Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Psychology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

12,617 Full-Text Articles 14,653 Authors 6,310,745 Downloads 233 Institutions

All Articles in Psychology

Faceted Search

12,617 full-text articles. Page 1 of 341.

Paradoxical Truths In Heroic Leadership: Implications For Leadership Development And Effectiveness, Scott T. Allison, Jennifer L. Cecilione 2015 University of RIchmond

Paradoxical Truths In Heroic Leadership: Implications For Leadership Development And Effectiveness, Scott T. Allison, Jennifer L. Cecilione

Scott T. Allison

In this chapter, we discuss the basic elements of heroic leadership, showing how heroism and exemplary leadership are deeply intertwined. We then describe six paradoxical truths about heroic leadership that are often unrecognized and unappreciated. We believe that ignorance of these counterintuitive truths and paradoxes about heroic leadership can lead to misunderstandings about leaders, leadership, and leadership development. Most of these paradoxes are a central part of the hero’s journey as described by comparative mythologist Joseph Campbell (1949). We will discuss the genesis of these paradoxical truths, and we will suggest ways that an awareness of these principles can ...


Investigating The Use Of A Positive Variation Of The Good Behavior Game In A High School Setting, Shauna Lynne 2015 University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating The Use Of A Positive Variation Of The Good Behavior Game In A High School Setting, Shauna Lynne

Master's Theses

The Good Behavior Game (GBG) is an example of an interdependent group contingency that can be used in classrooms to manage behavior. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a positive variation of the GBG in which teachers attend to rule-following behavior, as opposed to the original version of the game in which teachers attend to rule-breaking behavior. In previous studies, researchers have demonstrated the effectiveness of the GBG in decreasing problematic behavior and/or increasing productive or desired behavior in classroom settings and in hospital settings and spanning preschool-aged, elementary toddlers to high school-aged adolescents ...


Childhood Adversity, Adult Homelessness And The Intergenerational Transmission Of Risk: A Population-Representative Study Of Individuals In Households With Children, J J. Cutuli, Ann Elizabeth Montgomer, Michelle Evans-Chase, Dennis P. Culhane 2015 Rugerns University Camden

Childhood Adversity, Adult Homelessness And The Intergenerational Transmission Of Risk: A Population-Representative Study Of Individuals In Households With Children, J J. Cutuli, Ann Elizabeth Montgomer, Michelle Evans-Chase, Dennis P. Culhane

Dennis P. Culhane

This study tested for associations between childhood adversity, adult homelessness and contexts of developmental risk in households with children. Data were drawn from the 2010 Washington State Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, representative of the population of Washington State residents. Considering adults in households with children, those who experienced higher levels of childhood adversity were more likely to have experienced homelessness in adulthood. Meanwhile, a 10-factor index of cumulative developmental risk was independently associated with childhood adversity and with adult homelessness. Adult homelessness appears to represent a circumstance through which past childhood adversities are brought forward and associated with contexts ...


The Resilient Machine: The Body As The Source Of The Autobiographical Self, Taryn Heon 2015 Keene State College

The Resilient Machine: The Body As The Source Of The Autobiographical Self, Taryn Heon

Strigidae

Contrary to the postmodern paradigm that would purport that selfhood unfolds out of language or discursive interactions with the external world, a rich body of evidence has evolved to show that selfhood—and the resultant narrative that is shaped from it—begins at the bodily level.


Recognizing The Influence Of Social Determinants On Hiv Risk Behaviors And The Need For Structural Interventions To Prevent Hiv In Women, Arlene Edwards 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Recognizing The Influence Of Social Determinants On Hiv Risk Behaviors And The Need For Structural Interventions To Prevent Hiv In Women, Arlene Edwards

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The design and implementation of structural interventions may provide for simultaneous and longitudinal responses to prevention needs in multiple contexts as defined by social determinants, thus varied opportunities exist to respond to the HIV prevention needs of women. According to the CDC, in 2010, the rate of new HIV infections among black women was 20 times that of white women, and the rate among Hispanic/Latino women was 4 times the rate of white women. Additionally, 86% of HIV infections in women were attributed to heterosexual contact and 14% to injection drug use (CDC, 2012). These numbers are reflected outside ...


A Comparison Of Sexual Health And Sexual Pressure Among Young African American And Caucasian Women, Ann Gakumo 2015 University of Alabama - Birmingham

A Comparison Of Sexual Health And Sexual Pressure Among Young African American And Caucasian Women, Ann Gakumo

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Introduction. Condom self-efficacy, positive attitudes toward condom use, condom negotiation skills, HIV knowledge, and self-esteem have been associated with decreased HIV risk behavior among young women, but few studies have examined racial disparities that may exist in these social health indicators. Moreover, sexual pressure (inclusive of both coercive and non-coercive pressures to engage in unwanted or unprotected sex) has been understudied in women of different racial groups.

Study Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare racial similarities and disparities in indicators of sexual health and sexual pressure in an urban sample of young African American and Caucasian women ...


Dramatic Plays As A Tool To Educate Young African-American Females About Hiv/Aids, Jonathan N. Livingston, James Merryweather, Jessica Mohabir, Che' Smith, Nina Smith, Jacqueline Madry, Travis Knight, Dorothy M. Singleton, Seronda A. Robinson, Lisa Cothran, Dwayne Brandon, Alexis L. Slay, Camille Brown 2015 North Carolina Central University

Dramatic Plays As A Tool To Educate Young African-American Females About Hiv/Aids, Jonathan N. Livingston, James Merryweather, Jessica Mohabir, Che' Smith, Nina Smith, Jacqueline Madry, Travis Knight, Dorothy M. Singleton, Seronda A. Robinson, Lisa Cothran, Dwayne Brandon, Alexis L. Slay, Camille Brown

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Rates of HIV/AIDS transmission have increased substantially, particularly among young African American women. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), HIV/AIDS is the number one killer for African American women aged 25 to 34. Given that many of these young women are contracting the disease in their late teens and early twenties, there is a need to develop interventions that directly address the needs of this group. The current study sought to assess the effectiveness of theater in increasing knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the likelihood of healthier sexual behavior and choices among 219 young ...


Parental Discussions About Sexual Risk With African American Sons: The Role Of Religiosity., Wadiya A. Udell, Geri R. Donenberg 2015 University of Washington Bothell

Parental Discussions About Sexual Risk With African American Sons: The Role Of Religiosity., Wadiya A. Udell, Geri R. Donenberg

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

The current study investigated the relationship between parental religiosity (i.e., parent church attendance), and frequency of parent-youth communication about sexual risk (i.e., discussion about sex, and discussion about condom use) with African American boys. Participants were 65 parents of African American boys between the ages of 11 and 17 years. Results indicated no relationship between age and parent-son discussion about sexual risk. However, parental religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of communication with sons about sex and condom use. Parents who attended church more frequently reported fewer discussions about sex and condom use than parents who attended church ...


Do Masculinity And Perceived Condom Barriers Predict Heterosexual Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Black Substance Abusing Men?, A, Kathleen Burlew, Jerika Wilson, LaTrice Montgomery, Bridgette Peteet, Candace Johnson, Mary Hatch-Maillette 2015 University of Cincinnati - Main Campus

Do Masculinity And Perceived Condom Barriers Predict Heterosexual Hiv Risk Behaviors Among Black Substance Abusing Men?, A, Kathleen Burlew, Jerika Wilson, Latrice Montgomery, Bridgette Peteet, Candace Johnson, Mary Hatch-Maillette

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Although HIV prevention during substance abuse treatment is ideal, existing HIV risk-reduction interventions are less effective among Black and other ethnic minority substance abusers. The Sexual Health Model (SHM) and the Person, Extended Family and Neighborhood-3 model (PEN-3) both highlight the importance of increasing our understanding of the relationship of sociocultural factors to sexual-decision making as a step towards developing more HIV prevention interventions for ethnic minorities. However, few studies examine sociocultural factors in the sexual decision-making process of Black substance abusing men. This secondary analysis of data collected in an evaluation of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS), a HIV ...


Predictors Of Readiness To Quit Among A Diverse Sample Of Sexual Minority Male Smokers, Alicia Kaye Matthews 2015 University of Illinois at Chicago

Predictors Of Readiness To Quit Among A Diverse Sample Of Sexual Minority Male Smokers, Alicia Kaye Matthews

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Readiness to quit smoking - a pattern of attitudes, intentions, and behaviors that reflect a likelihood of engaging in cessation activities—is a useful heuristic for understanding smoking disparities based on sexual orientation. This study examined demographic, tobacco-use patterns, psychosocial and cognitive factors associated with readiness to quit among gay and bisexual male smokers.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted as part of a larger Tobacco Elimination and Control Collaboration (Q-TECC) initiative in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. Readiness to quit was measured by a composite score created from four variables (motivation to quit, importance of ...


Are There Gender Differences In Perceived Sexual Self-Efficacy Among African-American Adolescents?, Michelle L. Redmond, Rhonda K. Lewis 2015 University of Kansas School of Medicine-Wichita

Are There Gender Differences In Perceived Sexual Self-Efficacy Among African-American Adolescents?, Michelle L. Redmond, Rhonda K. Lewis

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Background: African American adolescents accounted for more than half of all HIV/AIDS cases in 2009. Behavioral Strategies are needed to help lessen the incidence of HIV/AIDS among this population.

Purpose: The aim of his study was to examine sexual self-efficacy practices and beliefs among African American adolescents. We also examined gender differences between African American adolescents to better understand their perceptions of sexual self-efficacy, condom use intention, and other safer sex practices and beliefs.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 214 African American adolescents using survey instruments to examine their beliefs, perception and intentions on the use ...


[Special Issue On Sea Demographics] Response - Counseling/Psychology, Loan T. Phan 2015 University of New Hampshire

[Special Issue On Sea Demographics] Response - Counseling/Psychology, Loan T. Phan

Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement

Response to Mark E. Pfeifer's featured article.


A Qualitative Examination Of The Psychosocial Adjustment Of Khmer Refugees In Three Massachusetts Communities, Leakhena Nou 2015 California State University

A Qualitative Examination Of The Psychosocial Adjustment Of Khmer Refugees In Three Massachusetts Communities, Leakhena Nou

Journal of Southeast Asian American Education and Advancement

This paper uses a sociological stress process model to explore the Khmer adult refugees' experience in Massachusetts. The analysis is based on the responses of three focus groups in the Khmer communities of Lowell, Lynn, and Revere, Massachusetts. The focus groups provided an in-depth understanding of sources of stress, stress mediators, and psychosocial adjustment/adaptational patterns for Khmer refugees who had experienced the Cambodian genocide. Symptoms and reactions associated with underlying causes of mental health problems had culturally specific relevance to physical illness and mental health.


Thinking And Feeling: The Influence Of Positive Emotion On Human Cognition, Mark S. Barajas 2015 Western Michigan University

Thinking And Feeling: The Influence Of Positive Emotion On Human Cognition, Mark S. Barajas

The Hilltop Review

The interaction of thinking and feeling has remained an enduring question of psychology and philosophy. After centuries of philosophical debate, only recently have psychologists, aided by technological advances, conducted rigorous research on the relationship between affect and cognition. This paper integrates contemporary approaches from cognitive psychology and neuropsychology to understand the influence of positive affect on cognition. The broaden-and–build theory (Fredrickson, 2001) suggests that positive emotion enhances human cognitive flexibility, expands one’s repertoire of thoughts, and facilitates development of cognitive resources. The dopaminergic theory of positive affect (Ashby, Isen, & Turkin, 1999) presents dopamine as an important mediator of ...


Celiac Is A Social Disease: Family Challenges And Strategies, Gonzalo Bacigalupe, Aleksandra Plocha 2015 University of Massachusetts Boston

Celiac Is A Social Disease: Family Challenges And Strategies, Gonzalo Bacigalupe, Aleksandra Plocha

Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD, MPH

Celiac disease is the most common autoimmune inherited disorder in the United States, affecting approximately 1% of the population. Little research exists on the impact of family processes on adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD), the only treatment for celiac disease. The objective of this qualitative study was to examine the barriers that families with a celiac child face and the strategies they use to adhere to the recommended diet. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 12 diagnosed with celiac disease. Grounded theory and narrative analysis were used to analyze ...


Risk Perception In Aviation Students: Weather Matters, Ric Ferraro PhD, Darci VanDyke, Mary Zander, Krista Anderson, Bethany Kuehlen 2015 Univ. North Dakota

Risk Perception In Aviation Students: Weather Matters, Ric Ferraro Phd, Darci Vandyke, Mary Zander, Krista Anderson, Bethany Kuehlen

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Sixty-three aviation major students and 71 non-aviation major students participated in an experiment concerning aviation experience and risk perception (Risk Perception Scale, RPS; Hunter, 2002). Non-aviation students rated three of the RPS risk scenarios (P2Fly, P2Life, P2 Base) as having higher perceived risk than aviation students with the exception of the weather risk scenarios (P2WX). Aviation students perceived the P2WX scenarios to be significantly more risky. These results have implications for how future pilots perceive risk.


Glass Ceilings And Racialized Exclusion: Taiwanese Americans' Gendered Experiences Of Otherness In The White-Collar Workplace, Chien-Juh Gu 2015 Western Michigan University

Glass Ceilings And Racialized Exclusion: Taiwanese Americans' Gendered Experiences Of Otherness In The White-Collar Workplace, Chien-Juh Gu

Chien-Juh Gu

This article examines Taiwanese American professionals’ interpretations of the glass ceiling to illuminate the manifestations of structural inequality at the micro-level of social life. Data are based on 40 in-depth interviews in the Chicago metropolitan area. Findings suggest that racial inequalities are experienced through race relations. Ethnic cultures construct relational fences along racial lines that designate the place of each group in the racial hierarchy. Although frustrated and alienated by their marginalized position, women and men use different strategies to negotiate the meaning of being an “other.” Women act confrontationally to transgress social boundaries, while men adopt acquiescent and coalitional ...


Fnirs Measures Of Prefrontal Cortex Lateralization During Stuttered And Fluency-Enhanced Speech In Adults Who Stutter, Danra M. Kazenski 2015 University of Vermont

Fnirs Measures Of Prefrontal Cortex Lateralization During Stuttered And Fluency-Enhanced Speech In Adults Who Stutter, Danra M. Kazenski

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The present study compared lateralization of cortical activation patterns in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of adults who stutter (AWS) and typical speakers (TS) as measured with functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in habitual and fluency-enhanced speaking conditions.

Participants were AWS (n = 11) and gender- and age-matched TS (n = 11) who completed speaking tasks in three condition blocks: (1) habitual speech using no speaking strategy (2) prolonged speech after receiving short-term training in fluency-shaping strategy-use (3) syllable-timed speech after being trained to speak in rhythm with a metronome at 92 beats per minute.

The three primary dependent variables were mean change ...


Quality-Of-Life Indicators For African American And European American Long-Term Survivors Of Early-Stage Breast Cancer, Cher de Rossiter 2015 Walden University

Quality-Of-Life Indicators For African American And European American Long-Term Survivors Of Early-Stage Breast Cancer, Cher De Rossiter

Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

This meta-analysis investigated the difference in perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among long-term early-stage breast cancer survivors (BCS). The comparison was between African American and European American women. Initial pilot searches suggested that enough studies existed for a meaningful meta-analysis of a BCS population at least 5 years post diagnosis. Only studies using the outcome measure HRQOL were included in the study; this yielded an initial sample of 212 study reports, with 56 reports entering the coding phase of the process. African American women were grossly underrepresented in this set of studies in comparison to the overall breast ...


Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Locus Of Control And Marital Satisfaction, Jesus Botello 2015 Walden University

Combat-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Locus Of Control And Marital Satisfaction, Jesus Botello

Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological condition researchers have cited as a major cause of marital discord and divorce for veterans with PTSD. This study examined the psychological construct of locus of control among the wives of veterans diagnosed with combat-related PTSD and whether or not it was a predictor of marital satisfaction within this context. An extensive search of the current literature revealed no previous studies that had investigated this relationship. Utilizing the family systems theory to address this gap, this study sought to compare reported marital satisfaction in wives with an internal locus of control to ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress