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Quota Enforcement And Capital Investment In Natural Resource Industries, Itziar Lazkano, Linda Nostbakken 2016 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Quota Enforcement And Capital Investment In Natural Resource Industries, Itziar Lazkano, Linda Nostbakken

Itzi Lazkano

We investigate the relationship between quota enforcement, compliance, and capital accumulation in ITQ regulated fisheries. Over-extraction and overcapacity represent two of the main fisheries management challenges, and we aim to model and analyze the two jointly. In a stylized resource model, quota violating and complying firms invest in capital, buy quotas, and choose their harvest. We show that in the short run, more capacity increases illegal extraction, while a well-functioning quota market partially alleviates this effect. We also show how tougher enforcement yields a double benefit by directly improving compliance and indirectly reducing incentives to invest in capacity, which improves ...


Can Peers Improve Agricultural Revenue?, Tisorn Songsermsawas, Kathy Baylis, Ashwini Chhatre, Hope Michelson 2016 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Can Peers Improve Agricultural Revenue?, Tisorn Songsermsawas, Kathy Baylis, Ashwini Chhatre, Hope Michelson

Kathy Baylis

Crop revenues vary greatly among farmers and the source of that variation is not fully understood, even after controlling for factors including input use, technology adoption, and other agro-climatic factors. One hypothesis that may explain the variation in outcomes among farmers is differential access to information through peers. Using a household survey from India containing detailed information about personal relationships, we estimate peer effects on cash crop revenue using a novel spatial econometric technique to control for reflection. Our results show that 60% of farmers' revenue is explained by peers. Peer effects are particularly large in pesticide use and in ...


Behavioral Determinants Of Biofortified Food Acceptance: The Case Of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato In Ghana, Chinonso E. Etumnu 2016 University of San Francisco

Behavioral Determinants Of Biofortified Food Acceptance: The Case Of Orange-Fleshed Sweet Potato In Ghana, Chinonso E. Etumnu

Master's Theses

Biofortified foods are being introduced in sub-Saharan Africa as an important strategy to help address micronutrient malnutrition. However, there has been little research on factors that could play decisive roles in their successful introduction. This paper investigates the determinants of consumer acceptance of biofortified orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) using data from a choice experiment conducted in Ghana. I find that OFSP is preferred to traditional white-fleshed and yellow-fleshed sweet potatoes as indicated by consumers' marginal willingness to pay for the three varieties. I also find that respondents' socio-economic characteristics do not have a significant effect on consumer acceptance of OFSP ...


Guess Who's Coming To Dinner?: Food Inequlaity And Black Americans, Christina Foster 2016 SIT Graduate Institute

Guess Who's Coming To Dinner?: Food Inequlaity And Black Americans, Christina Foster

Capstone Collection

Food insecurity is an issue that plagues many people throughout the world. It only requires a brief search on the United Nation’s (U.N.) World Hunger Map to determine that this is indeed a worldwide crisis. Conversely, within the United States, the issue of hunger is often treated as “minimal” in comparison to other countries. A deeper inquiry into hunger within the U.S. reveals an even more disturbing connection: the role of white supremacy and systemic racism in regard to hunger. Academic research pertaining to food access is quite recent. Be that as it may, it is of ...


From Empty Lot To Garden Plot: Urban Agriculture In Chula Vista, Jennifer E. Gutierrez 2016 University of San Francisco

From Empty Lot To Garden Plot: Urban Agriculture In Chula Vista, Jennifer E. Gutierrez

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This project is an exploration of how agriculture can be incorporated into the fabric of the city of Chula Vista, which has both uniquely urban and suburban areas. The proposal is to integrate agriculture as a design tool to reconnect to the city’s agricultural past and as a model for cities of the future. First, I discuss Chula Vista’s history and contemporary context, including demographics. I review the existing urban agriculture policies Chula Vista has and compare them to other cities in California. The second part of the project is concerned with how to choose and develop a ...


Stewardship As A Social Value, Madhavi Venkatesan 2016 Bridgewater State College

Stewardship As A Social Value, Madhavi Venkatesan

Madhavi Venkatesan

Conscious consumption is each individual’s responsibility. Understanding what we consume and how we facilitate the commoditization of life is a necessity if we are to promote the modification of social values to include holistic stewardship of our planetary resources.


Whole-Farm Revenue Insurance For Crop And Livestock Producers, Bruce A. Babcock, Dermot J. Hayes 2016 Iowa State University

Whole-Farm Revenue Insurance For Crop And Livestock Producers, Bruce A. Babcock, Dermot J. Hayes

Bruce Babcock

The collapse in hog prices in the fall of 1998 has renewed interest in using insurance as a means of providing an affordable safety net to U.S. farmers. One option that has received attention is to expand the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s crop insurance program to include livestock producers. Because the ongoing financial crisis in the hog sector was not caused by production or disease problems, it is apparent that producers could have benefited from either price insurance or revenue insurance.


Why Can't U.S. Beef Compete In The European Union?, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Why Can't U.S. Beef Compete In The European Union?, Roxanne L. B. Clemens, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

The stringent guidelines for producing, harvesting, and shipping certified non-hormone treated beef for the European Union create additional costs that greatly reduce the competitiveness of U.S. beef. What had once been a large market for beef variety meats and then a niche market for non-treated beef has all but vanished because the E.U. hormone ban and regulations for producing and certifying non-treated beef have made U.S. product too expensive to export. Some producers continue to obtain U.S. Department of Agriculture certification for their non-hormone treated beef, but most are selling their fully traceable, certified cattle into ...


Whither Farm Policy?, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Whither Farm Policy?, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

As the U.S. Congress prepares to pump at least $8.7 billion in supplemental aid to farmers (on top of the $10.5 billion that has already been earmarked), many people—both in and out of agriculture—are openly wondering if there isn’t a better way to run farm programs. To many, it seems that we have no coherent farm policy in the sense that tax dollars are being committed with no clear objective in mind. After two straight years of supplemental appropriations, it is clear that the current farm program (the FAIR Act of 1996, commonly known ...


Whither Farm Policy?, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Whither Farm Policy?, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

Under conditions that saw farm policy come under increasing criticism in the fall of 1999, this paper asks readers to take a closer look at what farm policy should accomplish. Babcock describes the various interest groups calling for farm policy reform, reviews three reasons for implementing farm policy, recounts the history and programs of the FAIR (Freedom to Farm) Act, and proposes policy alternatives that would allow for the agriculture industry to be flexible and competitive.


When Will The Bubble Burst?, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

When Will The Bubble Burst?, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

High prices are their own worst enemy. Increased profit margins entice entrepreneurial investment, which results in increased production. Lower market prices inevitably follow. The magic hand of Adam Smith ensures that winners’ gains and losers’ losses will be temporary, as entrepreneurs correct market imbalances.


Water Quality Research: A Collaborative Effort, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Water Quality Research: A Collaborative Effort, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

Who could be against clean water? After all, we rely on clean water for our households, farms, industries, and for recreation. But whenever groups push for cleaner water, there is an inevitable outcry about the costs. And, too often it seems, the outcry is from farming interests. This should come as no surprise because in many areas runoff from crop and livestock farms is the largest contributor to water pollution.


Updated Assessment Of The Drought's Impacts On Crop Prices And Biofuel Production, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Updated Assessment Of The Drought's Impacts On Crop Prices And Biofuel Production, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

On August 10th, USDA released updated estimates of the size of this year’s corn and soybean crops. Corn yields are now projected at 123.4 bushels per acre, which combined with a drop in projected harvested acres results in an estimated crop size of 10.8 billion bushels—down 17 percent from USDA’s July estimates. Soybean production is now estimated at 2.7 billion bushels—down 11.7 percent from July projections. The sharply lowered production estimates suggest the preliminary assessment of the impact of the drought on crop prices and biofuel production that I conducted last month ...


Trade, Wealth Creation, And American Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Trade, Wealth Creation, And American Agriculture, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

Why do we trade? Most Americans would answer this question with some reference to the benefits of expanded markets for U.S. goods and more job opportunities. However, if asked the question, why do we work? most would respond that we work to earn money so that we can buy things. At a personal level, we intuitively know that trading our specialized labor with others (using money as the means of transactions) gives us a higher standard of living than if we tried to produce everything ourselves. We know and act on the knowledge that specialization enhances our individual wealth ...


Unfair Trade: Culprits And Victims, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Unfair Trade: Culprits And Victims, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

Cogent justifi cations for continuing subsidies to U.S. crop farmers are diffi cult to fi nd. Most analyses suggest that our farm programs lead to greater concentration, higher land prices and cash rents, increased production of supported commodities, and lower market prices. And as we have pointed out in recent Iowa Ag Review articles, current subsidy programs provide a quite ineffi cient safety net: overcompensating producers in low price–high production years and undercompensating them in high price–low production years. In addition, farm subsidies go predominantly to farm families that have higher wealth and income levels than the ...


The Relative Efficiency Of Voluntary Versus Mandatory Environmental Regulations, JunJie Wu, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

The Relative Efficiency Of Voluntary Versus Mandatory Environmental Regulations, Junjie Wu, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

When the government wants farmers to adopt a certain management practice on environmentally sensitive land, it can mandate adoption, with fines for noncompliance, or use a stewardship program, with incentives for those who comply. The Federal Agriculture Improvement Act of 1996 (FAIR) continues the tradition of voluntary programs. An analysis by the authors outlines the conditions under which these voluntary programs are more efficient than mandatory ones.


Time To Revisit Crop Insurance Premium Subsidies?, Bruce A. Babcock 2016 Iowa State University

Time To Revisit Crop Insurance Premium Subsidies?, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

In 2000, Congress decided to move away from a fixed-dollar-per-acre premium subsidy to a subsidy percentage that applies to any crop insurance product offered. This change reduced the cost to farmers of moving from yield insurance to revenue insurance by more than 50%. In addition, Congress decided to pay a large proportion of the additional premium for higher coverage levels, paying for more than half the cost of moving from the 65% to the 75% coverage level and about 25% of the additional cost of moving from 75% to 80% coverage. Not surprisingly, farmers responded to these lower costs by ...


The Shifting Patterns Of Agricultural Production And Productivity Worldwide, Julian M. Alston, Bruce A. Babcock, Philip G. Pardey 2016 University of California, Davis

The Shifting Patterns Of Agricultural Production And Productivity Worldwide, Julian M. Alston, Bruce A. Babcock, Philip G. Pardey

Bruce Babcock

In this book we assemble a range of evidence from a range of sources with a view to developing an improved understanding of recent trends in agricultural productivity around the world. The fundamental purpose is to better understand the nature of the long-term growth in the supply of food and its principal determinants. We pursue this purpose from two perspectives. One is from a general interest in the world food situation in the long run. The other is from an interest in the implications of U.S. and global productivity patterns for U.S. agriculture.


The New Acre Program: Frequently Asked Questions, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart 2016 Iowa State University

The New Acre Program: Frequently Asked Questions, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart

Bruce Babcock

ACRE, which is an acronym for Average Crop Revenue Election, is a new commodity program included in the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 farm bill). Farmers can choose to participate in ACRE or they can continue to enroll in traditional commodity programs. ACRE is designed to provide revenue support to farmers as an alternative to the price support that farmers are used to receiving from commodity programs. Here, we answer some frequently asked questions about this new program.


The Efficiency Of Sequestering Carbon In Agricultural Soils, Gregory R. Pautsch, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Bruce A. Babcock, Catherine L. Kling 2016 Iowa State University

The Efficiency Of Sequestering Carbon In Agricultural Soils, Gregory R. Pautsch, Lyubov A. Kurkalova, Bruce A. Babcock, Catherine L. Kling

Bruce Babcock

Agricultural tillage practices are important human-induced activities that can alter carbon emissions from agricultural soils and have the potential to significantly contribute to reductions in greenhouse gas emission (Lal et al, 1998). This research investigates the expected costs of sequestering carbon in agricultural soils under different subsidy and market-based policies. Using the detailed National Resources Inventory data, we estimate the probability that farmers adopt conservation tillage practices based on a variety of exogenous characteristics and profit from conventional practices. These estimates are used with physical models of carbon sequestration to estimate the subsidy costs of achieving increased carbon sequestration with ...


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