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Targeted Advertising, Platform Competition And Privacy, Henk L.M. Kox, Bas Straathof, Gijsbert Zwart 2017 KVL Economic Policy Research

Targeted Advertising, Platform Competition And Privacy, Henk L.M. Kox, Bas Straathof, Gijsbert Zwart

Henk LM Kox

Targeted advertising can benefit consumers through lower prices for access to websites. Yet, if consumers dislike that websites collect their personal information, their welfare may go down. We study competition for consumers between websites that can show targeted advertisements. We find that more targeting increases competition and reduces the websites’ profits, but yet in equilibrium websites choose maximum targeting as they cannot credibly commit to low targeting. A privacy protection policy can be beneficial for both consumers and websites. If consumers are heterogeneous in their concerns for privacy, a policy that allows choice between two levels of privacy will be ...


Global Climate Policywill Have Net Benefits Larger Than Anyone Thinks (And Welfare Gains, Strangely, Are Likely To Be Much Larger Yet), PHILIP E. GRAVES 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Global Climate Policywill Have Net Benefits Larger Than Anyone Thinks (And Welfare Gains, Strangely, Are Likely To Be Much Larger Yet), Philip E. Graves

PHILIP E GRAVES

As with other public goods lacking strong special interest support, global climate policy suffers from two serious
theoretical flaws. The first is failure to endogenize the labor-leisure decision when conducting benefit-cost analysis.
Recognition that income generated will not remain the same pre-and-post policy results in downward bias
in benefit estimation. Much more importantly, there will generally be free riding in input markets in addition to
the well-known output demand revelation problem. Since even households with very high marginal values cannot
individually increment public goods, too little income will be generated and too much of the income that is
generated will ...


Caught In The Headlights: Revising The Road Kill Hypothesis Of Antebellum Illinois Bank Failures, Scott N. Clayman, Scott Deacle, Andrew J. Economopoulos 2017 Ursinus College

Caught In The Headlights: Revising The Road Kill Hypothesis Of Antebellum Illinois Bank Failures, Scott N. Clayman, Scott Deacle, Andrew J. Economopoulos

Business and Economics Faculty Publications

Illinois had a dismal free banking experience, with over 80% of its free banks failing by the start of the Civil War. Researchers agree that a dramatic change in bond prices was the catalyst, and some have shown that the riskiest banks, ex ante, were the most likely to fail. This study examines how Illinois free banks adjusted their portfolios in the face of increased political and financial risks prior to Abraham Lincoln’s election as president. Lincoln’s nomination in May 1860 and the Democratic Party schism in June 1860 raised the likelihood of secession and the potential for ...


Effects Of The Great Recession On American Retirement Funding, Tanner G. Hamil 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Effects Of The Great Recession On American Retirement Funding, Tanner G. Hamil

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Implementing Propensity Score Matching With Network Data: The Effect Of Gatt On Bilateral Trade, Luca De Benedictis, Bruno Arpino, Alessandra Mattei 2017 Universitat Pompeu Fabra

Implementing Propensity Score Matching With Network Data: The Effect Of Gatt On Bilateral Trade, Luca De Benedictis, Bruno Arpino, Alessandra Mattei

Luca De Benedictis

Motivated by the evaluation of the causal effect of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade on bilateral international trade flows, we investigate the role of network structure in propensity score matching under the assumption of strong ignorability. We study the sensitivity of causal inference with respect to the presence of characteristics of the network in the set of confounders conditional on which strong ignorability is assumed to hold. We find that estimates of the average causal effect are highly sensitive to the presence of node-level network statistics in the set of confounders. Therefore, we argue that estimates may suffer ...


Effect Of Price Reduction And Increased Service Frequency On Public Transport Travel, Inge Brechan 2017 Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo

Effect Of Price Reduction And Increased Service Frequency On Public Transport Travel, Inge Brechan

Journal of Public Transportation

A random effects meta-analysis of the results from 15 projects involving price reduction and 9 projects involving increased service frequency showed that both price reduction and increased service frequency generated public transport travels. On average, the increased service frequency projects generated more travels by public transport than the price reduction projects. In the increased service frequency projects the proportion of travels generated by the increased frequency was strongly influenced by the size of the frequency increase. In the price reduction projects, we did not find a significant effect of the size of the price reduction on the proportion of travels ...


The Role Of Islamic Finance In Economic Development, Nora KHAN 2017 Lingnan University

The Role Of Islamic Finance In Economic Development, Nora Khan

Lingnan Journal of Banking, Finance and Economics

Islamic financial institutions have been growing rapidly in the past few years. Islamic finance refers to investments that are permissible in accordance with Sharia, the Islamic law. Sharia law views money as a measuring tool for value and not an “asset” itself. “It does not permit receipt and payment of riba(interest), gharar(excessive uncertainty), maysir(gambling), short sales or financing activities that it considers harmful to society” (IMF website). Interest, a form of income from money, is therefore prohibited. For example, the income obtained from banks must come from the gain or loss of the enterprises they underwrite and ...


Fdi And Manufacturing Industry In Asia, Luyi JIN 2017 Lingnan University

Fdi And Manufacturing Industry In Asia, Luyi Jin

Lingnan Journal of Banking, Finance and Economics

The study finds that China’s manufacturing still maintained a growth level from 2003 to 2013. However, the growth has been declining. The rapid development of ASEAN economies led to the rise of the emerging manufacturing countries which have slowly adjusted and found their own advantages in challenging China.

The main conclusions of this paper are twofold. First, China will soon lose her low labor cost competitive advantage and needs to look for new strategy or industrial upgrades. Second, the current pattern of international division of labor will last for a fairly long period that developing countries will continue to ...


An Empirical Analysis Of The Phillips Curve : A Time Series Exploration Of Hong Kong, Dong WANG 2017 Lingnan University

An Empirical Analysis Of The Phillips Curve : A Time Series Exploration Of Hong Kong, Dong Wang

Lingnan Journal of Banking, Finance and Economics

This paper examines the stationarity and cointegration of inflation and unemployment variables of Hong Kong in a period prior to and after the return of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to China on July 1, 1997. The paper separately introduces two ARDL and error correlation models for the long-run and short-run dynamics relationships between inflation and unemployment variables for these two periods after an identification of cointegration. The key findings of this paper include the negative relationship observed between inflation and unemployment in Hong Kong during this time period. Moreover, prior inflation has a significantly negative effect on the current inflation ...


Portfolio Recallocation And Exchange Rate Dynamics, King Chun WONG 2017 Lingnan University

Portfolio Recallocation And Exchange Rate Dynamics, King Chun Wong

Lingnan Journal of Banking, Finance and Economics

This empirical paper aims to review a previous literature entitles “Portfolio Reallocation and Exchange Rate Dynamics”. The literature stated that including financial market structure can provide a micro-foundation to complement other macro-based models for exchange rate dynamics which typically are meaningful for the medium and long terms but not satisfactory for the short run. The model in the literature offers another way to look at exchange rate dynamics that is significant in the short run and more practical in nature. Undoubtedly, many investors in the financial market, such as traders, dealers, fund managers, and speculators who adjust their portfolio components ...


How Do Cdos And Cdss Influence The Crisis Of 2008, Martin BUFFET 2017 Lingnan University

How Do Cdos And Cdss Influence The Crisis Of 2008, Martin Buffet

Lingnan Journal of Banking, Finance and Economics

Everybody has heard about the “subprime” crisis but do we really know how it occurred and why this phenomenon had such an impact on our economies. One aspect of the answer to this question lies in the trade of credit default swaps (CDSs). These financial products led to less transparency in the markets and to a very collectively vulnerable financial system. This created a vicious circle that had not been anticipated by our financial regulators. In this paper, we will discuss how it occurred and what could have been done to avoid, or at lease reduce, the impact of these ...


The Study Of Enhanced Performance Measurement Of Mutual Funds In Asia Pacific Market, Juzhen LI 2017 Lingnan University

The Study Of Enhanced Performance Measurement Of Mutual Funds In Asia Pacific Market, Juzhen Li

Lingnan Journal of Banking, Finance and Economics

This empirical paper will compare the result by running Costa and Jakob's models (2010) using mutual funds in Asia Pacific market excluding Japan. Costa and Jakob's paper, Enhanced Performance Measurement of Mutual Funds: Running the Benchmark Index through the Hurdles, is highly related to this empirical paper and is generally based on Carhart's four-factor model (Carhart, 1997) with US securities market data. Apart from the comparison between Asia Pacific market excluding Japan and US market, further research on auxiliary and heteroscedasticity will also be conducted.


Risk And Probability Premiums For Cara Utility Functions, Bruce A. Babcock, E. Kwan Choi, Eli Feinerman 2017 Iowa State University

Risk And Probability Premiums For Cara Utility Functions, Bruce A. Babcock, E. Kwan Choi, Eli Feinerman

Bruce Babcock

The risk premium and the probability premium are used to determine appropriate coefficients of absolute risk aversion under CARA utility. A defensible range of risk-aversion coefficients is defined by the coefficients that correspond to risk premiums falling between 1 and 99% of the amount at risk or to probability premiums falling between .005 and ,49 for a lottery that pays or loses a given sum. The consequences of ignoring risk premiums when selecting risk-aversion coefficients for representative decision makers are illustrated by calculation of the implied risk premium associated with the levels of absolute risk aversion assumed in six selected ...


Commodity Policy, Price Incentives, And The Growth In Per-Acre Yields, William E. Foster, Bruce Babcock 2017 North Carolina State University

Commodity Policy, Price Incentives, And The Growth In Per-Acre Yields, William E. Foster, Bruce Babcock

Bruce Babcock

We estimate the influence of policy-induced price changesand of technologysupply on North Carolina flue-cured tobacco yields. The decline in land rent and effective output price that accompanied a 1965 policy change from acreage allotments to poundage quotas caused a 12 percent decrease in yields. Farmer yields were more responsive to yield-increasing technologies under acreage allotments than under poundage quotas. Annual yield growth was 0.5 percent under poundage quotas and 4.32 percent under acreage allotments. The growth rate decline is attributable to changes in relative prices and to a slowdown in the supply of available technologies.


Targeting Resource Conservation Expenditiures, JunJie Wu, Richard M. Adams, David Zilberman, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 Iowa State University

Targeting Resource Conservation Expenditiures, Junjie Wu, Richard M. Adams, David Zilberman, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

Payments to landowners are a major vehicle to assure resource conservation and environmental protection. Examples of payment programs are listed in the sidebar, page. 34. Some of these programs (1, 2 and 3) compensate resource owners for changing resource uses while others (4, 5 and 6) involve the outright purchase of a resource. For example, the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) has compensated landowners to retire 37 million acres of highly erodible cropland at a current annual cost of approximately $1.9 billion, and the Nature Conservancy has protected more than 11 million acres of environmentally valuable land in the United ...


Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock 2017 University of Illinois

Readdressing The Fertilizer Problem, Nicholas D. Paulson, Bruce A. Babcock

Bruce Babcock

The production literature has shown that inputs such as fertilizer can be defined as riskincreasing. However, farmers also consistently overapply nitrogen. A model of optimal input use under uncertainty is used to address this paradox. Using experimental data, a stochastic production relationship between yield and soil nitrate is estimated. Numerical results show that input uncertainty may cause farmers to overapply nitrogen. Survey data suggest that farmers are risk averse, but prefer small chances of high yields compared to small chances of crop failures when expected yields are equivalent. Furthermore, yield risk and yield variability are not equivalent.


Moving From Uniform To Variable Fertilizer Rates On Iowa Corn: Effects On Rates And Returns, Bruce A. Babcock, Gregory R. Pautsch 2017 Iowa State University

Moving From Uniform To Variable Fertilizer Rates On Iowa Corn: Effects On Rates And Returns, Bruce A. Babcock, Gregory R. Pautsch

Bruce Babcock

This study develops a model based on the yield potential of various soil types in 12 Iowa counties to estimate the potential value of switching from uniform to variable fertilizer rates. Results indicate modest increases in the gross returns over fertilizer costs, ranging from $7.43 to $1.52 per acre. The net profitability of variable-rate technology (VRT) is sensitive to the per acre costs of moving to a VRT program. Under the assumptions of the model, applying variable rates would increase yield by 0.05 to 0.50 bushels per acre, and would reduce fertilizer costs by $1.19 ...


Optimal Information Acquisition Under A Geostatistical Model, Gregory R. Pautsch, Bruce Babcock, F. Jay Breidt 2017 Iowa State University

Optimal Information Acquisition Under A Geostatistical Model, Gregory R. Pautsch, Bruce Babcock, F. Jay Breidt

Bruce Babcock

Studies examining the value of switching to a variable rate technology (VRT) fertilizer program assume producers possess perfect soil nitrate information. In reality, producers estimate soil nitrate levels with soil sampling. The value of switching to a VRT program depends on the quality of the estimates and on how the estimates are used. Larger sample sizes, increased spatial correlation, and decreased variability improve the estimates and increase returns. Fertilizing strictly to the estimated field map fails to account for estimation risk. Returns increase if the soil sample information is used in a Bayesian fashion to update the soil nitrate beliefs ...


The Intendant, The Merchants, And Free Trade In Louisiana, 1778-1788, Brian E. Coutts 2017 Western Kentucky University

The Intendant, The Merchants, And Free Trade In Louisiana, 1778-1788, Brian E. Coutts

Brian Coutts

Spain acquired Louisiana from France in 1763 but was initially unsuccessful in integrating the distant colony into the Spanish commercial system. Encouraged by the colony’s chief financial officer, Intendant Martín Navarro, the Spanish Crown introduced legislation on January 22, 1782 to promote commerce. Free trade was to be permitted for ten years with designated ports in France. The liberal character of the code fostered the growth of numerous merchant companies in New Orleans who found markets for all of Louisiana’s exports in France, England and the French West Indies. Unfortunately, Spain continued to absorb all of the administrative ...


El Intendente, Los Comerciantes Y El "Comercio Libre" En Luisiana 1778-1788, Brian E. Coutts 2017 Western Kentucky University

El Intendente, Los Comerciantes Y El "Comercio Libre" En Luisiana 1778-1788, Brian E. Coutts

Brian Coutts

Spain acquired Louisiana from France in 1763 but was initially unsuccessful in integrating the distant colony into the Spanish commercial system. Encouraged by the colony’s chief financial officer, Intendant Martín Navarro, the Spanish Crown introduced legislation on January 22, 1782 to promote commerce. Free trade was to be permitted for ten years with designated ports in France. The liberal character of the code fostered the growth of numerous merchant companies in New Orleans who found markets for all of Louisiana’s exports in France, England and the French West Indies. Unfortunately, Spain continued to absorb all of the administrative ...


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