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Full-Text Articles in Animal Studies

Monitoring Mammals At Multiple Scales: Case Studies From Carnivore Communities, Kadambari Devarajan Oct 2021

Monitoring Mammals At Multiple Scales: Case Studies From Carnivore Communities, Kadambari Devarajan

Doctoral Dissertations

Carnivores are distributed widely and threatened by habitat loss, poaching, climate change, and disease. They are considered integral to ecosystem function through their direct and indirect interactions with species at different trophic levels. Given the importance of carnivores, it is of high conservation priority to understand the processes driving carnivore assemblages in different systems. It is thus essential to determine the abiotic and biotic drivers of carnivore community composition at different spatial scales and address the following questions: (i) What factors influence carnivore community composition and diversity? (ii) How do the factors influencing carnivore communities vary across spatial and temporal ...


Attitude Toward Companion And Guard Dogs In Hawaii: Health And Welfare Implications, Lynn Morrison, Julie Ann Luiz Adrian, Marina Kelley, Johana Hill, Zachariah Tman, Dana-Lynn Ko'omoa-Lange Oct 2021

Attitude Toward Companion And Guard Dogs In Hawaii: Health And Welfare Implications, Lynn Morrison, Julie Ann Luiz Adrian, Marina Kelley, Johana Hill, Zachariah Tman, Dana-Lynn Ko'omoa-Lange

People and Animals: The International Journal of Research and Practice

The island of Hawaii exhibits extremes in dog welfare ranging from dogs as family members to dogs used as commodities, either as guard or hunting dogs, with many lacking appropriate care. This study offers a preliminary exploration of people’s attitudes toward companion and noncompanion dogs and the health and welfare implications for humans and dogs. Data collection included interviews and surveys conducted among 20 companion dog/human and eight guard dog/human dyads. Blood pressure (BP) was monitored during interviews to assess stress. The results of the interview data led to five themes. The first two themes describing contexts ...


Animal-Assisted Play: A Strategy For Promoting Children’S Physical Activity Play, Jennifer A. Boisvert, W. Andrew Harrell Sep 2021

Animal-Assisted Play: A Strategy For Promoting Children’S Physical Activity Play, Jennifer A. Boisvert, W. Andrew Harrell

International Journal of Playwork Practice

This article explores how animal-assisted play might be used as a strategy in playwork to support children’s right to play, enrich their play experiences, encourage their physical activity play and better their health and life quality. Children’s interactions with pets or companion animals in free play or animal-assisted activities (AAA) can yield therapeutic benefits by increasing physical and mental health and well-being and also offer possibilities for more outdoor play, agency, risk-taking, fun and enjoyment, as well as high-quality play experiences. We invite playwork practitioners to consider the important role of animals in children’s lives and the ...


Relación De La Calidad Del Calostro Y Parámetros Productivos En Un Rebaño Hampshire En La Sabana De Bogotá, Paula Andrea Pérez Parada, Juan Camilo Medina Abello Sep 2021

Relación De La Calidad Del Calostro Y Parámetros Productivos En Un Rebaño Hampshire En La Sabana De Bogotá, Paula Andrea Pérez Parada, Juan Camilo Medina Abello

Zootecnia

Conocer los indicadores productivos en rebaños ovinos de carne constituye la base de la rentabilidad del negocio ovejero. Se realizó un estudio en un grupo de ovejas (n = 19) de rebaño Hampshire en el trópico alto colombiano. Se evaluó la calidad de calostro medido por refractometría y el puntaje de condición corporal (PCC) al parto de las ovejas. En los corderos se registró el peso al nacer PN, peso al destete PD y la ganancia de peso GP. Se realizó estadística descriptiva de las variables y análisis de correlaciones entre variables; calidad de calostro, GP y PCC. Los promedios encontrados ...


Does Cortisol Respond To A Social Perturbation In Captive Bonobos?, Tiffany Ly Aug 2021

Does Cortisol Respond To A Social Perturbation In Captive Bonobos?, Tiffany Ly

Symposium of Student Scholars

All animals are influenced by their environment. For social species, this means that changes in group size or composition can have long-lasting effects on survival or reproduction. When these social species are placed in captivity and new individuals are introduced suddenly by zookeepers or researchers, these events can lead to stress by changing established dominance hierarchies. For example, these interactions can cause stress hormones—like cortisol in primates and humans—to be released in response to meeting unfamiliar individuals. We took advantage of an introduction event happening at a captive research and conservation facility to better understand how introducing a ...


Implications Of Visual Social Access On The Welfare And Behavior Of Shelter Dogs, Christina M. Walthers, Madison J. Pattillo, Jessie A. Catchpole, Lauren E. Faulkner, Lauren N. Mitchell, Allison L. Martin Aug 2021

Implications Of Visual Social Access On The Welfare And Behavior Of Shelter Dogs, Christina M. Walthers, Madison J. Pattillo, Jessie A. Catchpole, Lauren E. Faulkner, Lauren N. Mitchell, Allison L. Martin

Symposium of Student Scholars

Animal shelter environments have many stressful factors that impact the welfare of shelter dogs, such as lack of predictability and control, and social isolation. Social isolation has been found to increase abnormal behavior and lead to poorer adoption outcomes. Providing visual access to shelter dogs is a relatively easy environmental modification that increases social opportunities and allows for more predictability and control over the environment, potentially improving welfare. To investigate the impact of visual access on the behavior of dogs, we used a within-subject design, conducting 5-min focal observations four times weekly before, during, and after visual access was provided ...


Effects Of Essential Oils On Shelter Dog Behavior, Madison Pattillo Aug 2021

Effects Of Essential Oils On Shelter Dog Behavior, Madison Pattillo

Symposium of Student Scholars

Shelter environments are stressful for dogs due to loud noises and unfamiliar surroundings. Dogs rely heavily on scent information, and exposure to some scents has shown reductions in activity and vocalizations in shelter dogs. We investigated the effects of two calming (lavender and vetiver) and two stimulating (lemon and rosemary) essential oils on crate position and active, resting, and stress behaviors. Observations were conducted for 5-min intervals eight times per week, with observations split between baseline and scent exposure. Our preliminary analysis using the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test found that dogs exposed to lavender (n = 13), lemon (n = 9), rosemary (n ...


Wild Boar In Flanders, Belgium: (Dis)Agreements Between Key Stakeholders On Wild Boar Management Objectives, Actions, And Legal Provisions, Caroline Geeraerts, Anneleen Rutten, Emma Cartuyvels, Pieter Verschelde, Sander Devisscher, Francis Turkelboom, Paul Quataert, Jim Casaer Aug 2021

Wild Boar In Flanders, Belgium: (Dis)Agreements Between Key Stakeholders On Wild Boar Management Objectives, Actions, And Legal Provisions, Caroline Geeraerts, Anneleen Rutten, Emma Cartuyvels, Pieter Verschelde, Sander Devisscher, Francis Turkelboom, Paul Quataert, Jim Casaer

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Wild boar (Sus scrofa) reappeared in Flanders, Belgium in 2006 after more than half a century of absence. Besides being a native and highly valued game species in Europe, wild boar are also known to be responsible for car collisions, crop damage, disease transmission, and ecological damage at high densities. The management of wild boar therefore seeks to balance these positive and negative impacts. Given the highly fragmented landscape in Flanders and its multifunctional use, coexistence with wild boar is only possible through integrated management involving relevant stakeholder groups. However, to be successful, this requires that the management objectives, the ...


Running Behaviour In Impalas In Response To Various Levels Of Predation Threat, Alisiia Glushak Aug 2021

Running Behaviour In Impalas In Response To Various Levels Of Predation Threat, Alisiia Glushak

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

No abstract provided.


Assessing Metacognition In Rats, Abagail Hennessy Aug 2021

Assessing Metacognition In Rats, Abagail Hennessy

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Metacognition in humans refers to the ability to reflect upon one’s own state of knowledge, and to be able to make inferences based on that knowledge. Evidence of metacognition has been most often found in nonhuman primates. However, there may be evidence suggesting metacognitive skills in nonprimate animals as well, such as rats. The present study investigated whether Long Evans rats will utilize information they have about two 8 arm radial mazes to efficiently locate a food reward.


Cats And Wildlife: An Animal Welfare Perspective., John Hadidian Aug 2021

Cats And Wildlife: An Animal Welfare Perspective., John Hadidian

Management - General

While there is no question that outdoors cats have an impact on wildlife, the extent and significance of this impact is the subject of considerable debate. The controversy surrounding outdoor cats can be traced back at least a century, with contemporary claims of threats to global biodiversity bringing animal welfare and conservation interests directly into opposition, largely over the means of managing conflicts. The irony in this is that cat defenders and cat detractors generally agree that it is in the best interests of cats that they should be shielded from the vagaries of outdoor life. While there are practical ...


Interactions Between Humans, Crocodiles, And Hippos At Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, Ivan Marowa, Joshua Matanzima, Tamuka Nhiwatiwa Aug 2021

Interactions Between Humans, Crocodiles, And Hippos At Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe, Ivan Marowa, Joshua Matanzima, Tamuka Nhiwatiwa

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs) are on the increase due to shrinking space that results in increased competition for land, water, and other natural resources between humans and wildlife. Investigating the occurrence of HWCs is important in that the results can be used to formulate better management policies and strategies. In this paper, we describe the nature of HWCs emerging between humans and the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and between humans and the African hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius; hippo) on Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe. Lake Kariba is the second largest manmade lake by volume in the world. Conflicts involving humans and these species ...


Household Perceptions And Patterns Of Crop Loss By Wild Pigs In North India, Bivash Pandav, Lakshminarayanan Natarajan, Ankit Kumar, Ajay A. Desai, Banteibor Lyngkhoi Aug 2021

Household Perceptions And Patterns Of Crop Loss By Wild Pigs In North India, Bivash Pandav, Lakshminarayanan Natarajan, Ankit Kumar, Ajay A. Desai, Banteibor Lyngkhoi

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Loss to cultivated crops by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is widespread and can jeopardize low-income farmers. In India, although there is lot of political interest in the problem, efforts to understand the patterns, correlates, and underlying reasons for wild pig conflict continue to be minimal. We quantified loss of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wild pigs and assessed the spatial patterns of damage in a forest settlement of Van Gujjar (Haridwar, India), which is a dairy-based pastoralist community. We chose a 4-km2 cultivated area comprising 400 farmlands (each measuring 0.8 ha and belonging to a family) and assessed crop ...


Human-Bear Conflict And Community Perceptions Of Risk In The Zanskar Region, Northern India, Kirti Chavan, Sophie M. Watts, Tsewang Namgail Aug 2021

Human-Bear Conflict And Community Perceptions Of Risk In The Zanskar Region, Northern India, Kirti Chavan, Sophie M. Watts, Tsewang Namgail

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The Himalayan brown bear (Ursus arctos isabellinus) is an endangered subspecies of brown bear (U. a. spp.) and is found throughout the Himalayan region of south and central Asia. We describe the type of and the current level of human–bear conflict (HBC) with Himalayan brown bears in the Zanskar region of northern India and suggest potential mitigation methods. Between July and September 2018, we interviewed 218 households across the Zanskar region, all of whom had experienced HBC. Participants reported increasing numbers of HBC events in the last 4 years. The most common form of HBC was damage to granaries ...


Ecological Correlates Of Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite Performance, Ashley Herrin Gagnon Aug 2021

Ecological Correlates Of Alligator Snapping Turtle Bite Performance, Ashley Herrin Gagnon

MSU Graduate Theses

The Alligator Snapping Turtle (Macrochelys temminckii) is one of many turtle species facing conservation challenges. Nearly extirpated in the 1980s, it is currently the subject of a head-start initiative, of which, any lasting behavioral or physiological effects were—until now—unknown! To evaluate the ability of captive-reared individuals to excel in natural habitats, and to foresee any future research or conservation challenges regarding this animal, I explored a suite of variables that influence bite performance and behaviors including captive or free-ranging status, and environmental conditions including body temperature and season. My results indicated that free-ranging M. temminckii outperform those residing ...


Alienation, Modernization, And Animal Welfare: Human-Animal Relationships At The Farm, State, And Country Levels, Michael D. Briscoe Aug 2021

Alienation, Modernization, And Animal Welfare: Human-Animal Relationships At The Farm, State, And Country Levels, Michael D. Briscoe

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Our relationships with animals are important for us as humans, for the environment, and for the animals themselves. In this dissertation I look at the relationships between humans and animals at three scales: farm, U.S. state, and country. Specifically, I address how factors like economic growth, technological innovation, and globalization affect human relationships with animals. Understanding how these factors influence human-animal relationships is important for improving these relationships and deciding which directions will most contribute to sustainable outcomes. I address the social factors that influence human-animal relationships in three studies.

In the first study I surveyed and interviewed dairy ...


Characteristics Of Non-Fatal Attacks By Black Bears: Conterminous United States, 2000–2017, Janel M. Scharhag, Cady Sartini, Shawn M. Crimmins, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jeffrey B. Stetz Jul 2021

Characteristics Of Non-Fatal Attacks By Black Bears: Conterminous United States, 2000–2017, Janel M. Scharhag, Cady Sartini, Shawn M. Crimmins, Scott E. Hygnstrom, Jeffrey B. Stetz

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Attacks on humans by bears (Ursus spp.) have increased in recent decades, as both human and bear populations have increased. To help mitigate the risk of future attacks, it is important to understand the circumstances in past attacks. Information and analyses exist regarding fatal attacks by both American black bears (Ursus americanus) and brown bears (U. arctos) as well as non-fatal attacks by brown bears. No similarly thorough analyses on non-fatal attacks by black bears are available. Our study addressed this information gap by analyzing all (n = 210) agency-confirmed, non-fatal attacks by black bears in the 48 conterminous United States ...


Through The Lens Of Eaat Facility Manager: Benefits Of Equine-Assisted Activities And Therapies To College-Aged Students, Annalee Parker Jul 2021

Through The Lens Of Eaat Facility Manager: Benefits Of Equine-Assisted Activities And Therapies To College-Aged Students, Annalee Parker

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study aimed to explore and gather information on the benefits of equine assisted activities and therapies (EAAT) to college-aged students so that the information may be given to college students as an educational source and a mental health relief resource. This study strived to explore, through the lens of managers of EAAT organizations and their coworkers, how EAAT has positively affected college-aged students, including those with PTSD, behavioral problems, communication obstacles, Down syndrome, family differences, abusive relationships, depression, anxiety, and/or physical ailments. As a whole, EAAT is viewed as more of a recreational activity rather than a method ...


Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge Jul 2021

Directed Genome Evolution To Identify Genes For Macrophage Survival By Staphylococcus Agnetis, Sonali Lakshika Anne Lenaduwe Lokuge

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial Chondronecrosis with Osteomyelitis (BCO) is a debilitating infection that negatively impacts animal welfare and costs the broiler industry billions of dollars annually. We have previously isolated Staphylococcus agnetis 908 from BCO samples obtained from broilers at the University of Arkansas research farm. This isolate can induce BCO lameness at greater than 50% in broilers exposed to the pathogen in drinking water. We found that S. agnetis 908 is capable of surviving and escaping macrophages compared to a closely related cattle isolate,1379. Through Directed Genome Evolution (DGE) we identified that this difference is at least partially associated with an ...


Individual Exposure Potential Assessment For Livestock Based On Spatial-Temporal Analysis Of Gps Data And Behavior Patterns Classification In Cove Wash Watershed, Arizona, Zhuoming Liu Jun 2021

Individual Exposure Potential Assessment For Livestock Based On Spatial-Temporal Analysis Of Gps Data And Behavior Patterns Classification In Cove Wash Watershed, Arizona, Zhuoming Liu

Geography ETDs

This thesis examined the geospatial and temporal grazing patterns of domesticated livestock to model individual-level exposure potential to abandoned uranium mine (AUM) waste in a tribal community in the Southwest United States. Lotek Litetrack Global Positioning System (GPS) collars collected data at 20-minute-intervals for 2 flocks of sheep and goats during the Spring and Summer of 2019. Depending on the flock and individual animals, tracking time ranges from 10 days to four months. This research developed a GIS-based exposure potential framework that built on existing methodologies in time geography, GIS, and exposure mapping. This thesis aims to: 1) classify GPS ...


Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter May 2021

Empathy And Fairness In Nonhuman Primates: Evolutionary Bases Of Human Morality, Colt Halter

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology

Darwin offered an evolutionary perspective on the origins of human morality, suggesting that humans share a biological foundation with nonhuman primates. This paper reviews the current literature on moral and prosocial behaviors of nonhuman primates, specifically examining whether nonhuman primates exhibit behaviors that are typical of empathy and fairness. The literature documents that nonhuman primates exhibit empathetic behaviors regarding emotional contagion and sympathetic concern. There is also evidence that nonhuman primates have a sense of fairness, seen in their reciprocal behaviors and aversion to inequity. Taken together, this suggests that there are evolutionary roots of morality, lending empirical support to ...


“We Planted Rice And Killed People:” Symbiogenetic Destruction In The Cambodian Genocide, Andrew Woolford, Wanda June, Sereyvothny Um May 2021

“We Planted Rice And Killed People:” Symbiogenetic Destruction In The Cambodian Genocide, Andrew Woolford, Wanda June, Sereyvothny Um

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

In recent years, genocide scholars have given greater attention to the dangers posed by climate change for increasing the prevalence or intensity of genocide. Challenges related to forced migration, resource scarcity, famine, and other threats of the Anthropocene are identified as sources of present and future risk, especially for those committed to genocide prevention. We approach the connection between the natural and social aspects of genocide from a different angle. Our research emanates out of a North American Indigenous studies and new materialist rather than Euro-genocide studies framework, meaning we see the natural and the social (or cultural) as inseparable ...


Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker May 2021

Understanding How Temperature Influences European Starling’S Reproductive Success, Grace Fatoyinbo, Sarah Guindre-Parker

Symposium of Student Scholars

Many habitats face fluctuating temperatures year round. The animals that live there are typically able to adjust their behaviors to match these conditions. When temperatures become too extreme, however, it could potentially start having a negative effect on the animal’s reproductive success. In birds, for example, severe climate can affect their eggs and nestlings due to nestlings lacking the ability to thermoregulate. The parents then have to bear the responsibility of thermoregulation for their young, through a behavior called incubation or brooding. European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are a species of birds common across the United States where both parents ...


Using Machine Learning Methods To Predict The Movement Trajectories Of The Louisiana Black Bear, Daniel Clark, David Shaw, Armando Vela, Shane Weinstock, John Santerre, Joseph D. Clark May 2021

Using Machine Learning Methods To Predict The Movement Trajectories Of The Louisiana Black Bear, Daniel Clark, David Shaw, Armando Vela, Shane Weinstock, John Santerre, Joseph D. Clark

SMU Data Science Review

In 1992, the Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus) was placed on the U.S. Endangered Species List. This was due to bear populations in Louisiana being small and isolated enough where their populations couldn’t intersect with other populations to grow. Interchange of individuals between subpopulations of bears in Louisiana is critical to maintain genetic diversity and avoid inbreeding effects. Utilizing GPS (Global Positioning System) data gathered from 31 radio-collared bears from 2010 through 2012, this research will investigate how bears traverse the landscape, which has implications for gene exchange. This paper will leverage machine learning tools to improve ...


Some (Im)Material Girls, Living In (Im)Material Worlds, With Seeds, Stars, And Shit, Matthew Weiderspon May 2021

Some (Im)Material Girls, Living In (Im)Material Worlds, With Seeds, Stars, And Shit, Matthew Weiderspon

Theses and Dissertations

This writing situates material and gestural vocabularies cultivated in my artwork in relation to my lived experience; primarily my rural upbringing in Colorado. Scattered floor dispersals, calling sounds, and bodily movements desire reconsiderations of hope in precarity through a disorientation of place, association, scale, and language.


Analysis Of Multigenerational Behavioral Effects Of Dietary Benzo[A]Pyrene Exposure In Adult Zebrafish, Mary Beth Gillespie May 2021

Analysis Of Multigenerational Behavioral Effects Of Dietary Benzo[A]Pyrene Exposure In Adult Zebrafish, Mary Beth Gillespie

Honors Theses

Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that is linked to negative reproductive and developmental effects in humans and animals. Because BaP is carcinogenic, and its continued presence in the environment allows it to be inhaled and ingested, better understanding of the effects of BaP is needed. To determine the behavioral effects of BaP exposure, zebrafish were used as a model. Wild-type zebrafish (5D) underwent two separate 21-day dietary exposures to 2.5 and 25 μg BaP/g fish to compare how BaP exposure affects locomotor activity. Following the dietary exposure, fish were mated to obtain and raise ...


Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty May 2021

Evaluation Of Weight Gain, Feed Intake, Feed Conversion And Oocyst Shedding Of Eimeria Maxima And Eimeria Acervulina In Broiler Chickens, Lauren Laverty

Poultry Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the day and the time of sample collection of an

experimental challenge with Eimeria maxima (EM) and Eimeria acervulina (EA) in broiler chickens. One day old male Cobb-Vantress broiler chickens were randomly allocated to one of three groups with ten replicates (n=8 chickens/replicate). Chickens were placed in battery cages with a controlled age-appropriate environment: Group 1) Negative control (no challenge or treatment); 2) Challenge control (Eimeria challenge only); 3) Challenge + Salinomycin. Challenged chickens were orally gavaged with the mixed culture of EM/EA (10,000 sporulated EM containing 4 ...


Shelter Dogs Need A Home: The Effect Of Enrichment And Human Contact On The Welfare And Adoptability Of Shelter Dogs, Hannah G. Clark May 2021

Shelter Dogs Need A Home: The Effect Of Enrichment And Human Contact On The Welfare And Adoptability Of Shelter Dogs, Hannah G. Clark

Honors Projects

It comes as no surprise that an animal shelter can be a stressful place for dogs. Shelter conditions, accompanied by multiple, novel stimuli, produce a stressful environment that cause hormonal and behavioral responses in dogs housed in shelters. Many of the stereotypical behaviors produced by the stress of living in a shelter, which tend to worsen as length of stay increases, are undesirable to potential adopters. However, many studies have shown that enrichment with a variety of toys, exercise, and human interaction can buffer the stress response in shelter dogs and improve their well-being. Implementing obedience training and temporary fostering ...


The Canine-Campus Connection: Roles For Dogs In The Lives Of College Students, Mary Renck Jalongo May 2021

The Canine-Campus Connection: Roles For Dogs In The Lives Of College Students, Mary Renck Jalongo

Purdue University Press Book Previews

No abstract provided.


Habitat Characteristics Or Protected Area Size: What Is More Important For The Composition And Diversity Of Mammals In Nonprotected Areas?, Wenbo Li, Jinhua Li, Peipei Yang, Bowen Li, Chao Liu, Lixing Sun May 2021

Habitat Characteristics Or Protected Area Size: What Is More Important For The Composition And Diversity Of Mammals In Nonprotected Areas?, Wenbo Li, Jinhua Li, Peipei Yang, Bowen Li, Chao Liu, Lixing Sun

Biology Faculty Scholarship

The margins of protected areas are usually considered to have greater forest degradation, and given that most mammals live outside protected areas, researchers and conservation practitioners are increasingly recognizing that nonprotected areas must be incorporated into conservation strategy. However, the strategy used to manage these areas still involves increasing the size of protected areas, while not considering the habitat characteristics and requirements of the species. In this study, during a 3-year period, camera trap and habitat characteristic surveys were used to estimate composition, diversity, and habitat characteristics of mammals to determine habitat characteristics or increase the size of protected areas ...