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Influence Of Reduced Leaching On Growth Of Seedlings Of Black Locust Inoculated With Rhizobia, William R. Graves, Sandra R. Anfinson 2017 Iowa State University

Influence Of Reduced Leaching On Growth Of Seedlings Of Black Locust Inoculated With Rhizobia, William R. Graves, Sandra R. Anfinson

William R Graves

Seedlings of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were inoculated with compatible rhizobia and irrigated twice each week with solution containing either 50 or 150 mg nitrogen/L. Leaching fraction treatments of 0, 0.2, or 0.4 were maintained for 6 weeks. Seedlings supplied 50 mg nitrogen/L grew poorly compared co planes supplied 150 mg nitrogen/L regardless of leaching fraction. Dry masses of shoots and of entire planes were lower for seedlings in the 0 and 0.2 leaching fraction treatments compared with chose in the 0.4 treatment. Neither leaching fraction nor applied nitrogen concentration appeared co ...


The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez

Dialogue & Nexus

In modern society, there exists a standard for moral conduct that seems to reign universal over many societies of people. Pinpointing the origins of morality, however, can become problematic because of how one approaches what morality is and what its purpose is in society. Psychologists may point out the social constructs and norms that allow for morality to unfold. Evolutionary biologists may give evidence of human-related species that have developed similar behavioral standards. A Christian theologian may look to scripture in explaining a Creator who ordained that all abide by the standards of conduct most pleasing to this deity. Which ...


The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty

Dialogue & Nexus

Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


The Specific Surface Area Values For Iowa Tills, Keith E. Schilling, Brian L. Gedlinske 2017 Selected Works

The Specific Surface Area Values For Iowa Tills, Keith E. Schilling, Brian L. Gedlinske

Brian Gedlinske

Specific surface area is a property used by earth scientists to estimate the proportion of expandable clay minerals in soils. In this study, specific surface area method is shown to compare favorably with standard clay mineralogical techniques in determining gross differences in expandable clay mineral content in tills. The results of over 100 measurements on till samples from Iowa indicate undifferentiated pre-Illinoian tills from southern and southwestern Iowa have the highest specific surface area values of Iowa tills (ranging from nearly 100 to greater than 150 m2/g) and Wisconsinan Dows Formation tills have the lowest average specific surface ...


Rural Value-Orientations And Farm-Policy Positions And Actions, George M. Beal, Joe M. Bohlen, Rex H. Warland 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Rural Value-Orientations And Farm-Policy Positions And Actions, George M. Beal, Joe M. Bohlen, Rex H. Warland

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

There is limited consensus within the agricultural sector of the United States concerning government farm policy. American farmers differ widely in their perceptions of the proper role of government in agriculture.

It is generally believed that value and belief differences among farmers are meaningfully associated with the variety of positions and actions taken by farmers with respect to government farm policy. Several observers have suggested that, if these value and belief diversities can be clearly articulated and resolved, more rapid progress can be made toward solving many present farm problems. However, there is little information on the relationship between values ...


Relation Of Riparian Buffer Strips To In-Stream Habitat, Macroinvertebrates And Fish In A Small Iowa Stream, Jeremy P. Duehr, Michael J. Siepker, Clay L. Pierce, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa State University

Relation Of Riparian Buffer Strips To In-Stream Habitat, Macroinvertebrates And Fish In A Small Iowa Stream, Jeremy P. Duehr, Michael J. Siepker, Clay L. Pierce, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Macroinvertebrate and fish habitat is often degraded as a result of agriculture. Riparian buffer strips are commonly used to counteract the negative effects of agriculture in headwater streams. We assessed the relation of multi-aged riparian buffer strips to in-stream habitat, macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages in an Iowa stream. In-stream habitat, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from two buffered sites and two unbuffered sites, with the greatest substrate, water depth, and velocity heterogeneity occurring in buffered sites. The highest macroinvertebrate richness (11) as well as fish species richness (14), diversity (1.99) and IBI score (3 7) were found in the ...


Relation Of Riparian Buffer Strips To In-Stream Habitat, Macroinvertebrates And Fish In A Small Iowa Stream, Jeremy P. Duehr, Michael J. Siepker, Clay L. Pierce, Thomas M. Isenhart 2017 Iowa State University

Relation Of Riparian Buffer Strips To In-Stream Habitat, Macroinvertebrates And Fish In A Small Iowa Stream, Jeremy P. Duehr, Michael J. Siepker, Clay L. Pierce, Thomas M. Isenhart

Thomas M. Isenhart

Macroinvertebrate and fish habitat is often degraded as a result of agriculture. Riparian buffer strips are commonly used to counteract the negative effects of agriculture in headwater streams. We assessed the relation of multi-aged riparian buffer strips to in-stream habitat, macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages in an Iowa stream. In-stream habitat, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from two buffered sites and two unbuffered sites, with the greatest substrate, water depth, and velocity heterogeneity occurring in buffered sites. The highest macroinvertebrate richness (11) as well as fish species richness (14), diversity (1.99) and IBI score (37) were found in the site ...


Food Habits Of The Northern Saw-Whet Owl M Central Iowa: Effects Of Roost Location, Stephen J. Dinsmore, William R. Clark 2017 Iowa State University

Food Habits Of The Northern Saw-Whet Owl M Central Iowa: Effects Of Roost Location, Stephen J. Dinsmore, William R. Clark

Stephen J Dinsmore

During the period 1979-89, 900 northern saw-whet owl (Aegolius acadicus) pellets with identifable remains of prey were collected at 18 central Iowa locations. Peromyscus were the most frequent prey consumed, comprising 81.2% of all prey items. Other prey species were voles (Microtus), western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis), shrews (Blarina brevicauda, Sorex cinereus, and Cryptotis parva), and a single unidentified bird. Peromyscus comprised the largest proportion of pellets from different successional stages. There were significant differences for four prey groups (Peromyscus, Microtus, Reithrodontomys, and shrews) among years. Peromyscus and R. megalotis showed significant differences among locations. Microtus and shrews were ...


Weather Factors Influencing Winter Roosts Of American Crows In Central Iowa, Joshua D. Obrecht, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Weather Factors Influencing Winter Roosts Of American Crows In Central Iowa, Joshua D. Obrecht, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

We investigated the effects of season and weather on the winter roosting behavior of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) in central Iowa from January through March 2006. The peak number of birds recorded at a roost in Ames, Story County was 9,000+ in early February, and the number of individuals entering the roost decreased through February and March. Crows tended to enter the roost later in the day as winter neared completion. High wind speed and low light intensity caused individual to enter the roost earlier in the day. Temperature did not affect arrival time of crows. Wind speed, light ...


Range Expansion Of The Great-Tailed Grackle In The 1900s, James J. Dinsmore, Stephen J. Dinsmore 2017 Iowa State University

Range Expansion Of The Great-Tailed Grackle In The 1900s, James J. Dinsmore, Stephen J. Dinsmore

Stephen J Dinsmore

In 1900, the range of the Great-tailed Grackle extended north of the Mexican border only into Texas. Since then, it has expanded its range greatly. It now nests in 14 states and has strayed to an additional eight states and three Canadian provinces. Much of this expansion has occurred since 1960. Great-tails often stray far from their normal range, especially in spring. Most of these strays are single individuals. In states where they have nested, breeding birds typically reach the state a few years after the first reports of the species. Great-tailed Grackles do well in a variety of human ...


Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun 2017 Iowa State University

Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun

Sebastian Braun

Over the past 400 to 500 years, the Great Plains have seen a rapid succession of ecological regimes. The ecological historian Dan Flores has written that plains ecological history "centers around a series of ecological crashes and simplifications."1 This text attempts to give an overview of these successive ecological systems and to provide an analysis of the lessons in sustainability, resilience, and ideology offered by plains ecological history of the past few centuries. The plains, a semi-arid ecosystem, have "fewer of the safeguards built into more diverse systems."2 Because natural resources "in semi-arid countries are often set in ...


Conversations In The Rainforest: Culture, Values, And The Environment In Central Africa, Richard B. Peterson 2017 University of New England

Conversations In The Rainforest: Culture, Values, And The Environment In Central Africa, Richard B. Peterson

Environmental Studies Faculty Books

This book examines the environmental perceptions, values, and practices of inhabitants of Central Africa’s rainforests in order to help build a more firm foundation for ecological and social sustainability at the local level, while also making contributions to global environmental ethics from underrepresented African cultural traditions. It focuses on two case studies in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), one an integrated health and sustainable development project in the Ubangi region, and the other a large wildlife reserve in the Ituri Forest. Through in-depth interviews, focus groups, and participant observation conducted with local farmers and foragers, project staff, and ...


From Womb To Tomb: Learning To Live With Documents, Frederick W. Guyette 2017 Erskine College and Seminary

From Womb To Tomb: Learning To Live With Documents, Frederick W. Guyette

Proceedings from the Document Academy

Official records are ubiquitous in American life. Even before a birth certificate is issued for a child, medical professionals create an ultrasound image. The family regards that image as sublime, but the doctor scutinizes it in a different way. When a child is older, the birth certificate is what the school wants to see. Later in life, many other documents will be generated: a driver's license and car insurance, employment and tax records, financial documents associated with buying a home, passports for travel, and then a last will and testament, followed by a death certificate. Coping with documents throughout ...


Editorial, Tim Gorichanaz 2017 Drexel University

Editorial, Tim Gorichanaz

Proceedings from the Document Academy

In response to the changing landscape of academic publishing, this special issue called for poetic engagements with questions of scholarly interest. In putting together this issue, we sought to showcase without evisceration the complex roles that documents play in human life.


Monks As Model Men: Gender Anomalies Or Heroic Ideal?, Aaron Raverty OSB 2017 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Monks As Model Men: Gender Anomalies Or Heroic Ideal?, Aaron Raverty Osb

Saint John’s Abbey Publications

The movie The Mask You Live In portrays gender socialization for men in the United States today as dominated by a trajectory emphasizing ruthless competition, a never-ending search for prestige in material wealth, and a largely self-serving quest to overcome and control women. The movie graphically depicts all the accompanying psychological dysfunction, legal difficulties, and emotional distress experienced by boys and young men desperately trying to conform to such a scripted model of masculinity. Anthropological research invites alternate ways of thinking about the relationship between sex and gender. This is especially true among those who claim a close relationship with ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


Characterization Of Central Iowa Forests With Permanent Plots, James W. Raich, Donald R. Farrar, Ruth A. Herzberg, Eenam Sin, Cindy L. Johnson-Groh 2017 Iowa State University

Characterization Of Central Iowa Forests With Permanent Plots, James W. Raich, Donald R. Farrar, Ruth A. Herzberg, Eenam Sin, Cindy L. Johnson-Groh

James W. Raich

We describe a standard methodology for establishing and inventorying the woody vegetation in 0.1-ha permanent forest plots and we utilize the data from 86 plots to characterize the mature forest vegetation of central Iowa. Obvious differences existed between bottomland hardwoods and upland forest stands, but disturbed uplands contained species typical of bottomlands. Little-disturbed upland forest plots included a variety of species associations, but variation among plots was continuous. The trees dominating the mature upland forests of central Iowa grow in a wide variety of habitats, with the result that predictability of stand structure at any location is limited. Stands ...


Theft As “Involuntary Gifting” Among The Tacana Of Northern Bolivia, Laura Bathurst 2017 University of the Pacific

Theft As “Involuntary Gifting” Among The Tacana Of Northern Bolivia, Laura Bathurst

Laura Bathurst

It has been well established in the anthropological literature that reciprocity, in its various cultural forms, is simultaneously produced by and productive of social relationships; it both comments upon social relationships and plays a role in creating them. However, this has generally been demonstrated using positive forms of reciprocity. In this paper I examine how theft, as a form of negative reciprocity, fit with a wider set of positive reciprocal obligations among the Tacana in northeastern Bolivia in 2001-2002. Theft, I argue, was part of a coherent cultural system in which a material basis, social norms, and values and beliefs ...


Evaluating Fall-Of Curves With Straight-Line Or Least Cost Path Distance, Robert J. Bischoff 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Evaluating Fall-Of Curves With Straight-Line Or Least Cost Path Distance, Robert J. Bischoff

FHSS Mentored Research Conference

A fundamental part of interaction is distance. Interaction can be modeled by plotting distance against the frequency of an object. My purpose it to evaluate whether straight-line distance is an acceptable proxy for actual distance or whether using more realistic distance measures is required. In this poster, I use the distribution of San Juan Red Ware in a portion of the southwestern United States to examine the differences between straight-line distance, the length of least cost paths (LCP), and the time to travel the LCP between points. San Juan Red Ware was produced in southeastern Utah between approximately A.D ...


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