Proximity And Journalistic Practice In Environmental Discourse: Experiencing “Job Blackmail” In The News, 2015 Carnegie Mellon University
Proximity And Journalistic Practice In Environmental Discourse: Experiencing “Job Blackmail” In The News, Barbara Johnstone, Justin Mando
No abstract provided.
Phonology, 2015 SelectedWorks
Phonology, Geoffrey S. Nathan
Geoffrey S. Nathan
This paper will discuss the ways in which Cognitive Grammar (CG) has integrated the fundamental concepts of phonology. Phonology has traditionally been the neglected stepchild of CG, in part because the initial excitement of CG revolved around the insightful semantic analyses of what had previously been thought to be purely syntactic or arbitrary lexical puzzles, and phonology is, by definition, about meaningless units. Additionally, phonology deals with the coordination of motor activity and auditory perception, areas that initially didn’t seem to lend themselves to the conceptual tools of CG.
Unlike much work on syntax and semantics, research within several ...
Concepts, Perception And The Dual Process Theories Of Mind, 2014 Kansas State University Libraries
Concepts, Perception And The Dual Process Theories Of Mind, Marcello Frixione, Antonio Lieto
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication
In this article we argue that the problem of the relationships between concepts and perception in cognitive science is blurred by the fact that the very notion of concept is rather confused. Since it is not always clear exactly what concepts are, it is not easy to say, for example, whether and in what measure concept possession involves entertaining and manipulating perceptual representations, whether concepts are entirely different from perceptual representations, and so on. As a paradigmatic example of this state of affairs, we will start by taking into consideration the distinction between conceptual and nonconceptual content. The analysis of ...
Linguistic Intuitions And Cognitive Penetrability, 2014 Kansas State University Libraries
Linguistic Intuitions And Cognitive Penetrability, Michael Devitt
Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication
Metalinguistic intuitions play a very large evidential role in both linguistics and philosophy. Linguists think that these intuitions are products of underlying linguistic competence. I call this view “the voice of competence” (“VoC”). Although many philosophers seem to think that metalinguistic intuitions are a priori many may implicitly hold the more scientifically respectable VoC. According to VoC, I argue, these intuitions can be cognitively penetrated by the central processor. But, I have argued elsewhere, VoC is false. Instead, we should hold “the modest explanation” (“ME”) according to which these intuitions are fairly unreflective empirical theory-laden central-processor responses to phenomena. On ...
Fiction And Folklore, Etymology And Folk Etymology, Linguistics And Literature, 2014 The College at Brockport: State University of New York
Fiction And Folklore, Etymology And Folk Etymology, Linguistics And Literature, Leonard R.N. Ashley
Literary Onomastics Studies
No abstract provided.
Lexemes Into Names, 2014 The College at Brockport: State University of New York
Lexemes Into Names, Brenna E. Lorenz
Literary Onomastics Studies
In lieu of an abstract, this is the opening paragraph of the article.
Nominization (a term proposed by W. H. F. Nicolaisen in a personal communication, 1988) is a mechanism of name formation that involves the conversion of a lexeme into a name. The opposite is generally called commonization, by which a name is converted into a lexeme. Dr. Nicolaisen has suggested that lexemization would be a more accurate term.
Sequencing The Presentation Of Grammar Items To Attract Student Interest, 2014 SelectedWorks
Sequencing The Presentation Of Grammar Items To Attract Student Interest, Arshad Abd Samad
Arshad Abd Samad
The teaching of grammar is a challenging task as teachers need to present technical information about the language in such a way that would interest and attract the attention of students. In addition to the lesson itself, the presentation sequence of grammatical items as in the grammar syllabus can also influence how well students respond. Teachers often decide to present and focus on grammatical items to beginner, intermediate and advanced level students based on criteria such as level of difficulty and order of acquisition. Biber (1998), however, proposed that grammar should be presented according to narrative, informational and interactive text ...
A Structural Model For Perceptual Learning Styles, The Ideal L2 Self, Motivated Behavior And English Proficiency, Tae-Young Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Kim
In order to verify the structural relationship between perceptual learning styles, English learning motivation, and achievement, this study investigated 2682 Korean EFL students' visual, auditory, kinesthetic styles, imagination, ideal L2 self, motivated behavior, and English proficiency. The data collected by means of a questionnaire were explored using a correlation analysis and structural equation modeling. It was found that while visual and auditory styles were positively correlated with motivational variables and English proficiency, kinesthetic style showed negative correlations with them. Furthermore, visual style proved to have the most substantial influence on achieving successful English proficiency, mediated by the ideal L2 self ...
An Ecological View Of Whole-Class Discussions In A Second Language Literature Classroom: Teacher Reformulations As Affordances For Learning, Joshua J. Thoms
Joshua J. Thoms
This article analyzes whole-class discussions between a teacher and her students in a Latin American Colonial literature course at the college level. The study is theoretical–exploratory in nature in that it (a) articulates theoretical assumptions inherent in an ecological perspective on second language learning and teaching, and (b) attempts to operationalize the affordance construct (van Lier, 2000, 2004) in the context of a second language (L2) literature classroom. The study’s findings underscore the importance of teacher reformulations when engaging students in whole-class discussions, as well as students’ engagement with and awareness of the unfolding talk. Furthermore, how the ...
Predicting Survey Responses: How And Why Semantics Shape Survey Statistics On Organizational Behaviour, Ketil Arnulf, Kai R. Larsen, Øyvind Martinsen, Chih How Bong
Kai R.T. Larsen
Some disciplines in the social sciences rely heavily on collecting survey responses to detect empirical relationships among variables. We explored whether these relationships were a priori predictable from the semantic properties of the survey items, using language processing algorithms which are now available as new research methods. Language processing algorithms were used to calculate the semantic similarity among all items in state-of-the-art surveys from Organisational Behaviour research. These surveys covered areas such as transformational leadership, work motivation and work outcomes. This information was used to explain and predict the response patterns from real subjects. Semantic algorithms explained 60–86% of ...
Grammatical Encoding In The Noun Phrase: Effects Of Constituent Similarity And Grammatical Class, 2014 Northeastern University
Grammatical Encoding In The Noun Phrase: Effects Of Constituent Similarity And Grammatical Class, Amy Dibattista
Sentence production requires the translation of a non-linguistic message into an ordered sequence of words. This process includes a two-level grammatical encoding stage, consisting of a functional level and a positional level, which establishes an utterance's structure (Bock & Levelt, 1994). Per Bock and Levelt's model of grammatical encoding, lemmas, or representations of words containing grammatical and meaning information, are selected and assigned to roles and to relationships with other words and phrases at the functional level. At the positional level, lexemes, or abstract representations of a word's sounds, are assigned to linear positions in the utterance. In this dissertation, two sets of experiments investigated grammatical operations at these levels.
Experiments 1–3 investigated role and position assignment by asking if the structural similarity of constituents affects functional- and positional-level processing, measured as effects on rates of exchange errors: production errors in which constituents swap roles or positions (e.g., She donated a library to the book; intended: She donated a book to the library). Phrase exchanges, which arise at the functional level, and word exchanges, which arise at the functional or positional level, were analyzed. Garrett (1975, 1980) found that exchanging words and phrases are almost exclusively similar in grammatical class and in their relative role or position in an utterance. This suggests that if other, more ...
Unsheltered & Undeserving: How Chronically Homeless Individuals Are Discursively Constructed In Newspapers, 2014 University of Washington Tacoma
Unsheltered & Undeserving: How Chronically Homeless Individuals Are Discursively Constructed In Newspapers, Jacinda Howard
Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences Master's Projects and Theses
Homelessness arose as a public problem in the 1980s and led to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, the country’s first and only legislation to acknowledge homelessness and direct resources toward addressing it. The act has since inspired a national movement to end all types of homelessness by 2020 and chronic homelessness by 2015. A permanent supportive housing model known as Housing First, which provides government subsidized apartments and case management to chronically homeless individuals, is poised to play a crucial role in the movement. Given this, nine newspaper articles published in Tacoma, Washington’s The News Tribune ...
Identification Of Informativeness In Text Using Natural Language Stylometry, 2014 Western University
Identification Of Informativeness In Text Using Natural Language Stylometry, Rushdi Shams
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
In this age of information overload, one experiences a rapidly growing over-abundance of written text. To assist with handling this bounty, this plethora of texts is now widely used to develop and optimize statistical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Surprisingly, the use of more fragments of text to train these statistical NLP systems may not necessarily lead to improved performance. We hypothesize that those fragments that help the most with training are those that contain the desired information. Therefore, determining informativeness in text has become a central issue in our view of NLP. Recent developments in this field have spawned ...
Second-Language English Fluency Change In Native-Speaker Context, 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato
Second-Language English Fluency Change In Native-Speaker Context, John Zehnder
Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato
This study examines the influence of social context on oral proficiency change among English language learners on the campus of an American university. Speech samples were taken from 2 rounds of interviews with 9 East Asian women. These were analyzed using the phonetic analysis program Praat in order to determine each speaker’s rate of stressed syllables at the beginning and end of the study. The change in these rates was used as a proxy for fluency change. This was then compared with each speaker’s social context. The results suggested that English language learners improve their fluency when they ...
Open Educational Resources In The United States: Insights From University Foreign Language Directors, 2014 Utah State University
Open Educational Resources In The United States: Insights From University Foreign Language Directors, Joshua J. Thoms, Becky L. Thoms
Joshua J. Thoms
This study reports the results of a survey completed by 155 university foreign language (FL) directors in the United States (US) during Fall 2012. Survey respondents come from a variety of institutions and direct a range of FL programs. The objectives of the study are to (a) determine what FL directors know about open educational resources (OER), (b) understand respondents’ perceived benefits and challenges of using OER, and (c) determine what resources and support are critical to establish or expand the use of OER in FL courses in the US. Results indicate that while 66% of FL directors do not ...
The Effect Of Sensor Errors In Situated Human-Computer Dialogue, 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology
The Effect Of Sensor Errors In Situated Human-Computer Dialogue, Niels Schuette, John D. Kelleher, Brian Mac Namee
Errors in perception are a problem for computer systems that use sensors to perceive the environment. If a computer system is engaged in dialogue with a human user, these problems in perception lead to problems in the dialogue. We present two experiments, one in which participants interact through dialogue with a robot with perfect perception to fulfil a simple task, and a second one in which the robot is affected by sensor errors and compare the resulting dialogues to determine whether the sensor problems have an impact on dialogue success.
Executive Control In Hispanic Children: Considering Linguistic And Sociocultural Factors, 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Executive Control In Hispanic Children: Considering Linguistic And Sociocultural Factors, Miriam M. Martinez
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology
Executive control represents a collection of high-order cognitive processes that are associated with important child outcomes, including academic achievement and social competencies. Despite the burgeoning interest in examining the development of executive control, less is known about the development of these skills among ethnic minority children. Hispanic children are currently the largest ethnic minority group in the United States and their diverse sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds provide an excellent context to study the influence of linguistic and sociocultural factors on the development of child executive control. The purpose of the three complementary studies reported in this dissertation is to contribute ...
Knowledge Of Adjective Reference By Monolingual Spanish- And English-Speaking Children, 2014 Western University
Knowledge Of Adjective Reference By Monolingual Spanish- And English-Speaking Children, Martha Elizabeth Rayas Tanaka
Entrehojas: Revista de Estudios Hispánicos
Previous studies (Waxman, Senghas and Benveniste, 1997 and Waxman and Guasti 2009) have concluded that there are crosslinguistic differences in the interpretation of adjectives by English, French, Spanish and Italian- monolingual speaking children. Their results show that only Spanish and Italian-speaking children categorized a novel adjective as an object responding in the same way for the categorization of a noun. According to the authors this is due to the Determiner-Adjective syntactic constructions in these languages that refer to the named objects or entities and to other members of that object category (e.g. los pobres). The present study looks more ...
Evidence Of A "Hearing" Dialect Of Asl While Interpreting, 2014 University of North Florida
Evidence Of A "Hearing" Dialect Of Asl While Interpreting, Campbell Mcdermid
Journal of Interpretation
Little is know about the characteristics of fluent hearing signers and their ultimate attainment of ASL as a second language. To address this, a study was conducted with 12 ASL-English interpreters who were native English speakers to examine their use of ASL while interpreting. Each subject was asked to simultaneously interpret a short English narrative into ASL and a panel of three Deaf native signers assessed their fluency. Though the group included both novice and expert interpreters, the results revealed many similarities in their work. These included a reduction in pronouns between the English source and ASL target text, the ...
Naming Practices In J.R.R. Tolkien's Invented Languages, 2014 The College at Brockport: State University of New York
Naming Practices In J.R.R. Tolkien's Invented Languages, Wendy Baker Et Al.
Journal of Literary Onomastics