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Resilience As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Negative Life Events And Psychological Well-Being, Anna L. Faircloth 2017 Georgia Southern University

Resilience As A Mediator Of The Relationship Between Negative Life Events And Psychological Well-Being, Anna L. Faircloth

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The relatively young field of positive psychology serves to redirect the focus of common psychological investigation and intervention on factors that deplete well-being, toward characteristics and experiences that promote happiness and well-being (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). Two features that have been consistently associated with measures of psychological well-being are resilience and negative life events (Avey et al., 2010; Shonkoff et al., 2012). The current study examined the relationship between negative life events, well-being, and resilience. Specifically, the study was designed to determine if resilience mediates the relationship between negative life events and psychological well-being among emerging adults. Participants were 325 college students (166 women; 158 men) who independently completed an online assessment comprised of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Inventory of College Students’ Recent Life ...


Examining Anxiety Schemas Through The Context Of A Stress-Intrapersonal Model, Kayla M. LeLeux-LaBarge 2017 Georgia Southern University

Examining Anxiety Schemas Through The Context Of A Stress-Intrapersonal Model, Kayla M. Leleux-Labarge

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

Explicating vulnerability factors to anxiety difficulties is important as the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) lists anxiety as the most common and costly class of mental health disorders in the United States. Maladaptive schemas, as theorized by Young (1990), perpetuate anxiety pathology by hindering the individual’s ability to alter behaviors, thoughts, emotions, and overall approach to adverse events. Previous research indicates that intrapersonal resources can stymie the development of psychopathological features, even in the context of adverse life events (Floyd, Seltzer, Greenberg, & Song, 2013). The main purpose of the current study was to explore the relationship among adverse life events ...


Connecting Emotions To Behavioral Outcomes, Whitney L. Spears 2017 Georgia Southern University

Connecting Emotions To Behavioral Outcomes, Whitney L. Spears

Electronic Theses & Dissertations

The field of positive psychology has emerged within the last decade and focuses on investigating happiness and what constitutes a satisfying life (Seligman, 2011; Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000). One of the main purposes of positive psychology is to identify resources that can be used to promote psychologically beneficial outcomes (Fredrickson, 2001). Two positive psychological outcomes that can build resources to overcome negative circumstances and lead to a fulfilling life are resilience and well-being. A theory proposed by Fredrickson (1998) that offers a process by which individuals can enhance well-being and resilience is the broaden-and-build theory. Through this theory, it is hypothesized that experiencing positive affect can broaden an individual’s thoughts and actions, which can in turn build lasting personal outcomes (i.e., resilience and well-being; Fredrickson, 2001). The current study draws upon the tenets of the broaden-and-build theory to identify processes that may help clarify the connection between positive affect and positive psychological outcomes. Specifically, the main purpose of the current study was to determine if savoring strategies mediate the relationships between positive affect and positive psychological outcomes. Participants included two hundred and eighty-nine college students who were recruited to complete a series of online surveys. In regard to gender ...


Heroic Leadership, Scott Allison 2016 University of Richmond

Heroic Leadership, Scott Allison

Scott T. Allison

The world’s most revered leaders have traveled the hero’s journey of personal transformation and, in turn, have used their gifts to transform others. The heroic leader’s journey is the human journey, replete with struggle, growth, learning, transformation, and an ascendency from followership to heroic leadership. Those who dare to transform, or who are compelled to do so by circumstance, grow into fully developed human beings ready, willing, and able to transform others. The transformed hero represents the pinnacle of human maturity, the state of wellbeing that allows people to flourish and experience eudaimonia.


Setting The Scene: The Rise And Coalescence Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, Roderick M. Kramer 2016 University of Richmond

Setting The Scene: The Rise And Coalescence Of Heroism Science, Scott T. Allison, George R. Goethals, Roderick M. Kramer

Scott T. Allison

This opening chapter of the Handbook of Heroism and Heroic Leadership offers insights and inspiration about the zenith of human behavior. The contributions to this volume offer a sturdy foundations for the development of a multidisciplinary and even transdisciplinary perspective on the antecedents and consequences of heroic behavior. In aggregate, these chapters chart the landscape of what we currently know about heroism-related phenomena, covering a panoply of  human experiences. The chapters encompass such diverse topics as courage, empathy, resilience, hope, meaning, purpose, spirituality, morality, altruism, character strengths, wisdom, development, regeneration, and transformation.    


Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla 2016 European Ecopsychology Society

Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla

Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD

"[...] A recurring theme in “ecopsychology,” in its present and inchoate form, is the continuation and extension of “spirit” in juxtaposition with other privileged and/or habitually preferred (perhaps even psychologically needed) practices or causes (spirituality-somethings, farcical chemistry or physics, yoga, coopted and partially understood indigenous lore, extreme diets, and various fetishes). That these mostly emotion-laden, unreasoned, and/or idiosyncratic amalgamations are prevalent says more about the psychological needs of the persons espousing these sentiments or beliefs (their hobbies or interests) than about “nature.” Certainly, it is nothing new that humans project their hopes, desperations, and wish-fulfillment thinking onto the shifting ...


Group Empathy Theory: The Effect Of Group Empathy On U.S. Intergroup Attitudes And Behavior In The Context Of Immigration Threats, Cigdem Sirin, Nicholas Valentino, José Villalobos 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Group Empathy Theory: The Effect Of Group Empathy On U.S. Intergroup Attitudes And Behavior In The Context Of Immigration Threats, Cigdem Sirin, Nicholas Valentino, José Villalobos

José D. Villalobos

Group Empathy Theory posits empathy felt by members of one group can boost support for another even when the groups are in direct competition for rights, security, and resources. We employ our theory to explain divergent reactions of majority versus minority groups to immigration threats. We conduct a two-wave national survey experiment with 1,799 participants consisting of a randomized sample of Anglos and randomized, stratified oversamples of African Americans and Latinos. The experiment manipulates racial/ethnic cues in a vignette depicting an ambiguous yet potentially threatening incident at an immigrant detention center. African Americans and Latinos are significantly more ...


The Influence Of Informant And Measurement On The Relations Among Adolescent Narcissism, Prosocial Behavior, And Emotional And Social Intelligence, Rebecca Lynn Kauten 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

The Influence Of Informant And Measurement On The Relations Among Adolescent Narcissism, Prosocial Behavior, And Emotional And Social Intelligence, Rebecca Lynn Kauten

Dissertations

Adolescent narcissism has been extensively linked with aggression, but its relation with more positive behavioral correlates has been largely overlooked in the literature. Some research has investigated the divergent adaptive and maladaptive personality and behavioral correlates of non-pathological and pathological (i.e., grandiose, vulnerable) narcissism (Barry & Kauten, 2014; Barry & Wallace, 2010). This study sought to replicate previous findings that pathological narcissism is linked to self-reported prosocial behavior (Kauten & Barry, 2014) and further investigated the relation of self-reported narcissism with self-, parent-, and peer-reported prosocial behavior in a sample of 212 adolescents (M age = 16.8 years, SD = .77; 175 males, 34 females, 3 missing gender data). The present study also sought to examine the potential moderating effect of emotional and social intelligence on the relations between narcissism and prosocial behavior. Social intelligence moderated the relation between grandiose narcissism and self-reported ideal volunteer hours, and several interesting correlations were evident among the ...


Teaching.Natural Or Cultural?, David Lancy 2016 Utah State University

Teaching.Natural Or Cultural?, David Lancy

David Lancy

In this chapter I argue that teaching, as we now understand the term, is historically and cross-culturally very rare.  It appears to be unnecessary to transmit culture or to socialize children. Children are, on the other hand, primed by evolution to be avid observers, imitators, players and helpers—roles that reveal the profoundly autonomous and self-directed nature of culture acquisition (Lancy in press a). And yet, teaching is ubiquitous throughout the modern world—at least among the middle to upper class segment of the population. This ubiquity has led numerous scholars to argue for the universality and uniqueness of teaching ...


Temperament And Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia As Contributors To Externalizing Behavior Among Early Adolescents, Tyler Laney Ph.D. 2016 Seattle Pacific University

Temperament And Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia As Contributors To Externalizing Behavior Among Early Adolescents, Tyler Laney Ph.D.

Clinical Psychology Dissertations

The current study examines the relationship between temperament and physiological models of externalizing behavior to externalizing behavior in a community sample of early adolescents. The psychophysiological component of vagal tone, as measured by respirator sinus arrhythmia (RSA), is used with an emphasis placed on distinguishing between its function as a state versus trait measure of parasympathetic nervous system activity. Negative affectivity (NA) is proposed as a general risk factor for psychopathology. Emotion regulation, as indexed by effortful control (EC) and basal RSA, is hypothesized to function as a mediator between NA and externalizing behavior. A moderated mediation model is then ...


Risk Factors Of Eating Disorders And The Modern Orthodox Jewish Family, Susan D. Schmool 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Risk Factors Of Eating Disorders And The Modern Orthodox Jewish Family, Susan D. Schmool

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects (2014-Present)

Eating Disorders (EDs) are characterized by maladaptive attitudes, beliefs, and/or behaviors related to eating. Maladaptive behaviors can include restrictive eating, bingeing, purging, excessive exercising, and use of diuretics. Research has identified several characteristics within individuals that can be considered risk factors for the development of EDs including perfectionism, low self-esteem, elevated BMIs, affluence, and stressful life events. Several of these characteristics are very common in the Modern Orthodox Jewish community. Modern Orthodox Jewish female adolescents are a very unique and at-risk population in society. This population has a prevalence of EDs that is 50% higher than the general population ...


Does Intergroup Threat Cause Distinct Contact Orientations For High And Low Status Groups?, Brian M. Johnston 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

Does Intergroup Threat Cause Distinct Contact Orientations For High And Low Status Groups?, Brian M. Johnston

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects (2014-Present)

A variety of groups, such as White and Latino Americans, predominantly live in segregated clusters. This is evident by looking at demographic data in the U.S., and often occurs in the absence of legal mandates. To explain why segregation occurs, this dissertation developed a theoretical model with hypotheses on how perceiving a threat to ingroup resources could cause segregation behaviors, but with unique behaviors for high and low status groups. Whites (high status) could view Latinos as a threat to jobs, for example, and be motivated to avoid Latinos. Latinos (low status) could similarly view Whites as a threat ...


On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

On The Screen, In The Mind: An Erp Investigation Into The Interaction Between Visuo-Spatial Information And Spatial Language During On-Line Processing, Emily Zane

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects (2014-Present)

This project used Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) to explore neurophysiological brain responses to prepositional phrases involving concrete and abstract reference nouns (e.g., "plate" and "moment", respectively) after the presentation of objects with varying spatial features. Prepositional phrases were headed by in or on and were either matching (e.g., "in the plate/moment") or mismatching (e.g., "on the plate/moment"). Conjunction phrase matches and fillers were also presented. Before half of the concrete-phrase items, a photographic depiction of the reference noun was presented. In these photographs, objects were displayed in a way that was either more appropriate for in ...


The Words And Worlds Of Disability: Discourses On Disablement Within The Situated Practices Of Service Providers, Enitza C. Carril 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Words And Worlds Of Disability: Discourses On Disablement Within The Situated Practices Of Service Providers, Enitza C. Carril

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects (2014-Present)

From a traditional perspective, disability stood outside the normal bounds of development, belonging within the realm of pathology and the disabled person was defined as deficient. Disability may also be characterized as an instance of human diversity and disabled as a designated identity that is socially constructed in an ongoing process—an interaction between individuals and social contexts. The process of disablement is linked to discourses used to define and act upon people ascribed with a disabled identity. This study assumes that disability is an instance of human diversity, a valid developmental trajectory, which is enacted and embedded in sociocultural ...


Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich 2016 Seton Hall University

Do Rats Consume Ethanol To Regulate A Negative Emotion Induced By A Successive Negative Contrast Procedure?, Andrew Dieterich

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

According to the self-medication hypothesis, individuals may consume drugs or alcohol, or engage in other behaviors in order to reduce a negative emotional state (Khantzian, 1985; Gross, 2013; Crum et al., 2013). Rats experiencing a negative state induced by various stressors (Bertholomey et al., 2010), or a decrease or loss in reward value of a sucrose solution (Manzo et al., 2015; Manzo et al., 2014) demonstrate increased consumption of alcohol. I used successive (SNC) and anticipatory negative contrast (ANC) procedures to further examine this hypothesis and the previous findings (Manzo et al., 2015), that rats increase consumption and preference for ...


The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry 2016 Seton Hall University

The Effects Of Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammation On Learning And Forgetting In Juvenile Rats, Michele Barry

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

The inability to remember events experienced very early in life is referred to as Infantile Amnesia (IA) and has been observed in both humans and animals. Over the years interest in the phenomenon waned, but has recently increased with the discovery of new neurobiological methods to study brain function (e.g., Callaghan, Li & Richardson, 2014). The neurobiological mechanism behind IA has yet to be determined, but several innovative theories have been developed with these new research methods. The neurogenesis hypothesis theorizes that increased neurogenesis during early development disrupts previously established memories. The hippocampus, an area that mediates both the memory ...


Education About The Adverse Health Effects Of Recreational Marijuana: The Role Of Type Of Persuasion And Source, Dina Mattern 2016 Seton Hall University

Education About The Adverse Health Effects Of Recreational Marijuana: The Role Of Type Of Persuasion And Source, Dina Mattern

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

In recent years, efforts have been made to legalize cannabis based on increasing research supporting medical benefits and the assumption, albeit questionable, that this is a safe drug. Statistics from the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) demonstrate a sharp increase in users, especially among the youth population (2014). This is problematic because smoking marijuana during the teenage years has been shown to have possible adverse effects, such as despondency and potential complications in cognitive development. (Crane et al., 2012) This current study aims to explore effective ways to educate the public on the adverse health effects of recreational marijuana ...


Parenting Practices And Young Adults’ Emotional Distress: The Moderating Roles Of Family Structure And Race, Nathan Alexander Winner 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Parenting Practices And Young Adults’ Emotional Distress: The Moderating Roles Of Family Structure And Race, Nathan Alexander Winner

Master's Theses

Authoritarian parenting practices are more common among African American families, and appear to include fewer disadvantages in regards to child outcomes compared to White/non-Hispanic families who use these same practices. Little is known about why these racial differences occur, although family structure may play a role. The present study sought to understand the role of family structure and race in moderating the effects of parenting practices on college student mental health outcomes. College students reported on the parenting practices of their caregivers, as well as their race, family structure, characteristics of their familial environment, and socioeconomic status. Levels of ...


Congruence With College Major In Light Of Cognitive Influence And Work Roles, Erica L. Mathis 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Congruence With College Major In Light Of Cognitive Influence And Work Roles, Erica L. Mathis

Master's Theses

Using Holland’s theory, the author examined moderators that may influence students’ academic success and satisfaction while accounting for cognitive influence. Data from 233 undergraduate students was analyzed using a series of hierarchical multiple regressions. The study sought to determine if student employment and the level of interest profile elevation were significant moderators of the relationship between congruence with college major and academic major satisfaction, as well as academic major success. Uniquely, academic major success was determined through GPA and a 10-subscale self-report measure. Cognitive influences were operationalized as positive and negative thinking and accounted for in all analyses. Correlation ...


Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms As A Mediator Of The Relation Between Social Perception And Social Skills And Adaptability In Preschoolers, Brandi Michelle Ellis 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms As A Mediator Of The Relation Between Social Perception And Social Skills And Adaptability In Preschoolers, Brandi Michelle Ellis

Master's Theses

ADHD symptoms have been linked empirically to both social perception deficits as well as impairments in social skills and adaptability. The current study built on existing literature by examining whether social perception abilities indirectly predicted social skills and adaptability through ADHD symptoms in preschool-aged children. The sample consisted of 3- to 6-year-old children attending Head Start Programs and private preschools (N = 76). It was expected that social perception abilities would positively relate to both social skills and adaptability. It was also expected that these relations would occur indirectly through ADHD symptoms. Specifically, social perception abilities would relate negatively to ADHD ...


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