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Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater 2019 Selected Works

Generative Linguistics And Neural Networks At 60: Foundation, Friction, And Fusion, Joe Pater

Joe Pater

The birthdate of both generative linguistics and neural networks can be taken as 1957, the year of the publication of foundational work by both Noam Chomsky and Frank Rosenblatt. This paper traces the development of these two approaches to cognitive science, from their largely autonomous early development in their first thirty years, through their collision in the 1980s around the past tense debate (Rumelhart and McClelland 1986, Pinker and Prince 1988), and their integration in much subsequent work up to the present. Although this integration has produced a considerable body of results, the continued general gulf between these two lines ...


Slurs And Register: A Case Study In Meaning Pluralism, Justina Diaz-Legaspe, Chang Liu, Robert J. Stainton 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Slurs And Register: A Case Study In Meaning Pluralism, Justina Diaz-Legaspe, Chang Liu, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

Most theories of slurs fall into one of two families: those which understand slurring terms to involve special descriptive/informational content (however conveyed), and those which understand them to encode special emotive/expressive content. Our view is that both offer essential insights, but that part of what sets slurs apart is use-theoretic content. In particular, we urge that slurring words belong at the intersection of a number of categories in a sociolinguistic register taxonomy, one that usually includes [+slang] and [+vulgar] and always includes [-polite] and [+derogatory]. Thus, e.g., what distinguishes ‘Chinese’ from ‘chink’ is neither a peculiar sort ...


When Is A Suffix Not A Suffix?, Ryan M. Kasak 2018 Northeastern Illinois University

When Is A Suffix Not A Suffix?, Ryan M. Kasak

Faculty Research and Creative Activities Symposium

No abstract provided.


Accent Shifting In The Singing Of George Harrison, Karen A. Duchaj, William Stone 2018 Northeastern Illinois University

Accent Shifting In The Singing Of George Harrison, Karen A. Duchaj, William Stone

Faculty Research and Creative Activities Symposium

No abstract provided.


Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman 2018 DePaul University

Examining Delayed Onset Of Dementia In The Bilingual Geriatric Population, Erica Brown, Elizabeth Hartman

Grace Peterson Nursing Research Colloquium

Background: Dementia is the largest cause of dependency and disability in older adults, affecting nearly 50 million people worldwide with about 10 million new cases every year. Presently, there are no cures for dementia. Consequently, a growing body of evidence suggests that bilingualism may delay the onset of clinical dementia symptoms by several years.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to summarize and analyze current evidence from studies that examined how bilingualism delays the onset of dementia. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that bilingualism may delay the dementia symptoms due to an increase in cognitive reserve, which refers to an ...


The Cognitive Effects Of Late Bilingualism On Executive Functions: Lifelong Benefits, Rachel Casper 2018 Brigham Young University

The Cognitive Effects Of Late Bilingualism On Executive Functions: Lifelong Benefits, Rachel Casper

Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal in Psychology

Late bilinguals, those who learn a language past the critical period, are often thought to not receive much benefits from their language learning in comparison to their early bilingual counterparts. A large of body of recent research suggests otherwise. Late bilinguals receive the same cognitive benefits as early bilinguals; these benefits are in higher levels of executive functions, specifically in inhibitory control and attentional switching. Higher levels of executive functions assist learners in improving their mental processing and cognitive health over the course of their lifetime. Aging bilinguals have greater cognitive health due to more white and gray matter density ...


Massively Multiplayer Online Gamers’ Language: Argument For An M-Gamer Corpus, Papia Bawa 2018 Purdue University

Massively Multiplayer Online Gamers’ Language: Argument For An M-Gamer Corpus, Papia Bawa

The Qualitative Report

The past few decades have seen a steady, and sometimes rapid rise in the production and consumption of Massively Multiple Online Games (MMOGs), spanning a global arena. Players from a wide variety of demographical, economic, geographical, cultural and linguistic backgrounds congregate under the banner of MMOGs and spend a considerable amount of time interacting and communicating with one another, in the context of playing and socializing through such playing. It is only logical then, to see such players become part of larger and extended socio-communal landscapes, wherein they may appropriate multiple roles in conjunction with their MMOG player roles, such ...


A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone 2018 University of New Mexico

A Sociophonetic Analysis Of Albuquerque Drag Queens, Lindsay Morrone

Shared Knowledge Conference

Although anyone can be assumed to engage in style-shifting to construct a persona (e.g. Podesva 2007b, Eckert 2008), in the case of drag performers it can be argued that style-shifting results not in an alternate persona but in a performative identity. With this hypothesis in mind, this case study uses a style-shifting paradigm to explore the varying social meanings of phonation type and vowel quality in the construction of a drag queen identity. The speech of two gay male Hispanic drag queens (DQs) from Albuquerque, New Mexico (ABQ) was investigated in various speech situations to identify social meanings indexed ...


The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy 2018 University of New Mexico

The Critical Need For Mental Health Education To Be Mandated In New Mexico's Public Schools, Bonnie L. Murphy

Shared Knowledge Conference

Based on a review of research and best practices in mental health awareness and skills, this inquiry project argues for state legislative policies that would require mental health awareness and skills in the K-12 curriculum. Mental health affects individual accomplishments in every stage of people’s lives beginning in early childhood and throughout the life cycle. Prevention and treatment of mental illness plays a key role in the ability of an individual to cope with loss and develop resiliency and perseverance in challenging times and to make better decisions that improve the individual’s life and the lives of those ...


Latinx Children’S Push And Pull Of Spanish Literacy And Translanguaging, Kathy M. Bussert-Webb Dr., Hannah M. Masso Ms., Karin A. Lewis Dr. 2018 University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Latinx Children’S Push And Pull Of Spanish Literacy And Translanguaging, Kathy M. Bussert-Webb Dr., Hannah M. Masso Ms., Karin A. Lewis Dr.

The Qualitative Report

We explored 19 Latinx children’s literacies in Spanish and translanguaging by asking, “What are Latinx children’s experiences and beliefs regarding Spanish and translanguaging reading and writing? How do tutorial staff and teacher candidates (TCs) help the youth to resist hegemonic and bracketing practices of English-only?” This study took place in a South Texas tutorial agency, where children voluntarily attended for after-school homework help. Data sources consisted of questionnaires, interviews, focus groups, hobby essays, and newsletter articles. Most children reported negative school-related language experiences and expressed dislike and unease regarding Spanish and translanguaging reading and writing, although they lived ...


1 - The Effects Of Position And Length On Cue Saliency In Article-Noun Agreement Of An Artificial Language, Niah Thomas, Brittany Scanameo 2018 Emory University

1 - The Effects Of Position And Length On Cue Saliency In Article-Noun Agreement Of An Artificial Language, Niah Thomas, Brittany Scanameo

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

We created a faux language where each word was embedded with a cue that pointed to which article (out of three) correctly paired with each word. There were six cues with differing lengths placed in different parts of the words in order to test the cue saliency in second language acquisition. Our team put together a list of 30 faux words along with their corresponding articles and their English definition in a powerpoint slide and allowed the research participants to view the slide show exactly three times. They then were given a written test where they were provided with the ...


15 - The Effectiveness Of “Instructional Conversation” Pedagogy In Education For Multilingual Students, Lauryn Waters, Paula J. Mellom Ph.D 2018 University of Georgia

15 - The Effectiveness Of “Instructional Conversation” Pedagogy In Education For Multilingual Students, Lauryn Waters, Paula J. Mellom Ph.D

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Research shows the power of collaborative interaction in supporting the cognitive, linguistic and social development of L2 learners (Bunch, Kibler, & Pimentel, 2012; DiCamilla, & Antón, 2004; Nassaji & Swain, 2000). However, establishing successful, autonomous groups poses challenges (Cockrell et al, 2000; Garmston & Wellman, 2016). The Instructional Conversation (IC) pedagogy emphasizes hands-on connections with content (Mellom, Hixon & Weber 2017; Portes et. al 2018; Gallimore and Tharp 2004; Dalton 2007). Rather than relying heavily on lectures, IC allows students to discuss relevant topics with peers, make real-world connections, and better understand classroom material, helping multilingual students academically and simultaneously developing their English-language skills. Engaging in collaborative conversation requires clear instruction to support student autonomy, which we define as students’ ability to work collaboratively in groups with other students, independent from the teacher. This study investigates the role ...


22 - “Make Me A Sandwich” - “Poof, You’Re A Sandwich!”: Ditransitive Syntax In The Brain, Haley Shea J. Barfield 2018 University of North Georgia

22 - “Make Me A Sandwich” - “Poof, You’Re A Sandwich!”: Ditransitive Syntax In The Brain, Haley Shea J. Barfield

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

How does the brain distinguish between sentences with nearly identical structures? Neurolinguists have begun to form a fascinating picture of language in the brain in the decades since the first observation of event-related potentials during language tasks. A deeper understanding of syntactic activity—including pattern recognition, ambiguity resolution, and interpretation of functional constituents during sentence processing—would yield insights beneficial to the fields of language education, brain-computer interface, human-computer interaction, and neurolinguistic programs for language acquisition, speech therapy, and rehabilitation of communicative disorders.

To map the brain’s responses to sentence structures, we will use scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to measure ...


Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., CCC-SLP, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., CCC-SLP, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., CCC-SLP 2018 Texas Christian University

Selective Stimulability In The Speech And Language Assessment Of Bilingual Children With Selective Mutism, Elizabeth Harbaugh , M.S., Ccc-Slp, Raul F. Prezas , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp, Robin L. Edge , Ph.D., Ccc-Slp

Journal of Human Services: Training, Research, and Practice

English Language Learners (ELLs) with Selective Mutism (SM) mirror their typically developing, bilingual peers who are going through the silent period. The silent period is a normal phenomenon characterized by decreased expressive language and a general lack of communication that is temporary. Understanding second language acquisition and differentiating SM from the silent period, however, is critical to reduce over- and under-identification of children for services. Whereas bilingual children with SM do not speak in either of their languages, bilingual children in the silent period are only silent in their second language. Although limited information exists regarding assessment and treatment for ...


Women In The New Testament’S Church Ministry: The Problem Of Remaining Silent, Jose A. Santiago 2018 Liberty University

Women In The New Testament’S Church Ministry: The Problem Of Remaining Silent, Jose A. Santiago

Diligence: Journal of the Liberty University Online Religion Capstone in Research and Scholarship

In 1 Corinthians 14:34, one finds Paul’ command that women ought to keep silent in the church setting. As a result, this command appears to be a subject of great debate for many since the text seems to contradict Scripture’ view of women’s involvement in ministry. In addition, it seems to contradict the fact that Paul has just previously mentioned women prophesying (1 Corinthians 11:5). Hence, it creates a problem designating this verse to be un-Pauline in nature, either by interpolation or allusive quotation. Subsequently, this begs for further investigation of Paul’s prohibition of a woman ...


SahuhlúKhane’ UkwehuwenéHa They Learned To Speak It Again: An Investigation Into The Regeneration Of The Oneida Language, Rebecca Doxtator 2018 The University of Western Ontario

SahuhlúKhane’ UkwehuwenéHa They Learned To Speak It Again: An Investigation Into The Regeneration Of The Oneida Language, Rebecca Doxtator

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This study investigated the significance of the Oneida language to two groups of Oneida speakers and learners in the Onʌyota’á:ka’ Oneida Nation of the Thames community. This study’s research questions included: (1) What is the significance of Oneida language to Oneida adult language learners who are seeking to acquire the language and what are they doing to regenerate the language? (2) What is the significance of Oneida language to Oneida adults who are conversationally fluent in Oneida language and what are they doing to regenerate the language? (3) What does an investigation into my personal relationship with ...


Gendered Identity And Investment In Language Learning: A Case Study Of Heritage Spanish Speakers, Farah Ali 2018 Gettysburg College

Gendered Identity And Investment In Language Learning: A Case Study Of Heritage Spanish Speakers, Farah Ali

Friday Forum

Much of the existing research in second and heritage language acquisition (S/HLA) takes a traditional approach of focusing on the cognitive processes involved in S/HLA, as well as the resulting outcomes. A relatively recent approach that has emerged in S/HLA scholarship, however, relates the learner to the social world in terms of how sociocultural contexts may shape an individual’s language learning experiences and their personal investment in the process. This emergent approach also challenges traditional categorical conceptions of identity, positing that it is dynamic, fluid, constructed, and negotiated in social contexts. Following this approach, my objective ...


Multilingualism In Counselor Education And Human Services Professionals: Implications For A New Training Paradigm, Roberto Swazo, Dorota Celinska 2018 University of Northern Iowa

Multilingualism In Counselor Education And Human Services Professionals: Implications For A New Training Paradigm, Roberto Swazo, Dorota Celinska

Michigan Journal of Counseling: Research, Theory and Practice

This study analyzes the relationships among the three distinct levels of language and cultural-linguistic professional competences. A total of 483 participants from three U.S. and one Central American university representing the fields of counseling, social work, family services, and psychology were surveyed. The results suggest that there is a large multilingual training deficit among human service providers in the U.S. Training programs need to make curricular revisions to include bi/multilingual training consistent with multilingual clientele. Recommendations for culturally-embedded and non-native language use are provided to increase cultural-linguistic competences among counselor education trainees.


Anti-Queer Microaggressions Towards Queer Black Men, Camisha D. Fagan, Anna Smedley-López 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Anti-Queer Microaggressions Towards Queer Black Men, Camisha D. Fagan, Anna Smedley-López

McNair Poster Presentations

Microaggressions are reoccurring derogatory messages that degrade and/ or discredit one’s identity. While invisible and unknown to many, they remain visible and apparent to those impacted by them. The research questions for this project are: (1) What microaggressions do Queer Black men experience within larger society? (2) To contrast with larger society, what microaggressions do Queer Black men experience within Black communities? By conducting focus groups, I will examine the intersectional microaggressions that Queer Black males experience in their own community, as well as document microaggression that they experience in larger society. After conducting my focus groups, I will ...


Troping The Enemy: Metaphor, Culture, And The Big Data Black Boxes Of National Security, Robert Albro 2018 American University

Troping The Enemy: Metaphor, Culture, And The Big Data Black Boxes Of National Security, Robert Albro

Secrecy and Society

This article considers how cultural understanding is being brought into the work of the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA), through an analysis of its Metaphor program. It examines the type of social science underwriting this program, unpacks implications of the agency’s conception of metaphor for understanding so-called cultures of interest, and compares IARPA’s to competing accounts of how metaphor works to create cultural meaning. The article highlights some risks posed by key deficits in the Intelligence Community's (IC) approach to culture, which relies on the cognitive linguistic theories of George Lakoff and colleagues. It also explores ...


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