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Public Management In Political Institutions: Explaining Perceptions Of White House Chief Of Staff Influence, José D. Villalobos, Justin S. Vaughn, David B. Cohen 2015 University of Texas at El Paso

Public Management In Political Institutions: Explaining Perceptions Of White House Chief Of Staff Influence, José D. Villalobos, Justin S. Vaughn, David B. Cohen

José D. Villalobos

The notion that public managers influence organizational performance is common in public administration research. However, less is known about why some managers are better at influencing organizational performance than others. Furthermore, relatively few studies have systematically examined managerial influence and scholars have yet to investigate either quantitatively or systematically managerial influence in the White House. Utilizing original survey data collected from former White House officials who served in the Reagan, George H.W. Bush, and Clinton administrations, this study applies empirical public management theory to examine for the first time the key determinants that shape perceptions of chief of staff ...


Do Actions Speak Louder Than Knowledge? Action Manipulation, Parental Discourse, And Children’S Mental State Understanding In Pretense, Dawn Melzer, Laura J. Claxton 2014 Sacred Heart University

Do Actions Speak Louder Than Knowledge? Action Manipulation, Parental Discourse, And Children’S Mental State Understanding In Pretense, Dawn Melzer, Laura J. Claxton

Psychology Faculty Publications

Studies on pretense mental state understanding in young children have produced inconsistent findings. These findings could potentially emerge from the confounding influences of action manipulation or the failure to examine possible influences on individual children’s performances. To address these issues, we created a task in which 68 3- and 4-year-olds viewed two actors, side by side, on a monitor. Children were told that one actor was knowledgeable about a specific animal, whereas the other actor was not. The actors performed identical movements that were either related or unrelated to the animal they were mimicking or engaged in different behaviors ...


Examining Transactional Influences Between Reading Achievement And Antisocially-Behaving Friends, Sara Hart, Amy J. Mikolajewski, Wendy Johnson, Christopher Schatschneider, Jeanette Taylor 2014 The Florida State University

Examining Transactional Influences Between Reading Achievement And Antisocially-Behaving Friends, Sara Hart, Amy J. Mikolajewski, Wendy Johnson, Christopher Schatschneider, Jeanette Taylor

Department of Psychology Faculty Publications

The association between poorer academic outcomes and having antisocial friends is reliably demonstrated yet not well understood. Genetically sensitive designs uniquely allow for measuring genetic vulnerabilities and/or environmental risk in the association of antisocial friend behavior and poor school achievement, allowing for a better understanding of the nature of the association. This study included 233 pairs of twins from the Florida Twin Project on Reading. First, the role of antisocial friends as an environmental moderator of reading comprehension was examined. Antisocial friends significantly moderated the nonshared environmental variance in reading comprehension, with increased variation at lower levels of association ...


Longitudinal Associations Between Child And Parent Health-Related Quality Of Life In Families Receiving Treatment For Pediatric Chronic Pain, Gustavo Ramos Medrano 2014 University of Wisconsin Milwaukee

Longitudinal Associations Between Child And Parent Health-Related Quality Of Life In Families Receiving Treatment For Pediatric Chronic Pain, Gustavo Ramos Medrano

Theses and Dissertations

Pediatric chronic pain has been shown to be a relatively common condition with negative physical and psychological effects for the patient. In addition, parents and families with a child dealing with chronic pain are often also affected by the child's experiences of pain. Accordingly, several theoretical frameworks stipulate that a child's parents and family play a critical a role in how a child functions with chronic pain. While cognitive-behavioral therapies for children with chronic pain have been shown to be effective in reducing pain experiences, researchers have noted limitations in these treatment studies. Among the limitations are the ...


"The Falling Man" As Viewed In The Lens Of The "Public Sphere", Laura Reinacher 2014 California Polytechnic State University

"The Falling Man" As Viewed In The Lens Of The "Public Sphere", Laura Reinacher

Communication Studies

No abstract provided.


The Typical And Atypical Development Of Fine-Grained Sensitivity To The Direction Of Eye Gaze, Mark D. Vida 2014 McMaster University

The Typical And Atypical Development Of Fine-Grained Sensitivity To The Direction Of Eye Gaze, Mark D. Vida

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Typical adults use gaze cues to make inferences about people's mental and emotional states. I investigated the development of fine-grained sensitivity to the direction of gaze during middle childhood, and how development differs in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In Study 1, sensitivity to deviations of gaze from an object in the environment improved after age 6, becoming adult-like by age 10. This improvement may allow more precise inferences about others' interests and/or intentions. In Study 2, the horizontal range of directions of gaze perceived as direct (the cone of gaze) narrowed considerably after age 6 ...


Youth Homelessness: Prevalence And Mental Health Correlates, Staci M. Perlman, Joe Willard, Janette Herbers, J.J. Cutuli, Karin M. Eyrich Garg 2014 SelectedWorks

Youth Homelessness: Prevalence And Mental Health Correlates, Staci M. Perlman, Joe Willard, Janette Herbers, J.J. Cutuli, Karin M. Eyrich Garg

Staci Perlman

No abstract provided.


Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier 2014 Gettysburg College

Mindful Eating: Trait And State Mindfulness Predict Healthier Eating Behavior, Christian H. Jordan, Wan Wang, Linda R. Donatoni '10, Brian P. Meier

Psychology Faculty Publications

Obesity and excess weight are significant societal problems. Mindfulness may encourage healthier weight and eating habits. Across four studies, we found a positive relation between mindfulness and healthier eating. Trait mindfulness was associated with less impulsive eating, reduced calorie consumption, and healthier snack choices. In addition, we found a causal effect of mindfulness on healthier eating. An experimental manipulation of state mindfulness led participants to consume fewer calories in a spontaneous eating task. We also found preliminary evidence that mindfulness affects eating behavior by encouraging attitudinal preferences for healthier foods. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that mindfulness encourages ...


The Relationship Between Traumagenic Dynamic Responses Towards Childhood Sexual Abuse, Ethnic Identity, Social Support, Trauma Severity, And Attitudes Towards Interpersonal Relationships In Adolescent Females, Nita J. Makhija 2014 Seton Hall University

The Relationship Between Traumagenic Dynamic Responses Towards Childhood Sexual Abuse, Ethnic Identity, Social Support, Trauma Severity, And Attitudes Towards Interpersonal Relationships In Adolescent Females, Nita J. Makhija

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This study used the theory of traumagenic dynamics (TD) to examine how symptomatology resulting childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are related to the attitudes adolescent females have towards interpersonal relationships. The ultimate goal being that this understanding can inform the creation and implementation of empirically based clinical interventions that specifically target CSA-related symptoms which are associated with the endorsement of unhealthy attitudes towards romantic relationships. In examining this relationship, family support and ethnic identity were examined as protective factors against the endorsement of unhealthy attitudes towards romantic relationships, and trauma severity and the presence of domestic violence in the home were ...


The Reluctance Of African-Americans To Engage In Therapy, Monique Estelle Williamson 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Reluctance Of African-Americans To Engage In Therapy, Monique Estelle Williamson

Open Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

This thesis is presented with the intent to explore the reasoning behind why members of the African-American culture are reluctant to enter into therapy. While the numbers of African-Americans who enter therapy continue to rise there are still persistent stigmas that make therapy a taboo option for solving problems. The goal of this qualitative study is to identify (1) if there truly is reluctance in the African-American community, (2) why the African-American community is reluctant, (3) what are the stigmas regarding mental health and therapy from the perspectives of American participants, and (4) what would help break the barriers to ...


Possible Psychological Effects Of Ultrasound Scanning On Women, Hang Wu 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Possible Psychological Effects Of Ultrasound Scanning On Women, Hang Wu

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Questionnaires were designed and given to 30 female subjects to investigate the possible psychological effects caused by the use of ultrasound scanning. The answers were analyzed in a numerical way and correlation tests were run to explore the relations among various factors. No significant correlation was found between any pair of the four selected factors. Further interviews with the subjects and detailed qualitative study of the answers provided answers for the results, and suggested that the possible psychological effects introduced by the ultrasound scanning, if any, were very limited.


Using Social Cognitive Theory To Predict Behavior, Gretchen Walker, Amy Posner 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Using Social Cognitive Theory To Predict Behavior, Gretchen Walker, Amy Posner

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The purpose of this study was to test a theoretical model where self-efficacy is hypothesized to influence people’s behavioral intentions directly and indirectly through effects on outcome expectancy. Data on self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and intention to jog two consecutive miles were collected from 115 college students enrolled in general education classes. As anticipated, path analyses indicated that efficacy had both a direct impact on intention and an indirect impact through its effects on outcome expectancy. The more efficacious people were, the more positive the outcomes they associated with jogging and the surer they were they would jog. The model ...


Effects Of Popular Music On Memorization Tasks, Kristin Sandberg, Sarah Harmon 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effects Of Popular Music On Memorization Tasks, Kristin Sandberg, Sarah Harmon

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

This study investigated the effects that popular music has on memory performance. It was proposed that popular music would adversely affect both studying and memory recall. Forty introductory psychology students participated in the study. Subjects were given a list of fifty words to study in 6 ½ minutes, with music either being present or absent. This was termed the learning stage. In this study, four conditions were tested. In all 4 conditions, subjects were assigned to either a “music” pre-period or a “non-music” pre-period and a “music” post-period or a “non-music” post-period. After they had studied the words, subjects were ...


The Effects Of Room Color On Stress Perception: Red Versus Green Environments, Teresa M. Kutchma 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

The Effects Of Room Color On Stress Perception: Red Versus Green Environments, Teresa M. Kutchma

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of red versus green room colors on individual perception of stress. Room color was found through previous studies to have specific effects on psychomotor activity and emotional states. Correlations were found between red room color and emotional and physical stimulation, while green was associated with inhibitory effects. Additionally, Goldstein’s theory of color perception showed that red has stimulating effects on human behavior. Subjects consisted of 15 female and 15 male college freshmen at Minnesota State University, Mankato. An experimental booth was used for red, green and white room conditions ...


Correlation Between Health And Stress, Hang Wu 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Correlation Between Health And Stress, Hang Wu

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

This study examined participants’ level of stress and their perceived level of stress and success in school. The subjects were given the stress questionnaire in order to determine the level of stress they were experiencing and the frequency of health issues experienced during the previous year. The results of the study suggest that although level of stress may be similar between individuals, how they perceived the stress impacted their health level. Students who perceived the stress in a negative fashion were more likely to be sick than individuals who were less impacted by the stress. By identifying the correlation between ...


Effects Of Race Of Attractiveness Ratings And Individuals Physical Attractiveness Stereotypes, Aaron Karst 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Effects Of Race Of Attractiveness Ratings And Individuals Physical Attractiveness Stereotypes, Aaron Karst

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

The purpose of this research project was to investigate the “physical attractiveness stereotype”. Previous research suggests that the physical attractiveness plays an important role in how we ascribe certain personality traits. Weiten (2002) for example, noted the stereotype as people’s tendency “to ascribe socially desirable personality traits to individuals who are considered to be more attractive, seeing them as more sociable, poised, and well adjusted than those who are less attractive”. However, very little research has been conducted to explore the role race may have on the concept. The current study was conducted to explore the validity of the ...


Distinguishing Observed Inattentive Behaviors In The College Classroom As They Correlate To Brain Wave Activity Utilizing A Wireless Electroencephalograph, Christopher J. Aura, Matthew R. Stanton 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Distinguishing Observed Inattentive Behaviors In The College Classroom As They Correlate To Brain Wave Activity Utilizing A Wireless Electroencephalograph, Christopher J. Aura, Matthew R. Stanton

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

A significant amount of research has been devoted to the behavioral correlates of inattention in children (A.P.A., 2000; Arnold, 2000; Gordon & Barkley, 1998). It is proposed by the authors that college students, in their several years of experience, are much more capable of masking these trademark behaviors. When a child loses interest they will begin to openly look around the room, shift in their seat, or chat with their neighbors (Sandberg, Rutter & Taylor, 1978; Arnold, 2000). College students however, are proposed to candidly fidget, shift in their seat, or even maintain eye contact with their instructor while “daydreaming”. Therefore, an additional physiological aid is required to better assess inattentive periods in college subjects. Given the invasive nature of past devices commonly used, such as the Electroencephalograph (EEG), accurate measurement proves to be very difficult in a natural setting (Boyd & Campbell, 1998). This study used a modified version of an EEG called ...


Increasing Participation In The Pilot Weather Reporting (Pirep) System Through User Interface Design, Stephen M. Casner 2014 Purdue University

Increasing Participation In The Pilot Weather Reporting (Pirep) System Through User Interface Design, Stephen M. Casner

Journal of Aviation Technology and Engineering

Although pilots regard pilot weather reports (PIREPs) as valuable flight planning resources, the number of PIREPs that pilots submit is relatively small. In a previous survey, pilots indicated that submitting PIREPs sometimes requires too much effort, and that they are often unable to recall the information fields required to complete a report. Pilots also indicated that the idea of submitting a PIREP often does not occur to them, and that they feel that other pilots are mainly interested in receiving reports about severe weather. In this study the authors attempt to address obstacles to submitting PIREPs by proposing two alternative ...


Physical Activity And Thriving Community: Can Group-Walking Generate Social Capital? A Literature Review, Harold Lee 2014 University of Pennsylvania

Physical Activity And Thriving Community: Can Group-Walking Generate Social Capital? A Literature Review, Harold Lee

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Positive psychology is an empirical study of the conditions and processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of individuals, groups, and society. Positive relationships play a crucial role in well-being, and yet, social capital in the United States has been declining with individuals becoming more isolated. Thus, an innovative positive intervention that promotes stronger social ties between members of society could vastly improve the well-being of individuals as well as the community as a whole. Recently, researchers have reported that oxytocin promotes pro-social interaction, trustworthiness, and empathy. There is also research showing that physical activity increases oxytocin level ...


Trust Formation Across Multiple Levels Of Virtuality, Amanda Woller 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Trust Formation Across Multiple Levels Of Virtuality, Amanda Woller

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

This study looked at the formation of trust in relation to different levels of group virtuality. Undergraduate students worked in pairs on the game, Command and Conquer: Generals. Teams either worked together face-to-face; met first and then were separated to work together; or were completely separated for the duration of the activity. Face-to-face groups were expected to have higher levels of trust than virtual groups, while the groups that met first were expected to have higher levels of trust than the completely virtual group. Results showed that face-to-face and meeting first groups had higher levels of trust than completely virtual ...


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