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Paradoxical Truths In Heroic Leadership: Implications For Leadership Development And Effectiveness, Scott T. Allison, Jennifer L. Cecilione 2015 University of RIchmond

Paradoxical Truths In Heroic Leadership: Implications For Leadership Development And Effectiveness, Scott T. Allison, Jennifer L. Cecilione

Scott T. Allison

In this chapter, we discuss the basic elements of heroic leadership, showing how heroism and exemplary leadership are deeply intertwined. We then describe six paradoxical truths about heroic leadership that are often unrecognized and unappreciated. We believe that ignorance of these counterintuitive truths and paradoxes about heroic leadership can lead to misunderstandings about leaders, leadership, and leadership development. Most of these paradoxes are a central part of the hero’s journey as described by comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell (1949). We will discuss the genesis of these paradoxical truths, and we will suggest ways that an awareness of these principles can ...


Mental Health Screening Of Veterans Diagnosed With Cancer: Analyzing Psychological Distress And Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help, Jessica Jean Baptiste 2015 Seton Hall University

Mental Health Screening Of Veterans Diagnosed With Cancer: Analyzing Psychological Distress And Attitudes Towards Seeking Professional Psychological Help, Jessica Jean Baptiste

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Studies analyzing mental health care utilization in veterans with a co-occurrence of a medical and psychological diagnosis are still underrepresented in the literature. The primary purpose of this study is to examine psychological screening methods of veterans diagnosed with cancer and determining when these veterans are more likely to endorse psychological symptoms. This information can contribute to the discussion of effective ways of integrating mental health screening in specialty care settings. A correlational, causal-comparative research design is employed to answer the study research questions and hypotheses. The participants include Vietnam, Korean, and World War II veterans seeking oncology services at ...


Chamois Paleo-Psychology, Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD 2015 Unaffiliated

Chamois Paleo-Psychology, Jorge Conesa-Sevilla Phd

Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD

To all of us who have shared in the same primal affectation, a-sense-of-place and a-sense-of-the-animal both wrapped into ONE-emotion-instinct, the line between “serious leisure” and “recreational specialization” is happily blurred and indistinguishable to the surprise of academics. These experiences brought, in the words of an unknown writer, “...a certain psychology of the woods.”


Paleo-Psychology: A Brief Introduction. Reintroducing, Reapplying, And Justifying An “Ancient Perspective”, Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD 2015 Unaffiliated

Paleo-Psychology: A Brief Introduction. Reintroducing, Reapplying, And Justifying An “Ancient Perspective”, Jorge Conesa-Sevilla Phd

Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD

The historical antecedents of and call for “paleopsychology” emerged in tandem with early 20th century efforts, both to synthesize and unify the work of biology, anthropology, sociology, and psychology, and to expand the scope of the comparative sciences (evolutionary biology and psychology): “Our veneer of civilization has only commenced to acquire the slightest degree of fixation.” (Jelliffe, 1923)


Investigating The Use Of A Positive Variation Of The Good Behavior Game In A High School Setting, Shauna Lynne 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Use Of A Positive Variation Of The Good Behavior Game In A High School Setting, Shauna Lynne

Master's Theses

The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an example of an interdependent group contingency that can be used in classrooms to manage behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a positive variation of the GBG in which teachers attend to rule-following behavior, as opposed to the original version of the game in which teachers attend to rule-breaking behavior. In previous studies, researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the GBG in decreasing problematic behavior and/or increasing productive or desired behavior in classroom settings and in hospital settings and spanning preschool-aged, elementary toddlers to high school-aged adolescents ...


A Comparison Of The Effects Of Choice And Differential Reinforcement On The Computation Fluency Of Students With Escape-Maintained Academic Performance Problems, Maureen A. O'Connor 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Comparison Of The Effects Of Choice And Differential Reinforcement On The Computation Fluency Of Students With Escape-Maintained Academic Performance Problems, Maureen A. O'Connor

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

This dissertation compared antecedent- and consequence-based strategies to determine which treatments or combination of treatments produced the strongest improvements in math computation fluency with four elementary-aged students who displayed escape-motivated behaviors. Functional analyses were conducted to identify elementary-school students whose academic responding was under a negative-reinforcement contingency. Next, a preference assessment was administered to each student to identify potentially effective reinforcers in the form of permissible school activities. These high-preference activities were used during the DRA and Task-Choice + DRA conditions. A multielement design was used to examine the impact of four treatments – Task Choice, DRA, Task Choice+DRA, and DNRA ...


Gait Transition Dynamics Are Modulated By Experimental Protocol, Mohammad Abdolvahab, Jason Gordon 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Gait Transition Dynamics Are Modulated By Experimental Protocol, Mohammad Abdolvahab, Jason Gordon

Mohammad Abdolvahab

No abstract provided.


Whole-Body Semantic Decision Making, Mohammad Abdolvahab, Michael Turvey 2015 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Whole-Body Semantic Decision Making, Mohammad Abdolvahab, Michael Turvey

Mohammad Abdolvahab

No abstract provided.


Ethnicity, Qualifications, And Peer Influence: Relative Effects In A Simulated Hiring Decision, Victoria Kerns 2015 Seton Hall University

Ethnicity, Qualifications, And Peer Influence: Relative Effects In A Simulated Hiring Decision, Victoria Kerns

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Past research has examined the effects observed when résumés varying only in a name or a particular characteristic that is often stereotyped against receive differential feedback (see, for example, Derous et al., 2009). The current study sought to build on that design, adding the influence of peers as a possible way to reduce this discrimination in hiring.

Participants viewed two résumés varying in qualifications, one belonging to a seemingly Anglo candidate and one belonging to a seemingly Arab candidate. They chose a candidate for the position in the presence of peer influence which favored one candidate over another, or peer ...


Examining The Effect Of Education Type On Common Misconceptions Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Monica De Iorio 2015 Seton Hall University

Examining The Effect Of Education Type On Common Misconceptions Of Traumatic Brain Injury, Monica De Iorio

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

It has been widely shown that misconceptions related to traumatic brain injury (TBI) are held among both family members of people with TBI and the general public. These misconceptions have the potential to increase the distress of people with TBI and negatively impact rehabilitation processes. Although increased education has often been suggested to reduce misconceptions, few studies have examined which methods are most effective in providing information to the public. In the current study, I investigated the effects of existing education materials – either a TBI factsheet or personal stories of people with TBI. These materials are currently easily accessible online ...


An Investigation Of Short-Term Memory Functioning In A Neurodevelopmental Rat Model Of Schizophrenia, Ashley Moyett 2015 Seton Hall University

An Investigation Of Short-Term Memory Functioning In A Neurodevelopmental Rat Model Of Schizophrenia, Ashley Moyett

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Abstract

Schizophrenia is a debilitating disorder characterized by positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Cognitive deficits affect one’s learning and memory due to a dysfunction in the brain, inhibiting a normal functioning life. The self-medicating hypothesis states that ninety percent of people with schizophrenia smoke, because nicotine use improves these cognitive deficits. The cytokine hypothesis states that inflammation due to prenatal infection is associated with schizophrenia. These increased proinflamatory cytokines can damage the brains of the fetuses, which can cause schizophrenic-like symptoms in rats. The present study used Lipopolysaccharides to activate the cytokine-mediated inflammatory response injected into pregnant dams. A ...


Image Segmentation Using Fuzzy-Spatial Taxon Cut, Lauren Barghout 2015 U.C. Berkeley

Image Segmentation Using Fuzzy-Spatial Taxon Cut, Lauren Barghout

MODVIS Workshop

Images convey multiple meanings that depend on the context in which the viewer perceptually organizes the scene. This presents a problem for automated image segmentation, because it adds uncertainty to the process of selecting which objects to include or not include within a segment. I’ll discuss the implementation of a fuzzy-logic-natural-vision-processing engine that solves this problem by assuming the scene architecture prior to processing. The scene architecture, a standardized natural-scene-perception-taxonomy comprised of a hierarchy of nested spatial-taxons. Spatial-taxons are regions (pixel-sets) that are figure-like, in that they are perceived as having a contour, are either `thing-like', or a `group ...


‘Edge’ Integration Explains Contrast And Assimilation In A Gradient Lightness Illusion, Michael E. Rudd 2015 mrudd@u.washington.edu

‘Edge’ Integration Explains Contrast And Assimilation In A Gradient Lightness Illusion, Michael E. Rudd

MODVIS Workshop

In the ‘phantom’ illusion (Galmonte, Soranzo, Rudd, & Agostini, submitted), either an incremental or a decremental target, when surrounded by a luminance gradient, can to be made to appear as an increment or a decrement, depending on the gradient width. For wide gradients, incremental targets appear as increments and decremental targets appear as decrements. For narrow gradients, the reverse is true. Here, I model these phenomena with a two-stage neural lightness theory (Rudd, 2013, 2014) in which local steps in log luminance are first encoded by oriented spatial filters operating on a log-transformed version of the image; then the filter outputs are appropriately integrated along image paths directed towards the target. A contrast gain control mechanism adjusts each filter’s gain on the basis of the outputs of other nearby filters. The weighted contribution of each filter to the target lightness decays exponentially with distance, as do the strengths of the between-filter gain modulations. I simulate the lightnesses of incremental and decremental targets as a function of gradient width and show that the model reproduces the key properties of the phantom illusion, even when the gain applied to decremental luminance ...


A Linearized Model For Flicker And Contrast Thresholds At Various Retinal Illuminances, Albert Ahumada, Andrew B. Watson 2015 NASA Ames Research Center

A Linearized Model For Flicker And Contrast Thresholds At Various Retinal Illuminances, Albert Ahumada, Andrew B. Watson

MODVIS Workshop

Watson and Ahumada (1992 SID) predicted flicker thresholds for bright displays using a temporal contrast sensitivity function (TCSF). Under the assumptions that the falling limb of the TCSF is linear at all retinal illuminations and that the Ferry-Porter law can be extended to supra-threshold levels, the thresholds for any of the three variables (frequency in Hz, log10 contrast, and retinal illuminance in log Trolands) can be predicted from the other two from a linear model with four parameters.


The Bounded Log-Odds Model Of Frequency And Probability Distortion, Hang Zhang, Laurence T. Maloney 2015 Peking University

The Bounded Log-Odds Model Of Frequency And Probability Distortion, Hang Zhang, Laurence T. Maloney

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


A Signal Detection Experiment With Limited Number Of Trials, Tadamasa Sawada 2015 School of Psychology, Higher School of Economics

A Signal Detection Experiment With Limited Number Of Trials, Tadamasa Sawada

MODVIS Workshop

Signal detection theory has been well accepted in vision science to measure human sensitivity to stimuli in a Psychophysical experiment. The theory is formulated so that the measured sensitivity is independent from a response bias (criterion). The formulation is based on an assumption that number of trials in the experiment is infinite but this assumption cannot be satisfied in practice. The assumption came from two normal distributions used in the formulation. The distributions respectively represent a set of signal trial and that of noise trials in the experiment. In this study, I will show how the violation of the assumption ...


Testing The Bayesian Confidence Hypothesis, Wei Ji Ma, Ronald van den Berg 2015 New York University

Testing The Bayesian Confidence Hypothesis, Wei Ji Ma, Ronald Van Den Berg

MODVIS Workshop

Asking subjects to rate their confidence is one of the oldest procedures in psychophysics. Remarkably, quantitative models of confidence ratings have been scarce. The Bayesian confidence hypothesis (BCH) states that an observer’s confidence rating is monotonically related to the posterior probability of their choice. I will report tests of this hypothesis in two visual categorization tasks: one requiring rapid categorization of a single oriented stimulus, the other a deliberative judgment typically made by scientists, namely interpreting scatterplots. We find evidence against the Bayesian confidence hypothesis in both tasks.


A Conceptual Framework Of Computations In Mid-Level Vision, Jonas Kubilius, Johan Wagemans, Hans P. Op de Beeck 2015 University of Leuven

A Conceptual Framework Of Computations In Mid-Level Vision, Jonas Kubilius, Johan Wagemans, Hans P. Op De Beeck

MODVIS Workshop

The goal of visual processing is to extract information necessary for a variety of tasks, such as grasping objects, navigating in scenes, and recognizing them. While ultimately these tasks might be carried out by separate processing pathways, they nonetheless share a common root in the early and intermediate visual areas. What representations should these areas develop in order to facilitate all of these higher-level tasks? Several distinct ideas have received empirical support in the literature so far: (i) boundary feature detection, such as edge, corner, and curved segment extraction; (ii) second-order feature detection, such as the difference in orientation or ...


The Psychophysics Of Metacognition And Meta D', S A. Klein 2015 UC Berkeley

The Psychophysics Of Metacognition And Meta D', S A. Klein

MODVIS Workshop

In the past five years there has been a surge of renewed interest in metacognition and meta d'. It is a very interesting and highly controversial area of research. It is interesting because thinking about subjective experiences provides new insight into decision making. The new book on the topic edited by Fleming and Frith, and the Matiscalco article in that book provide an excellent summary of the issues. My view is that double judgment signal detection theory, plus new approaches for multinomial modeling can provide important insights into the recent meta d' findings. I will show how improved rating scale ...


Two Correspondence Problems Easier Than One, Aaron Michaux, Zygmunt Pizlo 2015 Purdue University

Two Correspondence Problems Easier Than One, Aaron Michaux, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

Computer vision research rarely makes use of symmetry in stereo reconstruction despite its established importance in perceptual psychology. Such stereo reconstructions produce visually satisfying figures with precisely located points and lines, even when input images have low or moderate resolution. However, because few invariants exist, there are no known general approaches to solving symmetry correspondence on real images. The problem is significantly easier when combined with the binocular correspondence problem, because each correspondence problem provides strong non-overlapping constraints on the solution space. We demonstrate a system that leverages these constraints to produce accurate stereo models from pairs of binocular images ...


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