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Using Social Norms As A Substitute For Law, Bryan H. Druzin 2016 The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Using Social Norms As A Substitute For Law, Bryan H. Druzin

Bryan H. Druzin

This paper follows the law and norms literature in arguing that policymakers can use social norms to support or even replace regulation. Key to the approach offered here is the idea — borrowed from the folk theorem in game theory — that cooperative order can arise in circumstances where parties repeatedly interact. This paper proposes that repeated interaction between the same agents, specifically the intensity of it, may be used as a yardstick with which to gauge the potential to scale back regulation and use social norms as a substitute for law. Where there are very high levels of repeated interaction between ...


Developing An Intergroup Communication Intervention Curriculum: Enhancing Workforce Skills Across Generations, Kate Magsamen-Conrad, Jeanette M. Dillon, Lisa Hanasono, Paul Valdez 2016 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Developing An Intergroup Communication Intervention Curriculum: Enhancing Workforce Skills Across Generations, Kate Magsamen-Conrad, Jeanette M. Dillon, Lisa Hanasono, Paul Valdez

Kate Magsamen-Conrad

This chapter describes a community-based participatory research project that embraces opportunities to augment the skills necessary to excel in an increasingly diverse workforce, especially in terms of proficiency in communication, social interaction, and technology. The Intergroup Communication Intervention (ICI) provides needed technology skills training to older adults in a community setting t improve intergroup relationships, foster positive civic attitudes and skills, and reduce ageist attitudes of younger adults. Participants build workforce skills necessary for future success as the project advances group and interpersonal communication skills across generations using technology pedagogy to bridge the divide. The ICI approach is systematic and ...


Gender Inequity In The Representation Of Women As Superintendents In Mississippi Public Schools: The "No Problem Problem", Deidre Joy Seale Smith 2015 The University of Southern Mississippi

Gender Inequity In The Representation Of Women As Superintendents In Mississippi Public Schools: The "No Problem Problem", Deidre Joy Seale Smith

Dissertations

This qualitative study investigated the phenomenon of continuing underrepresentation of female superintendents in Mississippi K-12 public schools. The study was conducted during the 2014-2015 school year. At the time of the study, women represented 23% of the overall population of superintendents in Mississippi public schools. Fourteen women who were serving as superintendents in Mississippi during the 2014-2015 school year participated. Interviews were conducted, and the qualitative data were analyzed using the constant comparative method. The data were analyzed using constructs associated with feminist theory, feminist postsructural and feminist standpoint theoretical frameworks. Two primary themes emerged as a result of this ...


Wild Things: Stories, Transition And The Sacred In Ecological Social Movements, Luigi Russi 2015 International University College of Turin

Wild Things: Stories, Transition And The Sacred In Ecological Social Movements, Luigi Russi

Luigi Russi

This article examines the role of stories in ecological activism. It first situates stories inside object ecologies, encompassing relationships of reliance, care and maintenance of things. It suggests that ecologies of this sort work as an extended mind where our cognition takes place and meaning is apprehended, so that what we can think of is always a function of what we have Ôat handÕ. The article then considers how these ecologies are impacted by discourses on climate change and peak oil, which stress the impossibility to keep ordering our lives through the same entanglements that have supported them so far ...


Social Movements, Protest, And Human Rights: Latin America And Beyond, James C. Franklin 2015 Ohio Wesleyan University

Social Movements, Protest, And Human Rights: Latin America And Beyond, James C. Franklin

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

The basis of this paper is research I have conducted into protests in Latin America. By recording the demands and actors involved in protests, I have been able to assess human rights-related protests. This, in turn, allows a systematic investigation of the relationship between social movements and human rights. One principal finding is that there are two different types of human rights contention. Argentina and Guatemala experienced national human rights movements, led by human rights organizations and focused on general human rights problems and solutions.

The other countries I studied in the region (Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Venezuela) experienced ...


Human Rights-Based Activism: Lessons From Health Activism In South Africa And Brazil, Kristi Heather Kenyon, Regiane Garcia 2015 Dalhousie University, University of Pretoria

Human Rights-Based Activism: Lessons From Health Activism In South Africa And Brazil, Kristi Heather Kenyon, Regiane Garcia

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Drawing on South Africa and Brazil’s experiences of health activism, this paper aims to provide a full illustration of how human rights-based (HRB) activism can function as an influential agency-based social determinant of health. Social determinants of health (SDH) are usually understood as circumstances and structures that disadvantage individuals by increasing their vulnerability to disease and injury. SDH are typically conceived of as conditions that act upon individuals and communities who are relatively powerless to react against the health impacts of context such as poverty and marginalization.

In addition to this ‘passive’ understanding of SDH, we put forward an ...


Catholic Social Teaching And Economic Rights, John Sniegocki 2015 Xavier University - Cincinnati

Catholic Social Teaching And Economic Rights, John Sniegocki

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Catholic Social Teaching (CST) has much to contribute to ongoing discussions of human rights. One important feature of CST is its holistic understanding of human rights, which includes social and economic rights along with political/civil rights. This paper will explore the understandings of economic rights and of economic democracy that are developed in the Catholic social tradition, with particular attention to the thought of Pope John Paul II and Pope Francis.

Some implications of these concepts for current realities in the United States and globally will be highlighted. Attention will also be given to critics of economic rights and ...


De-Centering The Human: Moroccan Islamists And Human Rights, Ahmed Khanani 2015 Earlham College

De-Centering The Human: Moroccan Islamists And Human Rights, Ahmed Khanani

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

In a critical contribution to contemporary rights conversations, Blattberg argues that “human rights talk” is simply too “thin” (2009). In particular, he argues that a flaw in scholarly conversations is the move to abstraction: the human is insufficient because it is impersonal. Blattberg lodges this criticism against a host of liberal thinkers, including Nussbaum and Walzer, and contends that the move to abstraction hinders calls to justice insofar as it fails to invest actors in the plights of other people. Yet, even as Blattberg calls to personalize the people to be protected, he does not elaborate on how to flesh ...


Religious Freedom And The Right To Convert: Laws Against Forcible Or Induced Conversion In India, Laura Dudley Jenkins 2015 University of Cincinnati - Main Campus

Religious Freedom And The Right To Convert: Laws Against Forcible Or Induced Conversion In India, Laura Dudley Jenkins

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

In early 2015 several Hindu nationalist leaders India have called for a national law against forcible or induced conversion. Laws against “forcible conversion” have been proposed and enacted an increasing number of Indian states in recent years. Some laws include higher penalties for conversions of lower castes or women, reinforcing paternalistic assumptions that they lack the agency or ability to determine their own religion. Based on their timing, anti-conversion laws seem to be politically motivated, used to rally the Hindu majority during elections by playing on fears of their declining numbers and potential threats of mass conversions. Both proponents and ...


Human Rights Attitudes Of College Students In The United States, K. Russell Shekha, Brian K. Gran 2015 Denison University

Human Rights Attitudes Of College Students In The United States, K. Russell Shekha, Brian K. Gran

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

This study focuses on universal human rights knowledge, endorsement, and commitment of college students in the United States. Using a newly constructed human rights attitudes questionnaire, the authors analyze the determinants of human rights attitudes using college aged samples in two universities located in the United States. This study builds on scholarship emphasizing the impacts of citizenship, immigration, and social identities constructed around contested cultural norms on the endorsement of and commitment to universal human rights. At the same time, this study analyzes knowledge of universal human rights to act as a measure for gauging understanding within the nation.


How Understanding Citizenship In The World Society Determines Attitudes Toward The Cultural Rights Of Immigrants And Minorities, K. Russell Shekha, JoEllen Pedersen 2015 Denison University

How Understanding Citizenship In The World Society Determines Attitudes Toward The Cultural Rights Of Immigrants And Minorities, K. Russell Shekha, Joellen Pedersen

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

This study addresses how definitions of citizenship affect commitment to, endorsement, and restriction of immigrants’ and minority group members’ economic, social, and cultural rights. Data are from 2003 and 2013 (released this March) waves of the International Social Survey Program’s National Identity. Examining individuals living in 19 countries, this analysis demonstrates that individuals’ beliefs about citizenship and its salience in world society shape attitudes toward human rights of immigrants and minorities. While this study suggests national identities continue to predict human rights attitudes, it reveals that individuals who express an international identity demonstrate greater respect for rights of non-traditional ...


Endorsing And Committing To Women’S Human Rights, Margaret Waltz, K. Russell Shekha, Brian K. Gran 2015 Case Western Reserve University

Endorsing And Committing To Women’S Human Rights, Margaret Waltz, K. Russell Shekha, Brian K. Gran

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

This study identifies determinants of endorsement of and commitment to women's economic and political rights compared to men’s. Studying an international sample of diverse nations and regions through time-series modeling of two recent waves of the Worlds Values Survey, we compare static, psychological, and dynamic explanations of human rights attitudes. This study suggests the importance of contested, dynamic identities across geographical space and over time for understanding determinants of attitudes towards the rights of women in an international system where universal human rights are institutionalized at ever greater levels.


Cultural Differences In Support For Human Rights, Sam McFarland, William Hornsby 2015 Western Kentucky University

Cultural Differences In Support For Human Rights, Sam Mcfarland, William Hornsby

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

This article reviews cultural (and country) differences in support for human rights through multiple conceptual and theoretical lenses. This review will include (a) discussion of the difficulties that language translation imposes of measuring human rights support consistently across countries, (b) studies of whether persons in different cultures have a common understanding of the meaning of human rights, (c) the general level of support for human rights across the world, (d) the stability of cultural differences in support for human rights across the years, and (e) evidence related to whether events that happen within a country (e.g., a terrorist attack ...


Reciprocal Critique: A Dialectical Engagement Of Theology And Human Rights Discourse, Diane Yeager 2015 Georgetown University

Reciprocal Critique: A Dialectical Engagement Of Theology And Human Rights Discourse, Diane Yeager

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Nicholas Wolterstorff puts the problem baldly: “The relation of Christians to human rights is a troubled relationship. It was not always so; it became so in the twentieth century.” A reviewer has accurately (if perhaps overdramatically) pointed out that “the assumption that rights talk is anathema to theology” functions as the ”chief impetus” propelling Ethna Regan’s ambitious and provocative Theology and the Boundary Discourse of Human Rights (2010).

While much of the discussion generated by Regan’s argument has centered on her efforts to show the constructive convergence of moral theology and the human rights movement (which she manages ...


Privacy And Freedom Of Information In Organizational Contexts: Human Rights Issues In An Era Of Big Data, Jo Ann Oravec 2015 University of Wisconsin - Whitewater

Privacy And Freedom Of Information In Organizational Contexts: Human Rights Issues In An Era Of Big Data, Jo Ann Oravec

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Large-scale information collection and dissemination practices are acquiring greater economic and political significance in the everyday lives of citizens. Privacy and freedom of information issues are becoming more complex as “big data” and machine learning replace traditional forms of dossier collection, statistical analysis, and archiving. This paper explores the varieties of human rights issues that are emerging. The enormous amounts of data associated with social media systems and mobile applications have increased the number of facial recognition, locational tracking, socioeconomic analysis, and related practices being conducted by corporations as well as governmental agencies.

Often corporations and governmental agencies couple their ...


Detaining Dialogue: Framing Treatment During The 2013 Guantánamo Hunger Strike, Kristen Traynor 2015 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Detaining Dialogue: Framing Treatment During The 2013 Guantánamo Hunger Strike, Kristen Traynor

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

In recent years, prisoner treatment during the “War on Terror” has re-emerged as a prominent topic in news headlines and government debate. However, the media’s framing of such treatment toward prisoners at Guantánamo Bay has received scant scholarly attention compared to that of Abu Ghraib.

With a focus on elite and media framing of treatment during the prisoner hunger strike from February to August of 2013, the goal of this paper is to explain whether government portrayal of prisoner treatment influenced the way the media framed the situation or whether the media acted with more autonomy. In the study ...


The Potentiality Of A Digital Revolution: Alienated Activists And The Surveillance State, Jennifer Grubbs 2015 American University

The Potentiality Of A Digital Revolution: Alienated Activists And The Surveillance State, Jennifer Grubbs

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

The following paper will examine the ways in which digital media is used by both activists engaged in struggles of inequity as well as the State. Specifically, the paper focuses on the use of digital media in the antiracist organizing following the murders of Trayvon Martin in Sanford, Florida, Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri and Eric Garner in Staten Island, New York. Activists relied on digital media to share information, narratives, as well as create networks for mobilization. The State relied on digital media to provide counter-narratives and promulgate a fear-based rhetoric depicting activists as “looters.”

This paper emphasizes the ...


Human Rights In The Digital Age: Opportunities And Constraints, Mahmood Monshipouri 2015 San Francisco State University

Human Rights In The Digital Age: Opportunities And Constraints, Mahmood Monshipouri

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

By making information more accessible than ever before, digital technologies have come to shape societies and cultures in many respects. These technologies also offer tools for resistance and change that can be effectively deployed to influence existing power relations. People around the world have increasingly used digital media to present political reactions against authoritarian rule or to speak out against failed policies. In contrast to the all-too familiar centralized, vertically integrated social movements, theories Social Movements argue for a new way of doing politics—namely, “network politics.” More importance is attached to social and cultural concerns in these movements, and ...


Turn Up The Volume: The Amplification Of Shame, Baekkwan Park, Amanda Murdie, David Davis 2015 Emory University

Turn Up The Volume: The Amplification Of Shame, Baekkwan Park, Amanda Murdie, David Davis

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

One important strategy that HROs, and other actors, employ to call attention to human rights abuses around the world is “naming and shaming.” By calling attention to governments for their human rights violations, HROs hope to galvanize world public opinion and increase pressure on these states to halt abuses. While some HROs, like Amnesty International, communicate directly with their large membership bases, the vast majority of HROs rely on the international media to communicate their message to the international community.

Issuing reports and press releases is a major part of their strategy the international community aware of abuses The more ...


The Constitutive Role Of The Un Treaty Bodies In Latin-America, Alejandro Anaya-Muñoz 2015 Center for Research and Teaching in Economics (CIDE), Mexico / University of Minnesota

The Constitutive Role Of The Un Treaty Bodies In Latin-America, Alejandro Anaya-Muñoz

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

The literature on the transnational advocacy of human rights and its purported influence over state behavior is abundant. Despite the negative findings of some research, qualitative and quantitative studies have shown that under some conditions the shaming actions by the different actors that participate in the transnational advocacy of human rights do have a positive impact on the way the domestic human rights agenda develops within targeted states.

Only a handful of studies, however, have focused on the role of the “treaty bodies” of the United Nations. Some observers consider that UN treaty bodies are weak and that they do ...


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