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Logical Form And The Vernacular Revisited, Andrew Botterell, Robert J. Stainton 2016 The Univeristy of Western Ontario

Logical Form And The Vernacular Revisited, Andrew Botterell, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

We revisit a debate initiated some fifteen years ago by Ray Elugardo and Robert Stainton about the domain of arguments. Our main result is that arguments are not exclusively sets of linguistic expressions. Instead, as we put it, some non-linguistic items have ‘logical form’. The crucial examples are arguments, both deductive and inductive, made with unembedded words and phrases.


Logical Form And The Vernacular Revisited, Andrew Botterell, Robert J. Stainton 2016 The Univeristy of Western Ontario

Logical Form And The Vernacular Revisited, Andrew Botterell, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

We revisit a debate initiated some fifteen years ago by Ray Elugardo and Robert Stainton about the domain of arguments. Our main result is that arguments are not exclusively sets of linguistic expressions. Instead, as we put it, some non-linguistic items have ‘logical form’. The crucial examples are arguments, both deductive and inductive, made with unembedded words and phrases.


On The Functions Of Swearing In Persian, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan 2016 Iranian Institute for Encyclopedia Research

On The Functions Of Swearing In Persian, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan

Mohammad A. Salmani Nodoushan

The burgeoning literature on studies of swearing suggests that a precise definition of swearing necessarily involves three features: (a) non-literal meanings, (b) taboo subjects, and (c) emotions. It also suggested that swearwords fall into one of the three classes: aggressive, cathartic, or social. Driven by a rich corpus of swearwords from Persian, this paper argues that swearing in Persian does not necessarily involve these three features, and that a redefinition of swearing is needed. It then borrows ideas from ethics to suggest that any precise definition of swearing will have to involve the distinction between teleological and deontological ethics. It ...


Review: The Diagnosis Of Reading In A Second Or Foreign Language, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan 2016 Iranian Institute for Encyclopedia Research

Review: The Diagnosis Of Reading In A Second Or Foreign Language, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan

Mohammad A. Salmani Nodoushan

Book Review: Review of the book The diagnosis of reading in a second or foreign language.


Review: The Diagnosis Of Reading In A Second Or Foreign Language, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan 2016 Iranian Institute for Encyclopedia Research

Review: The Diagnosis Of Reading In A Second Or Foreign Language, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan

Mohammad A. Salmani Nodoushan

Book Review: Review of the book The diagnosis of reading in a second or foreign language.


On The Functions Of Swearing In Persian, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan 2016 Iranian Institute for Encyclopedia Research

On The Functions Of Swearing In Persian, Mohammad Salmani Nodoushan

Mohammad A. Salmani Nodoushan

The burgeoning literature on studies of swearing suggests that a precise definition of swearing necessarily involves three features: (a) non-literal meanings, (b) taboo subjects, and (c) emotions. It also suggested that swearwords fall into one of the three classes: aggressive, cathartic, or social. Driven by a rich corpus of swearwords from Persian, this paper argues that swearing in Persian does not necessarily involve these three features, and that a redefinition of swearing is needed. It then borrows ideas from ethics to suggest that any precise definition of swearing will have to involve the distinction between teleological and deontological ethics. It ...


Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla 2016 European Ecopsychology Society

Ecopsychology Revisited: For Whom Do The “Nature” Bells Toll? (In Progress), Jorge Conesa-Sevilla

Jorge Conesa-Sevilla PhD

"[...] A recurring theme in “ecopsychology,” in its present and inchoate form, is the continuation and extension of “spirit” in juxtaposition with other privileged and/or habitually preferred (perhaps even psychologically needed) practices or causes (spirituality-somethings, farcical chemistry or physics, yoga, coopted and partially understood indigenous lore, extreme diets, and various fetishes). That these mostly emotion-laden, unreasoned, and/or idiosyncratic amalgamations are prevalent says more about the psychological needs of the persons espousing these sentiments or beliefs (their hobbies or interests) than about “nature.” Certainly, it is nothing new that humans project their hopes, desperations, and wish-fulfillment thinking onto the shifting ...


Mobilities, Materialities, And The Changing Meanings Of Pittsburgh Speech, Barbara Johnstone, Calvin Pollack 2016 Carnegie Mellon University

Mobilities, Materialities, And The Changing Meanings Of Pittsburgh Speech, Barbara Johnstone, Calvin Pollack

Barbara Johnstone

For many decades, people in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area have talked about local speech. “Pittsburghese,” as it is locally known, has become so tightly linked with local identity that it is alluded to almost every time someone talks about what Pittsburgh is like or what it means to be a Pittsburgher. But the set of words, pronunciations, and bits of grammar that are thought of as Pittsburghese has changed over time. This paper explores the role of social and geographic mobility in creating and circulating the ideas about Pittsburgh speech that help to determine who uses local-sounding speech features and ...


Full-On Stating, Robert J. Stainton 2016 University of Western Ontario

Full-On Stating, Robert J. Stainton

Robert J. Stainton

What distinguishes full-on stating a proposition from merely communicating it? For instance, what distinguishes claiming/asserting/saying that one has never smoked crack cocaine from merely implying/conveying/hinting this? The enormous literature on ‘assertion’ provides many approaches to distinguishing stating from, say, asking and commanding: only the former aims at truth; only the former expresses one’s belief; etc. But this leaves my question unanswered, since in merely communicating a proposition one also aims at truth, expresses a belief, etc.
My aim is not to criticize extant accounts of the state-vs.-merely-convey contrast, but rather to draw on clues ...


Latent Semantic Indexing In The Discovery Of Cyber-Bullying In Online Text, Jacob L. Bigelow 2016 Ursinus College

Latent Semantic Indexing In The Discovery Of Cyber-Bullying In Online Text, Jacob L. Bigelow

Computer Science Summer Fellows

The rise in the use of social media and particularly the rise of adolescent use has led to a new means of bullying. Cyber-bullying has proven consequential to youth internet users causing a need for a response. In order to effectively stop this problem we need a verified method of detecting cyber-bullying in online text; we aim to find that method. For this project we look at thirteen thousand labeled posts from Formspring and create a bank of words used in the posts. First the posts are cleaned up by taking out punctuation, normalizing emoticons, and removing high and low ...


Longitudinal Language Development Of Triplets: Preliminary Results, Alissa Varlamova 2016 University of Toronto at Scarborough

Longitudinal Language Development Of Triplets: Preliminary Results, Alissa Varlamova

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

Language development in multiples, especially twins is a topic of much discussion and controversy. Twins are often stigmatized when it comes to language acquisition and are often thought of as ‘at risk’ for language development by the general population. However, there is no consensus on how delayed twins are in comparison to singletons; the varying methodology and sample sizes make it almost impossible to come to an agreement. This research focuses on the development of narrative within the development of language in the triplet population. A set of bilingual triplets was administered the Frog Story in two languages: Russian and ...


Deriving Superiority Effects In Multiple Wh-Fronting Without Determiners., Matthew Schuurman 2016 Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

Deriving Superiority Effects In Multiple Wh-Fronting Without Determiners., Matthew Schuurman

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

This paper analyzes multiple wh-fronting with superiority effects in Mi’gmaq, an Eastern Algonquian language, to Bošković’s (2008, 2012) generalizations between languages with and those without the presence of overt articles. When the Mi’gmaq is compared to generalizations on scrambling, quantifier scope, and multiple wh-fronting with superiority effects, problematic contradictions arise, specifically with the latter generalization. According to Bošković's predictions, Mi’gmaq should be both an NP-only language based on scrambling, numeral classifiers, and quantifier scope, and a DP language based on multiple wh-fronting with superiority effects. Therefore, I propose there is no relationship between the presence ...


Argument Omission In Portuguese As A Second Language, Elizabeth Parkin, Madeline Walker 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Argument Omission In Portuguese As A Second Language, Elizabeth Parkin, Madeline Walker

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

Interlanguage grammars are complex and are shaped by a combination of general learnability issues such as transfer and generalization, and characteristics of the individual learner, such as motivation and degree of extroversion (Lightbown & Spada, 2013; Selinker, 1972). The individual factors may be particularly salient in classroom learning, where motivation plays an important role in language learning. The question is whether they also play a role in areas that are implicit, perhaps occasionally touched on by the instructor but not necessarily part of the curriculum. Furthermore, the relationship between the different factors may change according to the proficiency level of the learners. This ...


The Language Identification Problem: Formant Analysis And Cross-Linguistic Uniqueness, Lyndon Rey 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Language Identification Problem: Formant Analysis And Cross-Linguistic Uniqueness, Lyndon Rey

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

In the field of computational linguistics, spoken language recognition (through the use of wordlists and morphological markers) is a resource-intensive process: the input must be parsed from the inputted speech signal, words must be hypothesized, and then subsequently word-lists for any likely language must be iterated through. To note, spoken language recognition does not refer to the process of identifying the meaning of the input; rather, it is finding the language of which the speaker is speaking (not necessarily 'parsing' the input). In my research, the question of whether a language can be positively and uniquely identified through small nuances ...


Toward A Rigourous Definition Of Vagueness In Semantics, Philippe Gauthier 2016 Western University

Toward A Rigourous Definition Of Vagueness In Semantics, Philippe Gauthier

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

This paper deals with vague predicates. In particular, the goal is to arrive at a precise characterisation of a vague predicate without begging the question against a particular theoretical account on the matter. For instance, such a characterisation should not exclude by fiat a theory that exploits the notion of gappy or glutty truth values. Furthermore, it should be neutral with respect to locating vagueness in epistemology or language. Following Bueno and Colyvan (2012), I argue in favour of characterising vagueness purely in terms of sorites susceptibility. However, I caution that the sorites argument can also be used to diagnose ...


Gendered Use Of Adjectives In Fairy Tales: A Diachronic Study, Tara Cress 2016 Western University

Gendered Use Of Adjectives In Fairy Tales: A Diachronic Study, Tara Cress

Western Papers in Linguistics / Cahiers linguistiques de Western

This study focuses on gender represented in the literary context of fairy tales. It explores the adjectives used to describe the female and male gender diachronically and cross-sectionally over the span of the 19th century. By analyzing English translations of the Grimm Brothers’ “Ashputtel” (“Cinderella”), and “Hans In Luck,” I make observations about variations of adjective use within each text while comparatively looking at a female-centric narrative to a male-centric one. This provides a look into the relatively understudied subject of adjectives as a linguistic means of describing gender within cultural mores and norms.

Nineteenth century data shows that adjectives ...


Detection Of Cyberbullying In Sms Messaging, Bryan W. Bradley 2016 Ursinus College

Detection Of Cyberbullying In Sms Messaging, Bryan W. Bradley

Computer Science Summer Fellows

Cyberbullying is a type of bullying that uses technology such as cell phones to harass or malign another person. To detect acts of cyberbullying, we are developing an algorithm that will detect cyberbullying in SMS (text) messages. Over 80,000 text messages have been collected by software installed on cell phones carried by participants in our study. This paper describes the development of the algorithm to detect cyberbullying messages, using the cell phone data collected previously. The algorithm works by first separating the messages into conversations in an automated way. The algorithm then analyzes the conversations and scores the severity ...


"Historia Brittonum" And Britain’S Twenty-Eight Cities, Andrew Breeze 2016 Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona

"Historia Brittonum" And Britain’S Twenty-Eight Cities, Andrew Breeze

Journal of Literary Onomastics

Certain versions of the ninth-century _Historia Brittonum_ have an additional chapter (66a), nominally containing a list of "all the cities in the whole of Britain, twenty-eight in number". It has intrigued medieval and modern scholars alike. They have struggled to identify the names as those of Roman Britain's cities, for the most part without success. In the present paper a new approach is tried. While some of the places listed are genuine Roman cities (but also medieval ones), such as Winchester, Carlisle, York, London, Canterbury, or Chester, others are no such thing. They can be shown on the basis ...


Norse "Loki" As Praxonym, William Sayers 2016 Cornell University

Norse "Loki" As Praxonym, William Sayers

Journal of Literary Onomastics

The still debated Old Norse theonym Loki is projected against the wide semantic field of the ON verb lúka "to close", not, as current scholarship would have it, as relevant to Ragnarǫk and the closing down of the divine world but in its judicial applications to successfull negotiated outcomes. The ingenious Loki, the bearer of a praxonym, would then be the inventive Fixer. While this aspect is well illustrated in tales of Loki's ruses and expedients, a more archaic figure emerges when Loki is associated with the reconstructed Indo-European verbal root *lok- "to accuse, blame, prohibit" (cf. Old Frisian ...


“The City Was Named After An Herb Called Mesas In Ancient Spanish”: Rabbi Yosef Mesas’ Testimony Concerning His Surname, Abraham Ofir Shemesh 2016 Ariel University, Israel Heritage Department, ISRAEL

“The City Was Named After An Herb Called Mesas In Ancient Spanish”: Rabbi Yosef Mesas’ Testimony Concerning His Surname, Abraham Ofir Shemesh

Journal of Literary Onomastics

Yosef Mesas (1892–1974), a renowned Jewish Rabbi, claimed that the origin of his surname is the ancient city Mesas near Madrid, named for a medicinal herb common there. He assumes that "Mesas" became a common name in Morocco after the Jews were exiled from Spain in 1492. Mesas suggests that the herb is "Masasa" in Moroccan Arabic (Darija dialect). In the 12th century, Maimonides stated that Moroccans call the genus Plantago "Masasa". This fact refutes Mesas' assumption that the name was brought to Morocco after the Alhambra Decree.

"Mesas" apparently originates from the Spanish term "mesa", meaning "tableland" or ...


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