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Cardiovascular And Stride Frequency Differences During Land And Aquatic Treadmill Walking, Jessica Burton, Sarah Duffey, Amber Hammonds, Anna LeDuc, Rachel Shumate, John Coons, Ryan T. Conners 2020 The University of Alabama in Huntsville

Cardiovascular And Stride Frequency Differences During Land And Aquatic Treadmill Walking, Jessica Burton, Sarah Duffey, Amber Hammonds, Anna Leduc, Rachel Shumate, John Coons, Ryan T. Conners

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

This study examined heart rate (HR) and stride frequency (SF) values of 30 college-aged males and females during dry-land (DL) and aquatic walking (AW). Aquatic walking trials were completed in an underwater treadmill with the water depth at waist level; the water temperature (31℃ ± 0.1℃) and room temperature (26.6℃ ± 0.1℃) were maintained at thermoneutral levels throughout the study. During each walking condition, HR and SF were recorded at treadmill speeds of 1 mph, 2 mph, and 3 mph. Participants were instructed to walk with their hands at their sides swinging as they would when walking on dry-land ...


Features Of Acceleration And Angular Velocity Using Thigh Imus During Walking In Water, Koichi Kaneda, Yuji Ohgi, Mark McKean, Brendan Burkett 2020 Chiba Institute of Technology

Features Of Acceleration And Angular Velocity Using Thigh Imus During Walking In Water, Koichi Kaneda, Yuji Ohgi, Mark Mckean, Brendan Burkett

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ten participants were assessed while walking in water and on land with wearable inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to the right thigh. Longitudinal acceleration, anterior-posterior acceleration, and frontal axis angular velocity were measured at 100 Hz, matched with video analysis sampled at 25 Hz during the walking trials. The longitudinal acceleration showed almost 1 g from initial heel contact to 70% of one cycle, and the anterior-posterior acceleration showed a sinusoidal pattern, synchronizing the approximate posture of the thigh in water. The frontal axis angular velocity fluctuated less while walking in water compared with on land, because thigh motion speed ...


The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran 2020 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; California State Parks, Sacramento, California, USA,

The Ocean Lifeguard Intervention Continuum: A Cognitive Aid For Surf Lifeguard Education, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Shane Scoggins, Paul Andrus, Jack A. Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards are constantly engaged in beach risk analysis, required to efficiently evaluate a variety of environmental and other factors quickly in order to triage and prioritize who needs help. Teaching these skills is a challenge for introductory training programs. We sought to improve new lifeguards’ understanding of the interaction of various risk components in the beach environment and aid decision-making related to when a lifeguard should intervene in a situation. We developed a two-part cognitive aid for introductory ocean lifeguard education depicting individual and interacting elements of a beach goer’s risk of drowning or injury and the process ...


Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth 2020 University of Ottawa

Kids Don’T Float…And Their Parents Don’T Either: Using A Family-Centered Approach In Alaska’S Kids Don’T Float Program, Michelle E. E. Bauer, Audrey R. Giles, Justina Marianayagam, Kelli M. Toth

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The goal of this experiential report is to outline the adoption of a family-centered Kids Don’t Float approach. We conducted a critical synthesis of information to reflect the expansion of the Kids Don’t Float program into a more family-centered approach. The critical synthesis provided insights into why we should adopt this approach, how it was implemented, and how it influenced drowning incidents compared to the previously used child-centered approach. The adoption of a family-centered approach may contribute to reducing drowning incidents by targeting parents, providing safety information to families, and promoting parental modelling of life jackets. Program evaluators ...


Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin 2020 University of Memphis

Factors Impacting Swimming Participation And Competence: A Qualitative Report, Todd E. Layne, Carol C. Irwin, Jennifer Renee Pharr, Richard L. Irwin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning continues to be a major cause of death for children, especially among minority groups. USA Swimming commissioned studies in 2008 and 2010 to look at swimming ability or inability, an associated drowning variable. The 2010 study showed alarming high percentages regarding insufficient swimming skill for many demographic groups. The current study’s purpose was to provide further analysis of variables which emerged from 2010 study and how these variables are affecting all US populations. Focus group interviews accomplished in three regionally diverse US cities asked participants (3=fathers; 12=mothers) about their personal history with swimming, perceptions concerning swimming ...


Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles 2020 University of Ottawa

Promising Practices For Boating Safety Initiatives That Target Indigenous Peoples In New Zealand, Australia, The United States Of America, And Canada, Mitchell Crozier, Audrey R. Giles

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Boating-related incidents are responsible for a significant number of the drowning fatalities that occur within Indigenous communities in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada. The aim of this paper was to identify promising practices for boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples within these countries and evaluate past and ongoing boating safety initiatives delivered to/with Indigenous peoples within these countries to suggest the ways in which they – or programs that follow them - may be more effective. Based upon evidence from previous research, boating safety initiatives that target Indigenous peoples in New Zealand, Australia, the USA, and Canada should ...


Swimming Pool Environment And Respiratory Health Issues Experienced By Masters Swimmers: Results From A Literature Review And Survey Of United States Masters Swimming Clubs, Jody C. Gan, Julia Snegg, William Harder 2020 American University

Swimming Pool Environment And Respiratory Health Issues Experienced By Masters Swimmers: Results From A Literature Review And Survey Of United States Masters Swimming Clubs, Jody C. Gan, Julia Snegg, William Harder

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

After three members of a Masters adult swim club died of lung cancer, both a literature review and survey were conducted with representatives from 746 United States Masters Swimming clubs to explore a possible relationship between swimming and cancers of the respiratory tract. Six other clubs reported known cancers of the respiratory tract among club members, but none of the other 740 clubs reported a similar cluster of lung cancer. More clubs reported cases of chronic respiratory infections and widespread complaints about air quality. While no studies exploring a relationship between swimming and lung cancer could be found in the ...


Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers 2020 University of Tennessee, Martin

Examining Minority Youth Swimmers’ Versus Non-Swimmers’ Perceptions Of Swimming Involvement, Timothy M. Dasinger, Laura L. Brown, Ashton J. Sawyers

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Drowning is one of the leading causes of death in youth, especially among minority populations (Gilchrest & Parker, 2014). According to the World Health Organization (2014), every hour of every day approximately 42 people lose their lives to drowning. Additionally, African-Americans are 14 times more likely to drown in a pool than other racial or ethnic group members (Waller & Norwood, 2011). The purpose of this study was to examine survey results between swimming and non-swimming minority youth participants. Forty African American students between the ages of 5-17 from an after-school program completed the Swimming Involvement Survey. Results indicated that swimmers, independent ...


Parental Perceptions Of Water Safety Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Amanda Casey Ph.D., Jennifer Blok, Katherine Vaughan, William O'Dwyer 2020 St. Francis Xavier University

Parental Perceptions Of Water Safety Among Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders, Amanda Casey Ph.D., Jennifer Blok, Katherine Vaughan, William O'Dwyer

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are twice as likely to die from unintentional drowning compared to same-age children without ASD emphasizing the importance of water-safety skills and knowledge. Yet little research has been published on perceptions of water safety for this population. The objective of the study was to investigate parental perceptions of water safety amongst children with ASD. An online questionnaire focusing on parental perceptions of water safety was distributed to parents of children with ASD associated with autism support groups across Canada. Forty-nine parents completed the self-report questionnaire with items related to demographics, swimming proficiency and lessons ...


The Partial Immersion Aquatic Approach Using Adjustable Weight Bearing To Improve Posture And Sitting Balance Adaptation For Children With Severe Cerebral Palsy, Niv Shelef 2020 Jerusalem Board of Education

The Partial Immersion Aquatic Approach Using Adjustable Weight Bearing To Improve Posture And Sitting Balance Adaptation For Children With Severe Cerebral Palsy, Niv Shelef

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The innovative ‟Partial Immersion” Aquatic Therapy Approach was developed to enhance balance and posture during sitting adaptation for children with severe cerebral palsy who exhibit deficiency in those skills on land. Stable balance during sitting posture is one of the preconditions for hands function in activities of daily living. Aquatic skills learned during aquatic therapy were then transferred to a land environment. Therapy included the use of a treatment chair that enabled adjustable weight bearing in a series of 30 mm steps. A mixed-methods design employing a multiple case study approach (n=5) including quantitative and qualitative methods investigated the ...


Swimming Past The Pandemic: Importance Of Evidence-Based Science, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D. 2020 Bowling Green State University - Emeritus Professor, Developmental Aquatic Kinesiology

Swimming Past The Pandemic: Importance Of Evidence-Based Science, Stephen J. Langendorfer Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Swimming Past the Pandemic - URL included


Swim Instruction For Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Susan J. Grosse 2020 Aquatic Consulting & Education Resource Services

Swim Instruction For Individuals With Developmental Coordination Disorder, Susan J. Grosse

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Almost every swim teacher has encountered an individual who had difficulty learning to swim, whose movements appeared dissimilar from peers, or who needed to repeat swim course instructional levels many times. That individual might have had difficulty with sport activities, handwriting, and been clumsy in gross and fine motor tasks. Difficulty with coordination and control of movement may suggest a diagnosis of developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Individuals experiencing DCD may feel left out, inadequate, unhappy, frustrated, and embarrassed by his or her ineptness. These feelings may result in an individual withdrawing or refusing to join in and participate in physical ...


Staff Training In Aquatics For Individuals With Disabilities: The Quest, Susan J. Grosse 2020 Bowling Green State University

Staff Training In Aquatics For Individuals With Disabilities: The Quest, Susan J. Grosse

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Trained instructors in general programs have the ability and resources to initiate and follow through with developing water safe individuals who are capable swimmers. Specific staff training to prepare individuals to facilitate aquatic participation for individuals with disabilities is currently extremely limited. The purpose of this article is to examine the barriers to specialized staff training in aquatics for individuals with disabilities, to suggest necessary staff training content, and to propose topics for further research in the area of staff training. Seeking development of quality staff training programs for those working in aquatics for individuals with disabilities is the quest.


Recreational Activity Dynamics At Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Olivia A. DaRugna 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Recreational Activity Dynamics At Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, Olivia A. Darugna

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Many parks and protected areas are managed for a dual purpose to conserve ecological systems and to provide wildlife-compatible recreational opportunities for visitors. Managing parks and protected areas to meet this dual goal entails progressive management approaches that incorporate information about social and ecological components of these systems. Current management regimes focus heavily on the ecological component with little or no information concerning the social component of parks and protected areas. Incorporating social information is essential for understanding and accounting for social conflicts and ecological impacts that result from a diversity of recreational activities. We examined recreational activities at Valentine ...


Wai Puna: An Indigenous Model Of Māori Water Safety And Health In Aotearoa, New Zealand, Chanel Phillips Ph.D. 2020 University of Otago, NZ

Wai Puna: An Indigenous Model Of Māori Water Safety And Health In Aotearoa, New Zealand, Chanel Phillips Ph.D.

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Māori (the indigenous peoples of Aotearoa, New Zealand) are intimately connected to wai (i.e., water) yet are overrepresented in New Zealand’s drowning statistics each year. On average Māori account for 20-24% of all preventable and non-preventable drowning fatalities, despite comprising only 15 percent of New Zealand’s population. Drowning remains a significant issue posing a threat to whānau (i.e., families) through premature death being imminent and whakapapa (i.e., genealogy) being interrupted. There is limited research that has examined Māori and indigenous understandings of water safety within the literature and limited studies that have investigated the issue ...


Drowning Of Pet Owners During Attempted Animal Rescues: The Avir-A Syndrome, John Pearn, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin 2020 The University of Queensland, Royal Life Saving Society - Australia

Drowning Of Pet Owners During Attempted Animal Rescues: The Avir-A Syndrome, John Pearn, Amy E. Peden, Richard Charles Franklin

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

The rescuer who drowns can result from the attempted rescue of a human or an animal. We report here a total population analysis of all drowning fatalities for the 14-year period 1–July-2002 to 30-June-2016 which involved an attempted rescue of an animal. Cases were drawn from the Royal Life Saving National Fatal Drowning Database, which in turn, derived its data primarily from the National Coronial Information System (NCIS). Eight people drowned, all adults (ranging in age from 19-74 years), in the attempted rescue of an animal. Seven of the animals were domestic pet dogs, and in two cases farm ...


Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran 2020 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; California State Parks, Sacramento, California, USA

Training Evaluation For Introductory Ocean Lifeguard Instruction: A Practical Example From California, William A. Koon, Ryan M. Gates, Jack Futoran

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Ocean lifeguards have several responsibilities that require precise training. California State Parks is one of the largest providers of open water lifeguard services in the United States, and trains approximately 200 new lifeguards per year. As part of our lifeguard training section’s quality improvement efforts, we conducted a training needs assessment to help determine how well our introductory ocean lifeguard training curriculum prepared lifeguards to perform job related tasks upon successful completion of the training program. We surveyed both first year and seasoned lead lifeguards on operational needs, training gaps, and specific subject areas. We identified several areas where ...


Editorial Introducing The Special Issue For Diversity In Aquatics, Angela Beale-Tawfeeq, Austin R. Anderson, Steven N. Waller 2020 Rowan University

Editorial Introducing The Special Issue For Diversity In Aquatics, Angela Beale-Tawfeeq, Austin R. Anderson, Steven N. Waller

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Introduction to Special Issue - no abstract available


Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich 2020 Federation University, Austalia

Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Alcohol and drugs have been identified as key risk factors for youth (aged 15-24 years) and adult drownings in high-income countries (HIC). Whilst alcohol specific drowning prevention education programs have been developed and implemented, youth continue to be over-represented in drowning statistics, including those linked with alcohol. Therefore, this project aimed to: (i) review and assess all alcohol themed drowning prevention campaigns within HICs; (ii) determine whether the campaign had undergone evaluation for effectiveness; and (iii) provide recommendations to improve the effectiveness of future interventions. For each of the eighty-one HICs identified for the 2019 fiscal year, searches of peer-reviewed ...


Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine 2020 James Cook University, Australia; the University of Mataram, Indonesia

Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Most deaths by drowning (91%) have occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Southeast Asia (35%) and Africa (20%), in proportion to total drowning deaths worldwide. Poor data collection in LMICs hinders the planning, implementation, and evaluation of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to review the rates and risk factors of unintentional drowning in LMICs and to identify drowning prevention strategies within a socio-ecological health promotion framework. A systematic search, guided by PRISMA, was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Informit health, PsycINFO (ProQuest), Scopus, SafetyLit, Google Scholar, and BioMed Central databases for all relevant studies ...


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