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The Expanding U.S. Market For Fresh Produce, Roxanne L. B. Clemens 2015 Iowa State University

The Expanding U.S. Market For Fresh Produce, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

The U.S. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion urges consumers to eat between five and nine servings of fresh fruits and vegetables per day. Not all consumers are reaching that goal, but per capita consumption of fresh produce is steadily increasing (see Figure 1). Between 1980 and 2001, per capita consumption of fresh fruits increased by 19 percent and consumption of vegetables (including potatoes) increased by 29 percent. At the same time, new technologies to extend shelf life and new trade agreements have increasingly allowed imports of fresh produce to fill gaps where domestic supplies are too small and ...


Agricultural Price Swings And Iowa’S Economy, Chad E. Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Agricultural Price Swings And Iowa’S Economy, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

Over the past few months, we have seen tremendous variability in commodity prices. Soybean futures prices have increased by roughly 50 percent since mid-July, spurred on by lower-thanexpected production and an evertightening supply. Cattle futures prices have fallen by nearly 20 percent since the announcement of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) case in Washington. But what do these price swings mean for Iowa’s agricultural and overall state economy?


Targeting Efficiency In The Conservation Security Program, Resource and Environmental Policy Division, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development 2015 Iowa State University

Targeting Efficiency In The Conservation Security Program, Resource And Environmental Policy Division, Center For Agricultural And Rural Development

Iowa Ag Review

The much anticipated implementation rules for the Conservation Security Program (CSP), authorized in the 2002 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act, were unveiled January 2, in the Federal Register. In addition to describing the proposed rules, the Natural Resources Conservation Service outlines the challenge they faced in constructing a coherent implementation plan for a program that was initially developed as an entitlement program but later faced funding caps. The magnitude of this challenge is aptly summarized by the USDA’s Economic Research Service, which finds that if all of the 1.8 million farms and ranches likely to be eligible ...


Risk-Free Farming?, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Risk-Free Farming?, Bruce A. Babcock, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

The direction of U.S. farm policy changed with the passage of the 2002 farm bill and the 2000 Agricultural Risk Protection Act. Previous farm bills, together with the old crop insurance program, had gradually moved the crops sector toward greater market orientation, with farmers taking on more market risk in exchange for greater planting flexibility. But the beginning of this decade brought with it increased protection against both adverse price movements and crop losses. These policy changes were brought about largely at the behest of farm commodity organizations, who argued that they needed increased protection against the vagaries of ...


China’S Challenge: Conforming To Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures For Agricultural Exports, Fengxia Dong, Helen H. Jensen 2015 Iowa State University

China’S Challenge: Conforming To Sanitary And Phytosanitary Measures For Agricultural Exports, Fengxia Dong, Helen H. Jensen

Iowa Ag Review

After 15 years of negotiations, China became a full member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001. Since then, with eliminated or lowered tariffs, China’s bilateral trade has grown significantly. In 2002, the value of Chinese exports and imports for agricultural products reached $14.5 billion and $16.1 billion, respectively, and its total value of exports in agricultural products increased by $1.2 billion from the previous year.


Ethanol: Policies, Production, And Profitability, Chad E. Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Ethanol: Policies, Production, And Profitability, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

The proposed federal energy bill, currently back in committee for further debate, has targeted a dramatic increase in the use of renewable fuel sources, and that has helped focus a vast amount of attention on ethanol over the past year. By 2012, five billion gallons of renewable fuels would make up part of the nation’s fuel supply. That is nearly double the current amount of ethanol in use.


Policy Reforms In World Sugar Markets: What Would Happen?, Amani Elobeid, John C. Beghin 2015 Iowa State University

Policy Reforms In World Sugar Markets: What Would Happen?, Amani Elobeid, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

The international sugar market is not a “free” market because of extensive use of production quotas, import controls, government support prices, and preferential trade agreements of rich countries. In the United States, the European Union, and Japan, protectionist policies have resulted in domestic prices up to three times greater than the world sugar price. In recent years, the World Trade Organization (WTO), North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and regional agreements have mounted international pressure to liberalize sugar markets in the most offending countries but without much success. Nevertheless, the major protectionist countries are becoming aware that current sugar policies ...


Booming Commodities: How Long Will It Last?, Bruce A. Babcock 2015 Iowa State University

Booming Commodities: How Long Will It Last?, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

Who would have thought that we would once again see $3 corn and $10 soybeans? Iowa farmers have not seen such price strength since 1996 for corn and 1974 for soybeans. At the same time, Iowa hog prices have strengthened in recent months; egg prices have more than doubled in the last two years; and cattle prices would be at record highs if U.S. export markets had not closed down as a result of the mad cow disease scare. Even so, cattle prices have hovered around $85.


China’S Growing Market For Dairy Products, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin 2015 Iowa State University

China’S Growing Market For Dairy Products, Frank H. Fuller, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

China has one of the lowest levels of per capita milk consumption in the world, averaging just 5.6 kilograms (kg) per year in 2003. Consumption varies greatly by region, income level, and household location (rural or urban). Throughout the mid-1980s and early 1990s, milk consumption in urban China was stagnant, at about 4.8 kg per person, and rural consumption hovered at just 0.6 kg per person. While rural per capita consumption of dairy products grew weakly in the late 1990s, urban consumption of fresh dairy products has grown an average of 25 percent annually since 1997, reaching ...


How The Brazil-U.S. Cotton Dispute Could Affect Iowa’S Agriculture, Chad E. Hart 2015 Iowa State University

How The Brazil-U.S. Cotton Dispute Could Affect Iowa’S Agriculture, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

Recently, a World Trade Organization (WTO) panel ruled on a dispute between Brazil and the United States. The dispute, filed by Brazil over cotton subsidies, accused the United States of lowering world agricultural prices and distorting agricultural trade flows through various forms of agricultural support. Preliminary findings, as reported by major news sources such as CNN, the New York Times, and the Economist magazine, indicate that the WTO panel agreed with most of Brazil’s case. The results of these findings and the ongoing WTO agricultural trade negotiations could have a dramatic impact on the ways agriculture can be supported ...


Keeping Farmers On The Land: Agritourism In The European Union, Roxanne L. B. Clemens 2015 Iowa State University

Keeping Farmers On The Land: Agritourism In The European Union, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

A relatively small amount of arable land, high population density, and high land and labor costs in several E.U. countries make it difficult for many families to stay on farmland that has been handed down for generations. Direct government help is limited because the European Union is under pressure to reduce agricultural subsidies. As part of the policy package developed to address these issues, the European Union has created incentives for producers to add value to agricultural production by participating in agritourism.


Valuing Water Quality In Midwestern Lake Ecosystems, Kevin J. Egan, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling, John A. Downing 2015 Iowa State University

Valuing Water Quality In Midwestern Lake Ecosystems, Kevin J. Egan, Joseph A. Herriges Sr., Catherine L. Kling, John A. Downing

Iowa Ag Review

As increased attention is focused on the issue of water quality in the state of Iowa, policymakers must grapple with the pressures of balancing federal water quality requirements, tight conservation budgets, and citizen concern for environmental preservation and restoration of Iowa’s water resources. Efforts to improve water quality typically entail significant costs, either in the form of state resources to fund cleanup efforts or private costs associated with altering land uses, farming practices, municipal treatment facility expansions, or other investments.


Processing Or Exports: Which Path For U.S. Grain?, Bruce A. Babcock 2015 Iowa State University

Processing Or Exports: Which Path For U.S. Grain?, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

I owa is the center of the world’s most productive corn and soybean region. Along with Illinois and Indiana to the east, Minnesota and South Dakota to the north, Nebraska to the west, and Missouri to the south, this region produces an abundance of low-cost feed that when used by the highly efficient U.S. meat and dairy sectors provides consumers with low-cost food. The traditional view of agriculture in this region is one in which domestically produced grain is fed to domestically produced livestock that is slaughtered for domestic consumption. The surplus grain is then exported to support ...


The Relationship Between Stock Market Capitalization And Money Demand In Tanzania: Evidence From Ardl Approach And Granger Causality Test, Abel A. Kinyondo, Mwoya Byaro 2015 University of Dar Es Salaam

The Relationship Between Stock Market Capitalization And Money Demand In Tanzania: Evidence From Ardl Approach And Granger Causality Test, Abel A. Kinyondo, Mwoya Byaro

Abel A Kinyondo

This paper investigates the relationship between stock market capitalization (MC) and money demand in Tanzania between 2000 and 2010. Findings show the presence of a long-run relationship between MC, extended broad money (M3) and interest rate when real GDP serves as dependent variable. Furthermore, saving deposit rate/real interest rate, M3 and MC variables were found to have a positive and significant influence on real GDP. However, the study captures the absence of long-run relationship between MC and money demand when M3 act as dependent variable. Also the study found a unidirectional relationship between MC and real GDP with causality ...


Strong U.S. Pork Exports In 2004: The Story Behind The Numbers, Roxanne L. B. Clemens 2015 Iowa State University

Strong U.S. Pork Exports In 2004: The Story Behind The Numbers, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

U.S. hog prices have been quite strong this year. Part of the reason for this strength is the large increase in export demand since December 23, 2003, when the U.S. government announced a case of BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) in a Holstein cow imported from Canada. The announcement triggered bans on imports of U.S. beef in many international markets. Canadian beef is also banned in these markets because of BSE, and Australia and New Zealand are unable to provide the volume and type (that is, grain-fed) of beef needed to make up the shortfall. Demand for pork ...


Agriculture On Record Pace, Chad E. Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Agriculture On Record Pace, Chad E. Hart

Iowa Ag Review

Based on the latest estimates from the USDA, 2004 is shaping up to be a banner year. Between the strong production numbers on the crop side and strong prices for livestock, both major sectors of agriculture are experiencing record or near record events. Several national and state records may fall this year.


Pharmaceuticals And Industrial Products In Crops: Economic Prospects And Impacts On Agriculture, Gregory D. Graff, GianCarlo Moschini 2015 University of California, Berkeley

Pharmaceuticals And Industrial Products In Crops: Economic Prospects And Impacts On Agriculture, Gregory D. Graff, Giancarlo Moschini

Iowa Ag Review

That biotechnology has brought changes to agriculture in a very short time is, by now, obvious. For the 2004 harvest, for example, it is estimated that 85 percent of U.S. soybean production and 45 percent of U.S. corn production will come from genetically modified (GM) varieties (89 percent and 54 percent, respectively, in Iowa). While the agricultural sector is still dealing with problematic trade effects caused by less-than-enthusiastic consumer acceptance and restrictive regulations overseas, the biotech industry is actively pursuing an array of R&D efforts that could make the current adoption of GM crops just the prototypical ...


Creation Of A Wto-Friendly Farm Safety Net, Bruce A. Babcock 2015 Iowa State University

Creation Of A Wto-Friendly Farm Safety Net, Bruce A. Babcock

Iowa Ag Review

Bumper crops have quickly turned the corn and soybean price boom into a bust. Newcrop corn and soybean futures contracts are down 40 percent and 35 percent respectively in just a few short months. Of course, those farmers that had the foresight to lock in at high prices are completely unaffected by the drop in price. For them, market volatility has created profit opportunities. But all is not lost for the majority of farmers who did not lock in at those prices. The farm safety net created by the 2002 Farm Security and Rural Investment Act will cushion the financial ...


U.S. Sweetener Consumption Trends And Dietary Guidelines, Helen H. Jensen, John C. Beghin 2015 Iowa State University

U.S. Sweetener Consumption Trends And Dietary Guidelines, Helen H. Jensen, John C. Beghin

Iowa Ag Review

The United States is the fourth-largest producer of sugar and has well-developed sugarcane and sugar beet industries. However, since the 1970s, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has gained popularity with food processors as a sweetener, a change stimulated by sugar agricultural policies that have raised the price of sugar well above its world level, and the emergence of cheaper sweeteners based on corn. Nearly 7.3 percent of total corn production (2.2 million bushels) was used to produce HFCS in 2003/04. The United States is the world’s lowest-cost producer of HFCS, partly because of access to cheap ...


Animal Identification Is Key To Restarting Beef Exports To Japan, Roxanne L. B. Clemens 2015 Iowa State University

Animal Identification Is Key To Restarting Beef Exports To Japan, Roxanne L. B. Clemens

Iowa Ag Review

December 26, 2004, marked one year since Japan banned imports of U.S. beef following the discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in an imported animal. The loss of more than 375,000 metric tons (mt) of U.S. beef and beef variety meats created a shortfall in supply that Japan has been unable to fill. Australian exports to Japan were 41 percent higher in 2004 than in 2003, but Australia and other countries cannot supply the volume and types of beef the United States had supplied.


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