberger, Dana Barattin, Philip Tedeschi, Kevin N. Morris

Animal Training and Obedience

Across the United States, the number of prison-based dog training programs (PDPs) has increased substantially over the past several years. Currently, there are approximately 255 PDPs across 47 states that operate in a variety of correctional settings; however, there is little information available on how to successfully develop and implement a PDP. As a result, the research team from the Institute for Human-Animal Connection (IHAC) has developed a standard protocol to help guide PDP development and implementation.

This report identifies common practices of PDPs and incorporates both general and context-specific recommendations that were gathered from interviews with PDP staff, relevant ...


Searching Images And The Meaning Of Alarm Calls, Alan B. Bond 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Searching Images And The Meaning Of Alarm Calls, Alan B. Bond

Alan Bond Publications

The snake alarm call of Japanese tits prompts nesting adults to search for and mob the reptile until it is driven away. From playback experiments, Suzuki (2018) has inferred that the call provides an associative cue, evoking a searching image of the salient visual features of the predator—a novel approach to exploring visual attention and vocal communication in the wild.


Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Monica Padilla de la Torre, Christian Nawroth 2018 Queen Mary University of London

Looking On The Bright Side Of Livestock Emotions—The Potential Of Their Transmission To Promote Positive Welfare, Luigi Baciadonna, Sandra Duepjan, Elodie Briefer, Monica Padilla De La Torre, Christian Nawroth

Emotion

Emotions can be defined as an individual’s affective reaction to an external and/or internal event that, in turn, generates a simultaneous cascade of behavioral, physiological, and cognitive changes. Those changes that can be perceived by conspecifics have the potential to also affect other’s emotional states, a process labeled as “emotional contagion.” Especially in the case of gregarious species, such as livestock, emotional contagion can have an impact on the whole group by, for instance, improving group coordination and strengthening social bonds. We noticed that the current trend of research on emotions in livestock, i.e., investigating affective ...


Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth 2018 Leibniz Institute for Farm Animal Biology

Human-Directed Behaviour In Goats Is Not Affected By Short-Term Positive Handling, Jan Langbein, Annika Krause, Christian Nawroth

Social Cognition

In addition to domestication, interactions with humans or task-specific training during ontogeny have been proposed to play a key role in explaining differences in human–animal communication across species. In livestock, even short-term positive interactions with caretakers or other reference persons can influence human–animal interaction at different levels and over different periods of time. In this study, we investigated human-directed behaviour in the ‘unsolvable task’ paradigm in two groups of domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus). One group was positively handled and habituated to a plastic box by the experimenter to retrieve a food reward, while the other group only ...


Allomaternal Care By Conspecifics Impacts Activity Budgets Of Colobus Guereza Mothers, Dominique L. Raboin 2018 CUNY Hunter College

Allomaternal Care By Conspecifics Impacts Activity Budgets Of Colobus Guereza Mothers, Dominique L. Raboin

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

In primate societies, caring for infants involves nursing, protection, provisioning, and carrying - all energetically taxing states for mothers. The cost of holding and carrying clinging infants often constrains mothers from moving and traveling, potentially reducing their food and energy intake. Alternatively, when an infant is physically separated from their mother they are at risk of predation from birds of prey or other large mammals. This requires a high level of vigilance from mothers, often further deterring them from acquiring the food and energy that they need. Allomaternal care (AMC) is hypothesized to provide mothers with a way to safely detach ...


An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi 2018 CUNY Hunter College

An Investigation Of Vocal Learning Propensity In Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia Guttata), Tatsuya Hayashi

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

The investigator attempted to predict the vocal learning propensity from either family pedigree or early vocal babbling (subsong). Pedigree trees suggest the possibility that vocal learning ability may depend on family. We failed to predict vocal learning propensity from subsong, but suggested that subsong may influence vocal learning outcome.


Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Development Of Semantic Reference For Location Symbols By Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) Using A Two-Way Communication Keyboard, Alyssa Taylor

Master's Theses

The ability for humans to communicate with another species has been an aspiration and well documented. One example is through training animals to make associations between a designated cue and conditioned response (Pryor, 1986). Two-way communication, however, in which both species can express wants/needs has been predominantly pursued with apes and dolphins. Studies conducted by Louis Herman demonstrated the capabilities of dolphins to comprehend complex semantic and syntactic commands in an artificial language system (Herman, Richards, & Wolz, 1984). Researchers working with primates have used American Sign Language, a computer keyboard system with discrete lexigrams, and a portable lexigram keyboard (Gardner & Gardner, 1969; Rumbaugh, 1977; Savage-Rumbaugh, 1986). Savage-Rumbaugh decided to take a different approach to learning after one individual demonstrated the ability to use the keyboard ...


Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Lingayen, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari 2018 Humane Society International

Report On Owned Dog Population Survey In Lingayen, Philippines, Tamara Kartal, Lynne U. Sneddon, Amit Chaudhari

Demography and Statistics for Companion Animal Populations

The Philippines is among the Southeast Asian countries that has a long-standing problem with rabies. About 200 people die of rabies each year in the Philippines, and most are attributed to dog bite cases (Deray, 2015). The sources of infection of more than 95% of human rabies cases worldwide have been reported to be domestic dogs (Cleaveland, et al., 2006). Focusing on the main source rather than the human population, is therefore, the best strategy to eliminate rabies. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends covering at least 70% of the existing domestic dog population with rabies vaccination in the shortest ...


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