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Chutes And Ladders: Climate Variability And The Decision To Enter Sex Work In India, Kate Pennington 2015 University of San Francisco

Chutes And Ladders: Climate Variability And The Decision To Enter Sex Work In India, Kate Pennington

Master's Theses

There is widespread consensus that climate change will drive large-scale changes in poverty distributions, migration, and participation in risky informal labor markets, especially for poor households in developing countries which are both more likely to depend on the environment for their livelihood and less able to insulate against climate shocks. Within poor households, gender inequality means that women and children will bear a disproportional amount of welfare losses. I examine the impact of climate variability on migration and participation in risky informal labor markets for a particularly vulnerable population: female sex workers in India. Using a unique survey of 5 ...


The International Footprint Of Teff: Resurgence Of An Ancient Ethiopian Grain, Annette R. Crymes 2015 Washington University in St Louis

The International Footprint Of Teff: Resurgence Of An Ancient Ethiopian Grain, Annette R. Crymes

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

I will examine the transformation of the Ethiopian staple of teff into the global economy as a highly sought after commodity. In doing so I consider the effect of this change on the local, regional and international communities and the consequences of the 2006 Ethiopian export ban on teff grain and teff flour as it relates to food and nutritional security and economic development in Ethiopia. To take advantage of the economic opportunities presented by the growing domestic and international demand of teff and to address domestic food and nutrition security, I conclude that Ethiopia should focus on improving methods ...


Fishing For A Sustainable Future: Aquaponics As A Method Of Food Production, Richard Ramsundar 2015 Fordham University

Fishing For A Sustainable Future: Aquaponics As A Method Of Food Production, Richard Ramsundar

Student Theses 2015-Present

This thesis compares and explains the advantages aquaponics farming has over modern industrial intensive farming. Through a comparison natural capital usage, conservation, recycling and cost, the thesis advocates for the expansion of aquaponics usage in urban settings. The thesis also explains the history of intensive farming and aquaponics in America, the science of how aquaponics operates, the economic and environmental costs of modern intensive farming versus aquaponics farming, and the social implications of aquaponics. Lastly, I propose a policy that reallocates farm subsidies by modifying the Farm Bill. Then I propose policies that support creating a new standard of farm ...


Improved Dairy Cattle: Impact And Distribution In Rural Tanzanian Communities, Jeremy Weaver, Alexon Mwasi, Lindsay Weaver 2015 Southern Adventist University

Improved Dairy Cattle: Impact And Distribution In Rural Tanzanian Communities, Jeremy Weaver, Alexon Mwasi, Lindsay Weaver

Interdisciplinary Journal of Best Practices in Global Development

Improved dairy cattle are recognized as an integral part of improving the livelihoods for the rural and urban poor in developing countries. The aim of this research was to measure impact, reveal challenges, map distribution, and establish recommendations for moving forward in improved livestock distribution initiatives. The methods consisted of a hybrid model using both quantitative and qualitative modalities, especially focusing on personal interviews, focus group discussions, field observation, and GIS data capturing. GIS based comparisons could not be made because of a lack of available GIS demographic data for the area. The combined modalities approach (especially the in-depth interviews ...


Water Poverty In Disadvantaged Communities In California, Alyssa J. Galik 2015 Pepperdine University

Water Poverty In Disadvantaged Communities In California, Alyssa J. Galik

Undergraduate Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

California, the eighth largest economy in the world, has nearly one million residents that lack daily access to clean drinking water, yet it recently became the first state in the US to declare water a human right through the passage of 2013 Assembly Bill 685. The majority of water quality violations take place in the rural San Joaquin Valley in unincorporated, low-income communities, which have difficulties accessing clean, drinking water due to issues including quality, affordability, and physical availability. The role of community participation in improving water poverty has been studied extensively in developing countries but its impact is infrequently ...


Three Essays On Biofuels, Drought, Livestock, And The Environment, Sunil P. Dhoubhadel 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Three Essays On Biofuels, Drought, Livestock, And The Environment, Sunil P. Dhoubhadel

Dissertations and Theses in Agricultural Economics

This dissertation consists of three essays. The first essay examines the impact of the 2012 drought and the biofuels mandate on the U.S. grain and livestock markets. A stochastic equilibrium displacement model is used to analyze the impact on eight commodity markets viz. beef, pork, poultry, corn, distillers’ grain (DG), soybean, soymeal, and ethanol. Among the eight markets, corn and beef are found to be the most vulnerable to drought. The use of Renewable Identification Number (RIN) credits as an instrument to mitigate the impact of drought has limited effectiveness. A mandate waiver of about 23% is required to ...


Creating An Action Agenda For Rural Idaho/Public Lands States, Jaap Vos 2015 jaapvos@boisestate.edu

Creating An Action Agenda For Rural Idaho/Public Lands States, Jaap Vos

Jacobus J. "Jaap" Vos

Presentation about the future of planning education in Idaho.


Trade And Transition: Russia's Agricultural Pitfalls And Prospects For The 21st Century, Michele Girard 2015 University of Maine - Main

Trade And Transition: Russia's Agricultural Pitfalls And Prospects For The 21st Century, Michele Girard

Honors College

This thesis provides a discussion of Russian agriculture in the twenty-first century. In 2014, Russia enforced a food ban disallowing trade with western countries. The impacts of the food ban for Russia and the western world are discussed, as well as a brief explanation of some of the domestic difficulties of Russian agriculture. Internationally, Russia must find new trading partners if it is to replace the missing foods as a result of the ban.


Perceived Stress, Social Support And Survival: North Carolina Farm Operators And The Farm Crisis, Michael D. Schulman, Paula S. Armstrong 2015 North Carolina State University

Perceived Stress, Social Support And Survival: North Carolina Farm Operators And The Farm Crisis, Michael D. Schulman, Paula S. Armstrong

The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare

The current farm crisis draws attention to the sources and consequences of the stress process among farm operators. Using panel data from statewide surveys of North Carolina farm operators collected during a period of economic and ecological crisis, the relationships among perceived stress, social support, and survival in agriculture are investigated. Analyses reveal that while the level of perceived stress has no relationship with survival, social support has a significant impact upon both social psychological (plans to remain in farming) and behavioral (continuing as a farm operator) dimensions of survival in agriculture. Perceived social support increased plans to remain in ...


Hog Markets And The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, David A. Hennessy 2015 Iowa State University

Hog Markets And The Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, David A. Hennessy

Agricultural Policy Review

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDv) has spread rapidly through the United States swine herd since initial diagnosis in spring 2013. By May 2014, it had been identified in 29 of the contiguous states. Incidence has been greatest in the hog dense states and also Oklahoma and Kansas, as shown in Figure 1. Data are number of positives based on sample genetic tests, taken from National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), as reported in www.aasv.org/pedv/PEDv_weekly_report_140326.pdf.


Another Strong Quarter For Agricultural Demands, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz 2015 Iowa State University

Another Strong Quarter For Agricultural Demands, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Agricultural Policy Review

Agricultural demand has remained strong through the first half of 2014. Crop and livestock prices have provided good returns because of strong demand. As we move into the summer season, live cattle prices have moved into the $140–$150 range. Feeder cattle prices have topped $200 per hundredweight; and lean hogs have approached nearly $130 per hundredweight. Also, corn and soybean prices offered crop producers positive profit margins during the planting season.


Can Voluntary Adoption Of Agricultural Practices Achieve The Hypoxic Zone Reduction Goals?, Catherine L. Kling 2015 Iowa State University

Can Voluntary Adoption Of Agricultural Practices Achieve The Hypoxic Zone Reduction Goals?, Catherine L. Kling

Agricultural Policy Review

The presence of a “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico caused by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) coming from upstream watersheds continues to recur annually. As part of the 2008 action plan promulgated by the Hypoxia Task Force to address the problem, each state with major nutrient contributions to the Gulf was tasked with developing and implementing a nutrient reduction strategy. Most of the 12 states included have begun or completed their plans. A common theme among all states is the focus on voluntary adoption of the practices identified rather than a regulatory strategy.


Can The Trend Of Rural Population Decline Be Reversed?, Georgeanne M. Artz, Younjun Kim, Peter F. Orazem 2015 Iowa State University

Can The Trend Of Rural Population Decline Be Reversed?, Georgeanne M. Artz, Younjun Kim, Peter F. Orazem

Agricultural Policy Review

In 1900, Iowa’s rural population was just shy of 1.7 million, with almost three-fourths residing on farms or in small towns. However, with the exception of the 1990s, Iowa’s rural population has declined in every census over the last 110 years, as shown in Figure 1. By 2010, only 36% of Iowans remained in rural areas.


Technology And Productivity In Us Corn And Soybean, GianCarlo Moschini 2015 Iowa State University

Technology And Productivity In Us Corn And Soybean, Giancarlo Moschini

Agricultural Policy Review

Competing demands from food, feed, energy, and environmental uses are placing stress on global land resources. To deal with these challenges, much hope rests on sustaining the trend of past productivity growth by developing and adopting new technologies. In this context, there is much to learn from the US experience of tremendous yield gains achieved thanks to improved crop varieties and management practices.


Price Expectations And Risk Profiles Drive Commodity Program Choices, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Price Expectations And Risk Profiles Drive Commodity Program Choices, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart

Agricultural Policy Review

The optimal commodity program choice depends as much on the specific production system in each farm as on the producer’s expectations about future yields and prices. Furthermore, the risk profile of producers will weigh heavily in the decision. This article illustrates the role of price expectations and risk profiles in commodity program choice using the ISU Farm Bill Analyzer.


Strong Demand, But Inconsistent Profitability, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz 2015 Iowa State University

Strong Demand, But Inconsistent Profitability, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Agricultural Policy Review

With the arrival of fall, the leaves change, the temperatures drop, and agricultural producers prepare for the winter ahead. This winter looks to be a reversal of fortunes across the agricultural complex. Over the past few years, crop producers have enjoyed record prices and profits, while livestock producers have suffered from high feed costs and negative returns. Now, several sectors of the livestock industry are looking forward to strong prices and good profitability. Meanwhile, the crop sector is staring at the lowest returns in several years. While there are some key differences in the structure of crop and livestock markets ...


Crop Insurance In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Crop Insurance In Iowa, Alejandro Plastina, Chad Hart

Agricultural Policy Review

Farmers across the nation rely heavily on crop insurance as a risk management tool—in Iowa alone over 93 percent of corn and soybean planted area was insured in 2014, but that participation rate hasn’t always been the case. Participation in crop insurance declined substantially in the early 1990s after the mandate that required producers to purchase crop insurance in 1989 and 1990 to collect drought assistance in 1988 dissipated.


Weather Adjusted Yield Trends For Corn: A Look At Iowa, Lisha Li, Dermot J. Hayes, Chad Hart 2015 Iowa State University

Weather Adjusted Yield Trends For Corn: A Look At Iowa, Lisha Li, Dermot J. Hayes, Chad Hart

Agricultural Policy Review

Yield growth in agricultural crops is of importance to those who make long-term projections of food availability and price levels. Menz and Pardey (1983) found that the trend growth in corn yields was lower in the 1970s than in the previous two decades. Tannura, Irwin, and Scott (2008) cited a number of crop experts and seed companies who believe that improved technology, particularity biotechnology, will increase the rate of yield growth in corn. Yu and Babcock (2010) found that percentage losses due to drought have been reduced over time, offsetting one of the major impediments to stronger yield growth. However ...


Food Safety Modernization Act: The Case For Complementary Public Regulation And Private Standards, Sebastien Pouliot, Helen H. Jensen 2015 Iowa State University

Food Safety Modernization Act: The Case For Complementary Public Regulation And Private Standards, Sebastien Pouliot, Helen H. Jensen

Agricultural Policy Review

President Obama signed into law the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Food Safety Modernization Act of 2010 (FSMA) in January 2011. FSMA is a set of regulations that modifies U.S. food safety laws and extends their scope. FSMA is considered to be the first major reform of U.S. food safety laws since 1938. FSMA specifically targets products that are under the jurisdiction of FDA and thus impacts products such as produce, dairy, seafood, fresh eggs and eggs used as ingredients. The stated objective of FSMA is to shift the focus from response to food contamination to prevention.


Ag Supplies For 2015, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz 2015 Iowa State University

Ag Supplies For 2015, Chad Hart, Lee L. Schulz

Agricultural Policy Review

Markets are the mechanism that balance supply and demand for products. Over the course of the past year, we have discussed the demand patterns for agricultural products in the US and the factors that influence that demand. Now it’s time to look at the other half of the marketplace: agricultural product supplies. During the past couple of years, crop and livestock supplies have been moving in opposite directions. Crop supplies have grown as farmers have brought more land into corn and soybean production and weather conditions allowed record yields. Meanwhile, livestock supplies have shrunk as livestock producers reduced herds ...


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