Proximity And Journalistic Practice In Environmental Discourse: Experiencing “Job Blackmail” In The News, 2015 Carnegie Mellon University
Proximity And Journalistic Practice In Environmental Discourse: Experiencing “Job Blackmail” In The News, Barbara Johnstone, Justin Mando
No abstract provided.
A Structural Model For Perceptual Learning Styles, The Ideal L2 Self, Motivated Behavior And English Proficiency, Tae-Young Kim, Yoon-Kyoung Kim
In order to verify the structural relationship between perceptual learning styles, English learning motivation, and achievement, this study investigated 2682 Korean EFL students' visual, auditory, kinesthetic styles, imagination, ideal L2 self, motivated behavior, and English proficiency. The data collected by means of a questionnaire were explored using a correlation analysis and structural equation modeling. It was found that while visual and auditory styles were positively correlated with motivational variables and English proficiency, kinesthetic style showed negative correlations with them. Furthermore, visual style proved to have the most substantial influence on achieving successful English proficiency, mediated by the ideal L2 self ...
An Ecological View Of Whole-Class Discussions In A Second Language Literature Classroom: Teacher Reformulations As Affordances For Learning, Joshua J. Thoms
Joshua J. Thoms
This article analyzes whole-class discussions between a teacher and her students in a Latin American Colonial literature course at the college level. The study is theoretical–exploratory in nature in that it (a) articulates theoretical assumptions inherent in an ecological perspective on second language learning and teaching, and (b) attempts to operationalize the affordance construct (van Lier, 2000, 2004) in the context of a second language (L2) literature classroom. The study’s findings underscore the importance of teacher reformulations when engaging students in whole-class discussions, as well as students’ engagement with and awareness of the unfolding talk. Furthermore, how the ...
Unsheltered & Undeserving: How Chronically Homeless Individuals Are Discursively Constructed In Newspapers, 2014 University of Washington Tacoma
Unsheltered & Undeserving: How Chronically Homeless Individuals Are Discursively Constructed In Newspapers, Jacinda Howard
Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences Master's Projects and Theses
Homelessness arose as a public problem in the 1980s and led to the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, the country’s first and only legislation to acknowledge homelessness and direct resources toward addressing it. The act has since inspired a national movement to end all types of homelessness by 2020 and chronic homelessness by 2015. A permanent supportive housing model known as Housing First, which provides government subsidized apartments and case management to chronically homeless individuals, is poised to play a crucial role in the movement. Given this, nine newspaper articles published in Tacoma, Washington’s The News Tribune ...
Grammatical Encoding In The Noun Phrase: Effects Of Constituent Similarity And Grammatical Class, 2014 Northeastern University
Grammatical Encoding In The Noun Phrase: Effects Of Constituent Similarity And Grammatical Class, Amy Dibattista
Sentence production requires the translation of a non-linguistic message into an ordered sequence of words. This process includes a two-level grammatical encoding stage, consisting of a functional level and a positional level, which establishes an utterance's structure (Bock & Levelt, 1994). Per Bock and Levelt's model of grammatical encoding, lemmas, or representations of words containing grammatical and meaning information, are selected and assigned to roles and to relationships with other words and phrases at the functional level. At the positional level, lexemes, or abstract representations of a word's sounds, are assigned to linear positions in the utterance. In this dissertation, two sets of experiments investigated grammatical operations at these levels.
Experiments 1–3 investigated role and position assignment by asking if the structural similarity of constituents affects functional- and positional-level processing, measured as effects on rates of exchange errors: production errors in which constituents swap roles or positions (e.g., She donated a library to the book; intended: She donated a book to the library). Phrase exchanges, which arise at the functional level, and word exchanges, which arise at the functional or positional level, were analyzed. Garrett (1975, 1980) found that exchanging words and phrases are almost exclusively similar in grammatical class and in their relative role or position in an utterance. This suggests that if other, more ...
Identification Of Informativeness In Text Using Natural Language Stylometry, 2014 Western University
Identification Of Informativeness In Text Using Natural Language Stylometry, Rushdi Shams
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
In this age of information overload, one experiences a rapidly growing over-abundance of written text. To assist with handling this bounty, this plethora of texts is now widely used to develop and optimize statistical natural language processing (NLP) systems. Surprisingly, the use of more fragments of text to train these statistical NLP systems may not necessarily lead to improved performance. We hypothesize that those fragments that help the most with training are those that contain the desired information. Therefore, determining informativeness in text has become a central issue in our view of NLP. Recent developments in this field have spawned ...
Second-Language English Fluency Change In Native-Speaker Context, 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato
Second-Language English Fluency Change In Native-Speaker Context, John Zehnder
Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato
This study examines the influence of social context on oral proficiency change among English language learners on the campus of an American university. Speech samples were taken from 2 rounds of interviews with 9 East Asian women. These were analyzed using the phonetic analysis program Praat in order to determine each speaker’s rate of stressed syllables at the beginning and end of the study. The change in these rates was used as a proxy for fluency change. This was then compared with each speaker’s social context. The results suggested that English language learners improve their fluency when they ...
Open Educational Resources In The United States: Insights From University Foreign Language Directors, 2014 Utah State University
Open Educational Resources In The United States: Insights From University Foreign Language Directors, Joshua J. Thoms, Becky L. Thoms
Joshua J. Thoms
This study reports the results of a survey completed by 155 university foreign language (FL) directors in the United States (US) during Fall 2012. Survey respondents come from a variety of institutions and direct a range of FL programs. The objectives of the study are to (a) determine what FL directors know about open educational resources (OER), (b) understand respondents’ perceived benefits and challenges of using OER, and (c) determine what resources and support are critical to establish or expand the use of OER in FL courses in the US. Results indicate that while 66% of FL directors do not ...
The Effect Of Sensor Errors In Situated Human-Computer Dialogue, 2014 Dublin Institute of Technology
The Effect Of Sensor Errors In Situated Human-Computer Dialogue, Niels Schuette, John D. Kelleher, Brian Mac Namee
Errors in perception are a problem for computer systems that use sensors to perceive the environment. If a computer system is engaged in dialogue with a human user, these problems in perception lead to problems in the dialogue. We present two experiments, one in which participants interact through dialogue with a robot with perfect perception to fulfil a simple task, and a second one in which the robot is affected by sensor errors and compare the resulting dialogues to determine whether the sensor problems have an impact on dialogue success.
Executive Control In Hispanic Children: Considering Linguistic And Sociocultural Factors, 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Executive Control In Hispanic Children: Considering Linguistic And Sociocultural Factors, Miriam M. Martinez
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology
Executive control represents a collection of high-order cognitive processes that are associated with important child outcomes, including academic achievement and social competencies. Despite the burgeoning interest in examining the development of executive control, less is known about the development of these skills among ethnic minority children. Hispanic children are currently the largest ethnic minority group in the United States and their diverse sociocultural and linguistic backgrounds provide an excellent context to study the influence of linguistic and sociocultural factors on the development of child executive control. The purpose of the three complementary studies reported in this dissertation is to contribute ...
Knowledge Of Adjective Reference By Monolingual Spanish- And English-Speaking Children, 2014 Western University
Knowledge Of Adjective Reference By Monolingual Spanish- And English-Speaking Children, Martha Elizabeth Rayas Tanaka
Entrehojas: Revista de Estudios Hispánicos
Previous studies (Waxman, Senghas and Benveniste, 1997 and Waxman and Guasti 2009) have concluded that there are crosslinguistic differences in the interpretation of adjectives by English, French, Spanish and Italian- monolingual speaking children. Their results show that only Spanish and Italian-speaking children categorized a novel adjective as an object responding in the same way for the categorization of a noun. According to the authors this is due to the Determiner-Adjective syntactic constructions in these languages that refer to the named objects or entities and to other members of that object category (e.g. los pobres). The present study looks more ...
Evidence Of A "Hearing" Dialect Of Asl While Interpreting, 2014 University of North Florida
Evidence Of A "Hearing" Dialect Of Asl While Interpreting, Campbell Mcdermid
Journal of Interpretation
Little is know about the characteristics of fluent hearing signers and their ultimate attainment of ASL as a second language. To address this, a study was conducted with 12 ASL-English interpreters who were native English speakers to examine their use of ASL while interpreting. Each subject was asked to simultaneously interpret a short English narrative into ASL and a panel of three Deaf native signers assessed their fluency. Though the group included both novice and expert interpreters, the results revealed many similarities in their work. These included a reduction in pronouns between the English source and ASL target text, the ...
Naming Practices In J.R.R. Tolkien's Invented Languages, 2014 The College at Brockport: State University of New York
Naming Practices In J.R.R. Tolkien's Invented Languages, Wendy Baker Et Al.
Journal of Literary Onomastics
Understanding The Misunderstandings In Pilot-Controller Dialogue, 2014 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Understanding The Misunderstandings In Pilot-Controller Dialogue, Jason M. Newcomer
International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace
Misunderstandings in any environment can be detrimental, if not counterproductive, to the intentions, expectations, or objective(s) of any communication, but in complex airspace congested by heavy traffic, pilot-controller transmissions, and various meteorological phenomena, they can be catastrophic. Barshi and Farris combine 45 years of aviation experience, 20 years of related research, and advanced education with sound methodology to deliver a well-balanced combination of theoretical and practical work to the fields of aviation, human factors, and psychology. Though Misunderstandings in ATC Communications, the authors guide readers through a series of experiments, literature, and transcribed air traffic control recordings to explore ...
Translation Of Legal Texts Between Arabic And English: The Case Study Of Marriage Contracts, Mohammed H. Al Aqad
Mohammed H. M. Al Aqad
Over decades, there used to be a number of studies on Legal translation since it was one of the most challenging issues for translators and it still a critical and authoritative translation produced by legal bodies. Actually, translating legal texts might raise some problems in translation pertaining to the differences between the Source and Target Texts. Thus, it can result in a certain amount of ambiguity with respect to the legal texts, as it belongs to people‟s beliefs and cultures. This study investigates the quality of the translated message from Arabic into English. Hence, the focus is on the ...
Philosophy Of Linguistics, 2014 Western University
Philosophy Of Linguistics, Robert J. Stainton
Robert J. Stainton
Rather than attempting to survey the rich array of topics within Philosophy of Linguistics, this article focuses on two questions: “What kind of thing is Linguistics about?” and “What is the proper evidence-base for Linguistics?” After describing various exclusionary answers, it argues for Pluralism on both fronts: the objects of study in Linguistics are metaphysical hybrids, with physical, mental, abstract and social facets; and evidence from every domain should in principle be welcomed.
The Relationship Between Implicit And Explicit Processing In Statistical Language Learning, 2014 Western University
The Relationship Between Implicit And Explicit Processing In Statistical Language Learning, Nicolette B. Noonan
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Statistical language learning is an implicit process wherein language learners track sequential statistics in fluent speech, and may it facilitate the learning of word boundaries. This process is well studied, however, the cognitive mechanisms supporting it remain poorly understood. The present thesis investigated whether domain-specific or cross-domain explicit working memory engagement would impair implicit statistical learning of word boundaries in fluent speech. Participants (n = 110) were exposed to an implicit statistical word segmentation paradigm while concurrently engaged in no other task (control), or an explicit domain- specific (verbal) or cross-domain (visuospatial) working memory task of either low- or high- demand ...
The Transition From Participation To Facilitation Of Supervision: An Autoethnography, 2014 Western Oregon University
The Transition From Participation To Facilitation Of Supervision: An Autoethnography, Daniel V. Maffia
This autoethnography examines the journey from being a participant of supervision to a facilitator of supervision. The researcher documents his journey using journals to express his experiences facilitating supervision for a group of medical interpreters working in the hospital setting. The purpose of this study is to gather data that could guide future trainings for facilitators of supervision. The supervision group consisted of both American Sign Language/English and Spanish/English medical interpreters. As a newer interpreter to the field with limited medical interpreting experience, it was expected that the researcher might face difficulties successfully facilitating supervision sessions for that ...
Cosine Similarity For Article Section Classification: Using Structured Abstracts As A Proxy For An Annotated Corpus, Arthur T. Bugorski
University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
During the last decade, the amount of research published in biomedical journals has grown significantly and at an accelerating rate. To fully explore all of this literature, new tools and techniques are needed for both information retrieval and processing. One such tool is the identification and extraction of key claims. In an e ort to work toward claim-extraction, we aim to identify the key areas in the body of the article referred to by text in the abstract. In this project, our work is preliminary to that goal in that we attempt to match specific clauses in the abstract with ...
Effects Of Phonological Neighborhood Density On Lexical Access In Adults And Children With And Without Specific Language Impairment, Diana Almodovar
Dissertations and Theses, 2014-Present
The present study was designed to examine how adults, children with typical language development (TLD), and children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) process words from sparse and dense phonological neighborhoods, using the Cross Modal Picture-Word Interference Paradigm. The participants were asked to label a picture presented on a computer screen, while ignoring auditory distractors (interfering words or IWs) presented over headphones. The target items were manipulated according to neighborhood density (high and low density words), and the auditory distractors were either identical to the target, a neutral distractor (good), phonologically related (by rhyme), or unrelated to the target item. The ...