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Articles 1 - 30 of 3171

Full-Text Articles in Animal Studies

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers May 2020

The Efficacy Of Extended-Release Eprinomectin For The Reduction Of Horn Flies, Face Flies, And Fecal Egg Counts Of Parasitic Nematodes In Replacement Beef Heifers, Sophia F. Landers

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended-release eprinomectin against horn flies, face flies, and fecal egg counts of parasitic nematodes in crossbreed replacement beef heifers. Fifty-four heifers were randomly placed into three treatment groups (N=18 heifers/treatment). Group 1 was administered the labeled dosage of extended-release eprinomectin on day 0. Group 2 acted as the negative control. Group 3 received the anthelmintic injection once a quarter of the heifers in the group reached the threshold treatment level for horn flies (N=200 flies/animal; day 41). Nematode infections were measured via fecal egg counts ...


Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown Jan 2020

Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown

Social Behavior Collection

Social learning can be a shortcut for acquiring locally adaptive information. Animals that live in social groups have better access to social information, but gregarious and nonsocial species are also frequently exposed to social cues. Thus, social learning might simply reflect an animal's general ability to learn rather than an adaptation to social living. Here, we investigated social learning and the effect of frequency of social exposure in nonsocial, juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. We compared (1) Individual Learners, (2) Sham-Observers, paired with a naïve shark, and (3) Observers, paired with a trained demonstrator, in a novel foraging ...


Companion Dog Acquisition And Mental Well-Being: A Community-Based Three-Arm Controlled Study, Lauren Powell, Kate M. Edwards, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Adrian Bauman, Anthony L. Podberscek, Brendon Neilly, Catherine Sherrington, Emmanuel Stamatakis Dec 2019

Companion Dog Acquisition And Mental Well-Being: A Community-Based Three-Arm Controlled Study, Lauren Powell, Kate M. Edwards, Paul D. Mcgreevy, Adrian Bauman, Anthony L. Podberscek, Brendon Neilly, Catherine Sherrington, Emmanuel Stamatakis

Human-Animal Relationships Collection

Background

Dog ownership is suggested to improve mental well-being, although empirical evidence among community dog owners is limited. This study examined changes in human mental well-being following dog acquisition, including four measures: loneliness, positive and negative affect, and psychological distress.

Methods

We conducted an eight-month controlled study involving three groups (n = 71): 17 acquired a dog within 1 month of baseline (dog acquisition); 29 delayed dog acquisition until study completion (lagged control); and 25 had no intentions of acquiring a dog (community control). All participants completed the UCLA Loneliness Scale (possible scores 0–60), Positive and Negative Affect Schedule and ...


Ethics And Care: For Animals, Not Just Mammals, Jennifer A. Mather Nov 2019

Ethics And Care: For Animals, Not Just Mammals, Jennifer A. Mather

Speciesism and Breed Discrimination Collection

In the last few decades, we have made great strides in recognizing ethics and providing care for animals, but the focus has been mainly on mammals. This stems from a bias of attention not only in research but predominantly in non-scientists’ attention (to ‘popular’ animals), resulting partly from discussion about and depiction of animals in publications addressed to the public. This is somewhat due to political pressure, and can result in uneven conservation efforts and biases in targets for welfare concerns. As a result, there has been a huge backlash again, with concerns about pain sensitivity and welfare in fish ...


#6 - Implications Of Visual Social Access On The Welfare And Behavior Of Shelter Dogs, Christina M. Walthers, Maddie J. Pattillo, Jessie A. Catchpole, Lauren E. Faulkner, Lauren N. Mitchell, Allison L. Martin Nov 2019

#6 - Implications Of Visual Social Access On The Welfare And Behavior Of Shelter Dogs, Christina M. Walthers, Maddie J. Pattillo, Jessie A. Catchpole, Lauren E. Faulkner, Lauren N. Mitchell, Allison L. Martin

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Given the large number of dogs housed in animal shelters each year, it is important to consider how the shelter environment impacts dog welfare. The shelter environment is stressful due to factors such as excessive noise, lack of predictability and control, and social isolation. Social isolation in shelter dogs has been found to increase abnormal behavior and aggression and lead to poorer adoption outcomes. While social housing is ideal, it requires resources not available to all shelters. Providing visual access to other dogs is a relatively easy environmental modification that increases social opportunities and allows for more predictability and control ...


Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation And Wrongful Species Discrimination, Cheryl E. Abbate, Bob Fischer Oct 2019

Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation And Wrongful Species Discrimination, Cheryl E. Abbate, Bob Fischer

Philosophy Faculty Publications

It is common for conservationists to refer to non-native species that have undesirable impacts on humans as “invasive”. We argue that the classification of any species as “invasive” constitutes wrongful discrimination. Moreover, we argue that its being wrong to categorize a species as invasive is perfectly compatible with it being morally permissible to kill animals—assuming that conservationists “kill equally”. It simply is not compatible with the double standard that conservationists tend to employ in their decisions about who lives and who dies.


Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg Oct 2019

Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg

Attitudes Toward Animal Research Collection

Research using animals is controversial. To develop sound public outreach and policy about this issue, we need information about both the underlying science and people’s attitudes and knowledge. To identify attitudes toward this subject at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we developed and administered a survey to undergraduate students and faculty. The survey asked respondents about the importance of, their confidence in their knowledge about, and who they trusted to provide information on animal research. Findings indicated attitudes varied by academic discipline, especially among faculty. Faculty in the biological sciences, particularly those who had participated in an animal research project ...


A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck Oct 2019

A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck

John P. Gluck, PhD

Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive ...


A Global Spatial Analysis Reveals Where Marine Aquaculture Can Benefit Nature And People, Seth J. Theuerkauf, James A. Morris Jr, Tiffany J. Waters, Lisa C. Wickliffe, Heidi K. Alleway Oct 2019

A Global Spatial Analysis Reveals Where Marine Aquaculture Can Benefit Nature And People, Seth J. Theuerkauf, James A. Morris Jr, Tiffany J. Waters, Lisa C. Wickliffe, Heidi K. Alleway

Aquaculture and Fisheries Collection

Aquaculture of bivalve shellfish and seaweed represents a global opportunity to simultaneously advance coastal ecosystem recovery and provide substantive benefits to humanity. To identify marine ecoregions with the greatest potential for development of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture to meet this opportunity, we conducted a global spatial analysis using key environmental (e.g., nutrient pollution status), socioeconomic (e.g., governance quality), and human health factors (e.g., wastewater treatment prevalence). We identify a substantial opportunity for strategic sector development, with the highest opportunity marine ecoregions for shellfish aquaculture centered on Oceania, North America, and portions of Asia, and the highest opportunity ...


The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn Oct 2019

The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn

Corey Lee Wrenn, PhD

While it would not be accurate to suggest that Ireland is a hub of veganism or vegetarianism, too often it is written off as inherently unsympathetic to the ethics of plant-based eating and anti-speciesist politics. While it is true that Irish culture is historically tied to speciesism and its economy is especially dependent upon “meat” and dairy production, Ireland’s relationship with other animals is complex and sometimes forgiving. This essay seeks to bring shape to the Irish vegan ethic, one that can be traced along its history of animism, agrarianism, ascendency, adaptation, and activism. From its pagan roots to ...


Building A Vegan Feminist Network In The Professionalized Digital Age Of Third Wave Animal Activism, Corey Lee Wrenn Oct 2019

Building A Vegan Feminist Network In The Professionalized Digital Age Of Third Wave Animal Activism, Corey Lee Wrenn

Corey Lee Wrenn, PhD

Despite its legacy of feminist leadership and a continued female majority, the Nonhuman Animal rights movement has exhibited structural sexism across its various waves of protest. This institutionalized sexism not only inhibits women’s ability to protest safely and effectively, but also permeates the activist imagination and aggravates interpersonal violence. Even Nonhuman Animals as a feminized group are unwittingly disparaged in popular campaigns. This essay suggests that structural sexism in the Nonhuman Animal rights movement is nourished by its patriarchal organization, specifically its decision to professionalize. Twenty-first century vegan feminist activism on the margins has been able to circumvent the ...


Using Qualitative Behaviour Assessment To Investigate Human-Animal Relationships In Zoo-Housed Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis), Freisha Patel, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Samantha J. Ward Oct 2019

Using Qualitative Behaviour Assessment To Investigate Human-Animal Relationships In Zoo-Housed Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis), Freisha Patel, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Samantha J. Ward

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Human-Animal Relationships (HAR) in zoos develop from repeated interactions between animals and their caretakers. HAR have been shown to affect health and welfare in farm animals, but limited zoo-based studies exist. This study investigates the association between the qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA) of emotional expression in giraffes and keeper action score in four types of keeper-animal interaction (KAI). Three giraffes generating 38 clips. QBA, using a free-choice profiling methodology, was applied instructing 18 observers to assess giraffe expressions shown in these clips. QBA scores were analysed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Keeper actions during each KAI event were rated by an ...


Evaluation Of Animal-Based Indicators To Be Used In A Welfare Assessment Protocol For Sheep, Susan E. Richmond, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Ina Beltran De Heredia, Roberto Ruiz, Elisabetta Canali, Cathy M. Dwyer Oct 2019

Evaluation Of Animal-Based Indicators To Be Used In A Welfare Assessment Protocol For Sheep, Susan E. Richmond, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Ina Beltran De Heredia, Roberto Ruiz, Elisabetta Canali, Cathy M. Dwyer

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of ...


Environmental Challenge And Animal Agency, Marek Špinka, Françoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

Environmental Challenge And Animal Agency, Marek Špinka, Françoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Challenges are there to be overcome – seen usually as problems to avoid rather than as opportunities to enjoy. However, for humans a life without challenge would be likely to be dull and boring, lacking the enthusiasm and satisfaction that come with individual development. Could this also be true for animals? This chapter looks at the positive value of engaging with environmental challenges for animal welfare, proposing that this value lies in an animal’s expression of agency and the enhanced functional competence that it gains through this. It explores the different facets of agency, and provides more detailed discussion of ...


The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The problem of animal awareness lies at the interface of science and philosophy. As a starting point for the study of phenomena such as awareness, mind, consciousness, etc., we hardly have any reference other than our own human experience and in the context of a nondualistic ontology this can be justified. In philosophy and psychology it appears to be very difficult to give direct operational definitions of terms such as consciousness, etc. So we might expect this to be even more difficult in the study of animals. A detailed knowledge of animals and their behaviour is necessary in order to ...


Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder Oct 2019

Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between different meta-scientific frameworks and the science of animal welfare. Animal Boredom 117 During the past few years, I have become more and more convinced that the great difficulty science has in studying subjective experience in its objects, might be related to the denial of any role to subjective experience in the observer as an interpretational guide. Can a quality in the world around us be observed, when this same quality is deliberately excluded from the process of observing?

As a practical example for the discussion described above, the phenomenon ...


Evidence-Based Toxicology For The 21st Century: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin L. Stephens, Melvin E. Andersen, Richard A. Becker, Kellyn Betts, Kim Boekelheide, Ed Carney, Robert Chapin, Dennis Devlin, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Patricia Harlow, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Michael P. Holsapple, Abigail Jacobs, Richard Judson, Olga Naidenko, Tim Pastoor, Grace Patlewicz, Andrew Rowan, Roberta Scherer, Rashid Shaikh, Ted Simon, Douglas Wolf, Joanne Zurlo Oct 2019

Evidence-Based Toxicology For The 21st Century: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin L. Stephens, Melvin E. Andersen, Richard A. Becker, Kellyn Betts, Kim Boekelheide, Ed Carney, Robert Chapin, Dennis Devlin, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Patricia Harlow, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Michael P. Holsapple, Abigail Jacobs, Richard Judson, Olga Naidenko, Tim Pastoor, Grace Patlewicz, Andrew Rowan, Roberta Scherer, Rashid Shaikh, Ted Simon, Douglas Wolf, Joanne Zurlo

Martin Stephens, PhD

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on “Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges” in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathwaybased testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century” as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that ...


Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun Oct 2019

Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun

Martin Stephens, PhD

Systematic review methodology is a means of addressing specific questions through structured, consistent, and transparent examinations of the relevant scientific evidence. This methodology has been used to advantage in clinical medicine, and is being adapted for use in other disciplines. Although some applications to toxicology have been explored, especially for hazard identification, the present preparatory study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to adapt it to the assessment of toxicological test methods. As our test case, we chose the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental toxicity and its mammalian counterpart, the standard mammalian prenatal development toxicity study, focusing the ...


A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck Oct 2019

A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck

Professional Science Research Ethics Collection

Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive ...


Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Welfare Challenges Influence The Complexity Of Movement: Fractal Analysis Of Behaviour In Zebrafish, Anthony G. Deakin, Joseph W. Spencer, Andrew R. Cossins, Iain S. Young, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The ability to assess welfare is an important refinement that will ensure the good condition of animals used in experimentation. The present study investigated the impact of invasive procedures on the patterns of movement of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Recordings were made before and after fin clipping, PIT tagging and a standard pain test and these were compared with control and sham handled zebrafish. The fractal dimension (FD) from the 3D trajectories was calculated to determine the effect of these treatments on the complexity of movement patterns. While the FD of zebrafish trajectories did not differ over time in either the ...


Risk Assessment Of Catch And Release, Rolf Erik Olsen, Tor Fredrik Næsje, Trygve Poppe, Lynne Sneddon, John Webb Oct 2019

Risk Assessment Of Catch And Release, Rolf Erik Olsen, Tor Fredrik Næsje, Trygve Poppe, Lynne Sneddon, John Webb

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The report was produced during most of 2009, and gives a state of art overview of current knowledge on the effects of catch and release practices on these fish species’ welfare, using accessible and peer reviewed published literature as basis for the assessment. Anecdotic and non-published reports have been used to a limited extent as they are regarded as untested or containing unverified statements. The Panel on Animal Health and Welfare discussed the full report in a meeting on the 9th of December, and gave its support to the conclusions drawn by the ad hoc-group. The report has concentrated on ...


Report Of A Meeting On Contemporary Topics In Zebrafish Husbandry And Care, Nikki Osborne, Gregory Paull, Adam Grierson, Karen Dunford, Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich, Lynne U. Sneddon, Natalie Wren, Joe Higgins, Penny Hawkins Oct 2019

Report Of A Meeting On Contemporary Topics In Zebrafish Husbandry And Care, Nikki Osborne, Gregory Paull, Adam Grierson, Karen Dunford, Elisabeth M. Busch-Nentwich, Lynne U. Sneddon, Natalie Wren, Joe Higgins, Penny Hawkins

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

A meeting on Contemporary Topics in Zebrafish Husbandry and Care was held in the United Kingdom in 2014, with the aim of providing a discussion forum for researchers, animal technologists, and veterinarians from academia and industry to share good practice and exchange ideas. Presentation topics included protocols for optimal larval rearing, implementing the 3Rs (replacement, reduction, and refinement) in large-scale colony management, and environmental enrichment. The audience also participated in a survey of current practice relating to practical husbandry, cryopreservation, and the provision of enrichment.


Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Anaesthetic drugs are commonly administered to fish in aquaculture, research and veterinary contexts. Anaesthesia causes temporary absence of consciousness and may reduce the stress and/or pain associated with handling and certain invasive procedures. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a widely-used model species with relevance to both aquaculture and natural ecosystems. This study sought to establish the relative acute impact of commonly used anaesthetics on rainbow trout when used for anaesthesia or euthanasia by exploring their effects on aversion behaviour and stress physiology. Five widely used anaesthetics were investigated at two concentrations reflective of common laboratory practises: MS-222, benzocaine ...


Reduction In Activity By Noxious Chemical Stimulation Is Ameliorated By Immersion In Analgesic Drugs In Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Reduction In Activity By Noxious Chemical Stimulation Is Ameliorated By Immersion In Analgesic Drugs In Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Waleed Al-Nuaimy, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Research has recently demonstrated that larval zebrafish show similar molecular responses to nociception to those of adults. Our study explored whether unprotected larval zebrafish exhibited altered behaviour after exposure to noxious chemicals and screened a range of analgesic drugs to determine their efficacy to reduce these responses. This approach aimed to validate larval zebrafish as a reliable replacement for adults as well as providing a high-throughput means of analysing behavioural responses. Zebrafish at 5 days postfertilization were exposed to known noxious stimuli: acetic acid (0.01%, 0.1% and 0.25%) and citric acid (0.1%, 1% and 5%). The ...


Pain In Farm Animals, L. U. Sneddon, Michael J. Gentle Oct 2019

Pain In Farm Animals, L. U. Sneddon, Michael J. Gentle

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

This review will address how we can measure pain in farm animals and discuss the major causes of acute pain and also chronically painful conditions, and finally make suggestions for future improvements. Pain is a relatively difficult concept to define since it comprises both a physiological sensory and a psychological or emotional component. Pain is the subjective interpretation of nerve impulses induced by a stimulus that is actually or potentially damaging to tissues. The sensation of pain is a response to a noxious stimulus and should elicit protective motor (e.g. withdrawal reflex, escape) and vegetative responses (e.g. cardiovascular ...


Impact Of Stress, Fear And Anxiety On The Nociceptive Responses Of Larval Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Impact Of Stress, Fear And Anxiety On The Nociceptive Responses Of Larval Zebrafish, Javier Lopez-Luna, Qussay Al-Jubouri, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Both adult and larval zebrafish have been demonstrated to show behavioural responses to noxious stimulation but also to potentially stress- and fear or anxiety- eliciting situations. The pain or nociceptive response can be altered and modulated by these situations in adult fish through a mechanism called stress-induced analgesia. However, this phenomenon has not been described in larval fish yet. Therefore, this study explores the behavioural changes in larval zebrafish after noxious stimulation and exposure to challenges that can trigger a stress, fear or anxiety reaction. Five-day post fertilization zebrafish were exposed to either a stressor (air emersion), a predatory fear ...


Hpi Reactivity Does Not Reflect Changes In Personality Among Trout Introduced To Bold Or Shy Social Groups, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Hpi Reactivity Does Not Reflect Changes In Personality Among Trout Introduced To Bold Or Shy Social Groups, Jack S. Thomson, Phillip C. Watts, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Physiological stress responses often correlate with personalities (e.g., boldness). However, this relationship can become decoupled, although the mechanisms underlying changes in this relationship are poorly understood. Here we quantify (1) how an individual’s boldness (response to novel objects) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, changes in response to interactions with a population of either bold or shy conspecifics and we (2) measured associated post-stress cortisol levels. Initially-bold trout became shyer regardless of group composition, whereas shy trout remained shy demonstrating that bold individuals are more plastic. Stress-induced plasma cortisol reflected the original personality of fish but not the personality ...


Does Environmental Enrichment Promote Recovery From Stress In Rainbow Trout?, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Jonathan Buckley, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Does Environmental Enrichment Promote Recovery From Stress In Rainbow Trout?, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Jonathan Buckley, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The EU Directive on animal experimentation suggests that all protected animals should have enrichment to improve welfare yet relatively little research has been conducted on the impact of enrichment in fish. Studies employing enrichment in zebrafish have been contradictory and all fish species should be provided with species-specific enrichments relevant to their ecology. Salmonids are important experimental models in studies within aquaculture, toxicology and natural ecosystems. This study therefore sought to establish whether an enriched environment in an experimental aquarium may promote improved welfare in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by enhancing their recovery from invasive procedures. Trout were held individually ...


Automated Monitoring Of Behaviour In Zebrafish After Invasive Procedures, Anthony G. Deakin, Jonathan Buckley, Hamzah S. Alzu'bi, Andrew R. Cossins, Joseph W. Spencer, Waleed Al'nuaimy, Iain S. Young, Jack S. Thomson, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Automated Monitoring Of Behaviour In Zebrafish After Invasive Procedures, Anthony G. Deakin, Jonathan Buckley, Hamzah S. Alzu'bi, Andrew R. Cossins, Joseph W. Spencer, Waleed Al'nuaimy, Iain S. Young, Jack S. Thomson, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Fish are used in a variety of experimental contexts often in high numbers. To maintain their welfare and ensure valid results during invasive procedures it is vital that we can detect subtle changes in behaviour that may allow us to intervene to provide pain-relief. Therefore, an automated method, the Fish Behaviour Index (FBI), was devised and used for testing the impact of laboratory procedures and efficacy of analgesic drugs in the model species, the zebrafish. Cameras with tracking software were used to visually track and quantify female zebrafish behaviour in real time after a number of laboratory procedures including fin ...


Do Painful Sensations And Fear Exist In Fish?, Lynne U. Sneddon Oct 2019

Do Painful Sensations And Fear Exist In Fish?, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The detection of pain and fear in fi sh has been subject to much debate and, since fi sh are a popular experimental model and commercially important in both angling and aquaculture, many procedures that fi sh are subjected to cause injury, fear and stress. These injuries would give rise to the sensation of pain in humans but whether fi sh have the capacity for pain is relatively under explored. Recent evidence has shown that fi sh have the same neural apparatus to detect pain that mammals and humans do, that their brain is active during a potentially painful experience ...