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The Lactating Man, Mathilde Cohen 2017 University of Connecticut

The Lactating Man, Mathilde Cohen

Mathilde Cohen

Lactation and breastfeeding are typically viewed as inherently female activities. Evolutionary biology designates females as the generators of the mammalian class’ milk supply. The assumption is that only female mammals lactate and, therefore, only female mammals nurse their own. Taking on the biological, social, and cultural aspects of male lactation, this chapter questions this gender normativity of milk. It argues that male lactation can be seen along a continuum, from the literal production of milk by a small number of mammals of the male sex, to male-identified parents and caregivers breastfeeding their children, to males’ role in shaping breastfeeding norms ...


Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Does Personality Similarity In Bottlenose Dolphin Pairs Influence Dyadic Bond Characteristics?, Kelsey R. Moreno

Master's Theses

Social structures are critical to the success of many species and have repercussions on health, well-being, and adaptation, yet little is known about the factors which shape these structures aside from ecology and life history strategies. Dyadic bonds are the basis of all social structures; however, mechanisms for formations of specific bonds or patterns in which individuals form which types of bonds have yet to be demonstrated. There is a variety of evidence indicating personality may be a factor in shaping bonds, but this relationship has not been explored with respect to bond components and is yet to be demonstrated ...


Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. de Vere 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Do Pinnipeds Have Personality? Coding Harbor Seal (Phoca Vitulina) And California Sea Lion (Zalophus Californianus) Behavior Across Contexts., Amber J. De Vere

Master's Theses

Personality has now been studied in species as diverse as chimpanzees (King & Figueredo, 1997) and cuttlefish (Carere et al., 2015), but marine mammals remain vastly underrepresented in this area. A broad range of traits have been assessed only in the bottlenose dolphin (Highfilll & Kuczaj, 2007), while consistent individual differences in a few specific behaviors have been identified in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012). Furthermore, the context component of definitions of personality is not often assessed, despite evidence that animals may show individual patterns of consistency (Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012). The current study therefore aimed to assess underlying personality factors and consistency across contexts in two unstudied marine mammal species, using behavioral coding.

Two California sea lion and three harbor seal personality factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis. Two factors were broadly similar across species; the first, Boldness, resembled human Extraversion, and to some extent Openness. The second factor was labeled Routine Activity, and contained some Conscientiousness-like traits. Excitable-Interest emerged as a third factor in seals, but had low reliability. Species-specific patterns were also identified for interactive behaviors across two contexts. However, there was substantial individual variation in the frequency of these behaviors, as well as some animals who did not conform to species-level trends. This study therefore provides novel evidence for broad personality factors and ...


Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Sparking A Dolphin's Curiosity: Individual Differences In Dolphins' Reactions To Surprising And Expectation-Violating Events, Malin Katarina Lilley

Master's Theses

Non-scientific literature consistently describes dolphins as “curious animals,” but there has been little systematic research on curiosity in dolphins. Curiosity in humans and certain non-human animal species, including birds and non-human primates, has been studied by examining individual differences in exploration and reactions to novel stimuli. Additionally, research has explored how human infants and non-human animals react when an event violates their expectations. The present study explored dolphins’ reactions to spontaneously surprising and expectation-violating stimuli. The reactions of dolphins, 15 bottlenose (Tursiops truncatus) and 6 rough-toothed (Steno bredanensis), at Gulf World Marine Park were analyzed in response to events that ...


Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Anxiety-Like Behaviors And C-Fos Expression In Adult Zebrafish: Effects Of Housing Conditions, Alcohol And Caffeine, Adam Douglas Collier

Dissertations

Alcohol abuse is the third largest risk factor for disease world, responsible for an estimated 3.3 million deaths each year. The concomitant ingestion of alcohol and caffeine is hypothesized to increase risk factors associated with alcohol use alone by reducing subjective effects of intoxication. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has recently garnered attention from researchers as an effective pre-clinical in-vivo animal model in behavioral pharmacology research, largely due to small size, low-cost and ease of drug delivery. A number of studies have reported the effects of alcohol and caffeine on zebrafish behavior at a variety of doses. However, the combined ...


Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Efficacy Of Cognitive Enrichment For Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus): Evaluation Of Planning Abilities Through The Use Of A Novel Problem Solving Task, Lisa Kay Lauderdale

Dissertations

Environmental enrichment is a key component to improving the psychological and physiological well being of animals in human care. Enrichment can be achieved through a variety of modalities, including the addition of objects and scents, or by providing the animals with additional challenges. The effectiveness of specific enrichment should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if the desired result is achieved. Environmental enrichment devices (EED’s) can be utilized to present novel problems to animals in human care. When confronted with a novel problem, dolphins can plan their behavior to create a more efficient strategy then previously modeled ...


Behavioral Ecology: Cichlid In Lakes And Streams Of Costa Rica Abstract, Trinh Dang, Victoria Maclean-Jones, Meghan Leigh Maxfield, Kayla McGee 2017 Georgia State University

Behavioral Ecology: Cichlid In Lakes And Streams Of Costa Rica Abstract, Trinh Dang, Victoria Maclean-Jones, Meghan Leigh Maxfield, Kayla Mcgee

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Go If You Know: Using Actions To Test For Metacognitive Uncertainty, Samarah Kenol, Carmen Shaw 2017 Georgia State University

Go If You Know: Using Actions To Test For Metacognitive Uncertainty, Samarah Kenol, Carmen Shaw

Georgia State Undergraduate Research Conference

No abstract provided.


Was Jack The Ripper A Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence And The World’S Most Infamous Serial Killer, Andrew Knight, Katherine D. Watson 2017 University of Winchester

Was Jack The Ripper A Slaughterman? Human-Animal Violence And The World’S Most Infamous Serial Killer, Andrew Knight, Katherine D. Watson

Cruelty to Animals and Human Violence

Hundreds of theories exist concerning the identity of “Jack the Ripper”. His propensity for anatomical dissection with a knife—and in particular the rapid location and removal of specific organs—led some to speculate that he must have been surgically trained. However, re-examination of a mortuary sketch of one of his victims has revealed several aspects of incisional technique highly inconsistent with professional surgical training. Related discrepancies are also apparent in the language used within the only letter from Jack considered to be probably authentic. The techniques he used to dispatch his victims and retrieve their organs were, however, highly ...


The Effect Of The Presence And Familiarity Of A Dog On People’S Performance Of A Stressful Task, Lyn Brown 2017 Western University

The Effect Of The Presence And Familiarity Of A Dog On People’S Performance Of A Stressful Task, Lyn Brown

Undergraduate Honors Posters

The purpose of the current study was to test whether the familiarity of a dog affects a person’s stress and task performance on a stressful task. Pets can improve people’s health mentally, physically, and socially. Dogs can lower people’s stress. This stress-reduction effect has been explained by the stress-buffering hypothesis. Dogs’ stress reducing capabilities have been applied with dog therapy in schools, hospitals, and with the elderly. In this study, dog-owning students performed mental arithmetic as a stressful task, with or without a dog present, during which their heart rate was measured as a stress indicator. The ...


P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels 2017 Western University

P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels

Western Research Forum

Background: Beat perception is a complex cognitive skill that enables humans to “feel” the beat in music, and is an essential component of synchronization of behavior and dance. The mechanisms in the human brain that facilitate beat perception are not entirely understood, and have only been studied thus far using non-invasive techniques. Some animals, such as songbirds, also seem to be able to detect a beat in rhythms, though this has never been formally tested independent of motor synchronization.

Methods: An operant experiment is used to assess if European starlings, a type of songbird, are capable of categorizing auditory rhythms ...


Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Human Head Orientation And Eye Visibility As Indicators Of Attention For Goats (Capra Hircus), Christian Nawroth, Alan G. Mcelligott

Social Cognition

Animals domesticated for working closely with humans (e.g. dogs) have been shown to be remarkable in adjusting their behaviour to human attentional stance. However, there is little evidence for this form of information perception in species domesticated for production rather than companionship. We tested domestic ungulates (goats) for their ability to differentiate attentional states of humans. In the first experiment, we investigated the effect of body and head orientation of one human experimenter on approach behaviour by goats. Test subjects (N = 24) significantly changed their behaviour when the experimenter turned its back to the subjects, but did not take ...


Cross-Modal Recognition Of Familiar Conspecifics In Goats, Benjamin J. Pitcher, Elodie Briefer, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Cross-Modal Recognition Of Familiar Conspecifics In Goats, Benjamin J. Pitcher, Elodie Briefer, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott

Recognition

When identifying other individuals, animals may match current cues with stored information about that individual from the same sensory modality. Animals may also be able to combine current information with previously acquired information from other sensory modalities, indicating that they possess complex cognitive templates of individuals that are independent of modality. We investigated whether goats (Capra hircus) possess cross-modal representations (auditory–visual) of conspecifics. We presented subjects with recorded conspecific calls broadcast equidistant between two individuals, one of which was the caller. We found that, when presented with a stablemate and another herd member, goats looked towards the caller sooner ...


Meta-Analysis Of The Origin Of Bimaturism In Orangutan Males, Mina Adnan 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Meta-Analysis Of The Origin Of Bimaturism In Orangutan Males, Mina Adnan

Undergraduate Research Posters

Unlike any other primate species, orangutans exhibit extraordinary sexual differences in their facial morphology. Two different strategies are available for males that reach sexual maturity: either become fully “flanged” and develop secondary sexual characteristics, which is knownto be only developed by the dominant male, or remain “unflanged” and not develop secondary sexual characteristics. The mechanism for how this bimaturism evolved and how occurs is poorly understood, but both flanged and unflanged males are reproductively successful.

This project explores the physiological mechanism behind bimaturismin orangutan males; namely, are there genetic differences between flanged and unflanged males such that the strategy is ...


Review Of Bird Brain: An Exploration Of Avian Intelligence By Nathan Emery, Alan B. Bond 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Review Of Bird Brain: An Exploration Of Avian Intelligence By Nathan Emery, Alan B. Bond

Avian Cognition Papers

Over the past 30 years, the study of bird behavior has been completely transformed by the ongoing revolution in cognitive psychology, opening up wholly new perspectives on the mental processes underlying such areas as foraging decisions, social intelligence, problem solving, memory encoding, and communication. Although these studies have contributed to a number of recent popular books, until now there has been no attempt to integrate avian cognition and recent findings in avian neuroanatomy and endocrinology into a single account that is attractive and accessible to a general readership. It is a steep challenge, but Nathan Emery has undertaken it in ...


Investigating Attachment Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Anamarie Johnson 2016 CUNY Hunter College

Investigating Attachment Behavior In Shelter Dogs, Anamarie Johnson

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

This study utilized a modified Strange Situation Test to investigate attachment behavior of shelter dogs to an experimental owner and a stranger observing physical contact and location. No difference was seen in physical contact but a small difference was seen in location.


Living With Owning, Matt Ampleman, Douglas A. Kysar 2016 Yale Law School

Living With Owning, Matt Ampleman, Douglas A. Kysar

Indiana Law Journal

In October, 2011, Terry Thompson committed suicide by gunshot after cutting open the cages of fifty-six exotic animals on his farm in Zanesville, Ohio. Fearing for pub-lic safety, law enforcement officers systematically hunted down the escaped animals in an episode that garnered international attention and prompted renewed discus-sion of the propriety of exotic animal ownership. This Article retells and discusses the circumstances surrounding Terry Thompson’s unhinging, applying frameworks of legal theory, chiefly in the realm of property law, to assess the fabric that held Thompson’s delicate system together and the tensions that led to its unravelling. As an ...


Documentation, Information And The Animal Connection, Geir Grenersen 2016 Department of Language and Culture. The Arctic University of Norway. Tromsø, Norway

Documentation, Information And The Animal Connection, Geir Grenersen

Proceedings from the Document Academy

The article elaborates on the informational relationship between nature, animals and humans. In traditional societies, nature and animals are rich sources of information and documentation, as seen in Sámi reindeer husbandry. Today, research on animal behaviour has shown that animals are capable of sophisticated communication with humans. In the field of documentation and information studies, Marcia Bates has made a significant contribution to this perspective. The article presents some of her concepts, and discusses their potential use in empirical research on documentation in the Sámi society.


Effects Of Anthelmintic Treatments On Performance Indicators In Stocker Calves, Emily A. Watson 2016 Murray State University

Effects Of Anthelmintic Treatments On Performance Indicators In Stocker Calves, Emily A. Watson

Honors College Theses

Objective of study was to evaluate effects of anthelmintic treatments on fecal egg counts (FEC), average daily gain (ADG), fly counts, and blood parameters in stocker calves. Upon arrival at MSU Beef Unit, steers were allowed one-week adjustment period before allocation to treatment, were comingled, and grazed on mixed-grass pastures. Steers were randomly allocated to treatment based on initial body weight (BW) and FEC. Treatments included: control (n = 10; CON); moxidectin/oxfendazole combination (n = 10; COMBO); and long-acting eprinomectin (n = 10; LAE). BW, fecal and blood samples were collected on d 0, 27, 56, 101. Blood parameters evaluated were white ...


Mating Behaviors Exhibited By A Captive Male Pacific Walrus (Odobenus Rosmarus Divergens), Jessica M. McCord 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Mating Behaviors Exhibited By A Captive Male Pacific Walrus (Odobenus Rosmarus Divergens), Jessica M. Mccord

Honors Theses

Understanding mating behaviors of a species can be utilized to help protect the species. Results of population surveys have shown the walrus population to be on the decline, and over the history of walruses being held in captivity, few pups have been born or survived. Not much is known about Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) due to the isolated Arctic habitats in which walruses live making wild population studies difficult. Few studies have examined wild observations of walrus mating behaviors and virtually none for captivity. The purpose of this study was to observe a captive male Pacific walrus for mating ...


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