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The Effects Of Overshadowing In Drosophila Melanogaster With Experimentally Evolved Preference, Jill Lee 2022 University of Missouri-St. Louis

The Effects Of Overshadowing In Drosophila Melanogaster With Experimentally Evolved Preference, Jill Lee

Theses

As seen in decades of psychology research, preferences play a major role in driving the decision-making process in both humans and animals. Researchers have advocated for using the technique of experimental evolution as a way to address some of the foundational questions on preferences. These preferences can also affect what is later learned and how well new experiences are learned. Salience is usually mentioned as an important component of what could influence preferences. Animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, that lay eggs without any additional maternal or paternal care, it is important to be selective when deciding where to lay those ...


Mothers’ Reflections On Cat Ownership For A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder During Covid-19, Saskia Keville, Sophia De Vita, Amanda K. Ludlow 2022 University of Hertfordshire

Mothers’ Reflections On Cat Ownership For A Child With Autism Spectrum Disorder During Covid-19, Saskia Keville, Sophia De Vita, Amanda K. Ludlow

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

Animal- assisted interventions are increasingly used as a complementary therapy in clinical practice to support people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with promising outcomes compared to traditional therapies. Less is understood about the therapeutic benefits of more accessible and affordable small pet ownership for families with a child with ASD, alongside the pets’ welfare living in these homes. This study explored the experiences of cat ownership for young people with ASD from the perspective of their mothers during a time of transition generated by COVID-19. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six mothers and transcripts analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis. Three ...


Is Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Wounding Frequency Affected By The Presence Versus Absence Of Visitors? A Multi-Institutional Study, Robin Elana Salak, Christina Cloutier Barbour 2022 Central Washington University

Is Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Wounding Frequency Affected By The Presence Versus Absence Of Visitors? A Multi-Institutional Study, Robin Elana Salak, Christina Cloutier Barbour

Student Published Works

Visitor effect studies have had inconsistent results, due in part to the inability to control for all confounding variables such as time of day, seasonal weather patterns, and so forth. This study represents the first instance where chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) wounding frequencies were investigated across extensive time periods in the presence and complete absence of visitors, thus eliminating many visitor-related variables. Additional variables were eliminated through the zoo selection process, based on institutional responses to a 29-question survey, providing a novel approach to the question of visitor effects. The aim of this study was to determine if visitors were associated ...


Simulated Owl Predation During Foraging Differentially Alters Choice And Fear Behavior Between Sex In Rats, Meghan M. Olsen 2022 Seattle Pacific University

Simulated Owl Predation During Foraging Differentially Alters Choice And Fear Behavior Between Sex In Rats, Meghan M. Olsen

Research Psychology Theses

Existing research on the predator cue circuit has indicated there are observed differences between sexes of animals either directly or indirectly exposed to a predator stimulus. Exposure increases predator directed attention, and overrides other motivational systems (hunger, pain, reproductive behavior). Little research has explored whether exposure to predation is associated with differential responses to non-predator related decision-making across a variety of tasks. Therefore, understanding the prioritization of motivational states when a predator stressor is present can aid in understanding sex differences in these processes in both adaptative and maladaptive conditions. To determine how repeated exposure to a predator stressor differentially ...


Evaluating The Potential Of Genotype And Feeding Strategy On Reducing Age At Slaughter In Dairy Beef Systems, Jamie O'Driscoll 2022 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland

Evaluating The Potential Of Genotype And Feeding Strategy On Reducing Age At Slaughter In Dairy Beef Systems, Jamie O'Driscoll

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Agriculture is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Ireland with enteric fermentation from ruminants accounting for 58% of Ireland’s methane emissions. Research has shown that beef cattle excrete on average, approximately 230g of methane per day, if the national slaughter age reduced by one month, methane output would reduce by over 12,000 tonnes of methane annually. Therefore, a reduction in age at slaughter will lessen the contribution of Irish agriculture to global emissions and enhance its social acceptance and competitiveness.

Aims

The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of reducing age at ...


The Influence Of Body Temperature On Motion Patterns On Anolis Lizard Visual Display, Timothy P. Fagan 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Influence Of Body Temperature On Motion Patterns On Anolis Lizard Visual Display, Timothy P. Fagan

Honors Theses

Anolis sagrei has a display in the form of bobbing its head up and down. In order to more accurately understand the communication and honesty of the display two experiments were done. Honesty, in reference to it being an honest signal; meaning that this form of communication is correlated with the condition of the animal. The first experiment examined the lizards in a recreated environment. By controlling the temperature of the setting and recording the interaction we were able to determine how changing the temperature could cause a difference in display. The second experiment examined the lizard's ability to ...


Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Genetic Circadian Mosaics And The Clock Network’S Contributions To Sleep, Lukasz Widziszewski

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Circadian rhythms are physiological and behavioral changes which follow a 24-hour cycle. Drosophila Melanogaster’s circadian clock neuronal network (CCNN) has been identified and several subpopulations have been characterized based on previous studies; the classifications of subpopulations of neurons within the CCNN are based on a return of anticipatory locomotor activity preceding the two daily light transitions (Lights on = dawn/Lights off = dusk). The neurons responsible for the return of anticipatory morning locomotor activity have been referred to as the M-cells, the group of neurons known to rescue evening anticipatory locomotor activity have been termed the E-cells. In this study ...


Impacts Of Sea Ice Loss On Polar Bear Diet, Prey Availability, Foraging Behaviors, And Human-Bear Interactions In The Arctic, Jasmin Chen 2022 The University of San Francisco

Impacts Of Sea Ice Loss On Polar Bear Diet, Prey Availability, Foraging Behaviors, And Human-Bear Interactions In The Arctic, Jasmin Chen

Master's Projects and Capstones

Anthropogenic-induced climate change has warmed the Arctic 2-3 times faster than the rest of the world, causing sea ice declines that introduce challenges for specialist species, such as polar bears, in adapting to rapid environmental changes. Comparative and quantitative analyses of three Hudson Bay polar bear subpopulations were used to determine the impacts of sea ice loss on polar bear diet, prey availability, foraging behaviors, and human-bear interactions in the Arctic. The study reveal that Hudson Bay polar bears experience the most severe impacts from sea ice declines, resulting in a 30% population decline. Due to their smaller body size ...


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same ...


The Spatial Ecology And Habitat Selection Of A Spotted Turtle (Clemmys Guttata) Population In Southwest Michigan, Michela Coury 2022 Grand Valley State University

The Spatial Ecology And Habitat Selection Of A Spotted Turtle (Clemmys Guttata) Population In Southwest Michigan, Michela Coury

Masters Theses

Turtles are arguably the most threatened group of vertebrates on the planet. Anthropogenic influences such as habitat loss and fragmentation, road mortality, subsidized predators, climate change, and illegal collection have contributed to their global decline. Understanding which isolated populations of turtles are viable despite these synergistic threats is crucial for making conservation and management decisions. In Michigan, the spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata) is a threatened species subjected to many negative anthropogenic influences that accelerate its rapid population decline. In order to properly sustain their populations, the goal of my research was to investigate relevant factors that help us understand the ...


The Last Leg: A Social Sustainability Assessment Of Ovine Agriculture, Sydney Golding 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Last Leg: A Social Sustainability Assessment Of Ovine Agriculture, Sydney Golding

International and Global Studies Undergraduate Honors Theses

Post-war agricultural transformations and the rise of Sustainability discourses have dictated the trajectory of sector industries. The implications of agriculture in lateral policy schemes have neglected the careful consideration of the social health of farmers in decision-making processes, creating a greater divide between the interests of the state and our once revered providers. This study aims to capture the complexity of social matters in agriculture within the specific context of sheep farming in the United Kingdom and the United States and how the concurrent systems have adapted considering the impacts of relevant contemporary historical contexts. The principles of Janker, Mann ...


Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Cottonseed Meal Containing Gossypol On Testis Physiology In Boars, Kristin Ryan

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Feral hogs are an invasive species found in 35 U.S. states without an effective control method to limit their population growth. According to a 2019 survey of 467 landowners in Arkansas, feral hogs caused an estimated $12 million in damages (Cook, 2019). While there are current control methods such as hunting and trapping, 65% of the feral hog population must be eliminated in a specific area to prohibit population growth (Cook, 2019). It is theorized that gossypol, a phenolic compound known to negatively impact reproductive function in other species, could cause sterility in boars. In this preliminary research study ...


Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Relationship Between Pet And Human Separation Anxiety On Owners’ Anxiety And Physical Health, Noah Ross

Psychological Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Pet ownership has always been thought to be beneficial, but some recent studies have not been consistent with this statement. A possible explanation for this is an unhealthy overdependence that pets and pet owners have developed as a result of the Coronavirus pandemic. In this paper, I examine whether separation anxiety from pets, people, and separation behavior of pets could be predictors of anxiety and physical health. The first prediction was that pet and non pet owners differed demographically. Also, it was hypothesized that separation anxiety from humans, separation anxiety from pets, but not pet separation behaviors predicted anxiety and ...


Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. DeSmet 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Pandemics And Animal Welfare: A Quantitative Inquiry Into How The Covid-19 Pandemic Has Affected The Companion Animal Industry In Northwest Arkansas, Kayla N. Desmet

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019, industries have been impacted globally. The companion animal care industry has not received much recognition in mainstream news, and though multiple grants have been allocated (Nolen, 2020), limited resources were available to individual facilities such as animal shelters, animal day cares, and boarding facilities. Little is known about the long-term effects of the pandemic on these facilities and how companion animal care may have changed. The purpose of this study was to explore the day-to-day impacts and long-term effects of COVID-19 on the companion animal industry in Northwest Arkansas from ...


Regaining Effort-Based Food Motivation: The Drug Methylphenidate Reverses The Depressive Effects Of Tetrabenazine In Female Rats, Deanna Pietrorazio 2022 University of Connecticut

Regaining Effort-Based Food Motivation: The Drug Methylphenidate Reverses The Depressive Effects Of Tetrabenazine In Female Rats, Deanna Pietrorazio

Honors Scholar Theses

Tetrabenazine (TBZ), a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2) inhibitor, depletes dopamine and induces motivational deficits and other depressive symptoms in humans. Methylphenidate (MPH) is a dopamine transport blocker that is used to enhance motivational function. Previous studies have shown that in male rats, TBZ induces a shift in effort-related choice such that a low-effort bias is induced. In male rats this occurs at a dose range of 0.75-1.0 mg/kg TBZ, and this effect is reversible with co-administration of MPH. Recent studies have shown that females need a higher dose of TBZ (2.0 mg/kg) to ...


The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Influence Of Temperature And Body Size On Food Consumption In Prairie Lizards (Sceloporus Consobrinus), Morgan Pelley

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Understanding the effect of temperature on physiological and digestive processes, such as voluntary consumption rate, is critical for assessing the impact of climate change. Food consumption is required for lizard survival and reproduction and its rate is dependent on temperature. For ectotherms, as temperatures increase, the amount of food consumed to meet the energy requirements related to survival and reproduction must also increase. Information on the amount of food voluntarily consumed may aid in determining if lizards can meet energy requirements. Such information could also aid in predicting survival of lizard populations, through construction of predictive climate change models. In ...


How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of environments and ecosystems is a highly valued area of research. This study focuses on the interactions between the biotic component of predation and foraging of certain stream fish species and the abiotic component of the flow regime that those species reside in. Gut content analysis followed by statistical calculations in the form of t-tests and chi -quared tests were performed on two fish species who both inhabited a stream with a groundwater flashy flow regime as well as a stream with a runoff flashy flow regime. The research showed that ...


Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Buprenorphine Effects On Anxiety-Like Behavior In B6 Mice, Megan K. Thibert

Select or Award-Winning Individual Scholarship

Buprenorphine, a semi-synthetic opioid prescribed for the treatment of opioid use disorder (OUD), has been suggested as a potential pharmacological treatment for anxiety. Some preclinical and clinical studies provide support for the anxiolytic effects of buprenorphine, but research in this area is scarce, and findings to date have been mixed. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that buprenorphine alters anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/IJ (B6) mice measured using the elevated zero maze (EZM). Adult, male mice (n=10) were given subcutaneous injections of saline (control) and three doses of buprenorphine (0.3, 1, and 10 mg/kg ...


Medical Testing On Animals, Celebrity Wright, Nyicia Morgan, Akeisha Belgrave 2022 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

Medical Testing On Animals, Celebrity Wright, Nyicia Morgan, Akeisha Belgrave

Harrisburg University Research Symposium

We will be investigating and researching undergraduate students’ opinions on animal use in medical testing. (Class Project)


Impact Of Interleukin-34 On The Promotion Of Bone Osteolysis And Neuroinflammation In Experimental Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anny Ho 2022 Nova Southeastern University

Impact Of Interleukin-34 On The Promotion Of Bone Osteolysis And Neuroinflammation In Experimental Models Of Alzheimer’S Disease, Anny Ho

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a growing health concern and is the most common type of dementia worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, one of the hallmark features of AD neuropathology, can increase RANKL-mediated osteoclast activity leading to the prevalence and severity of inflammatory osteolysis, e.g., osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Conversely, osteolytic lesions are associated with increased risk of dementia diagnosis indicating that there is a direct link between dementia and inflammatory osteolysis. It was demonstrated that the neuronal cells primarily produce interleukin-34 (IL-34) and microglia, macrophages, and osteoclast precursors express colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor ...


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