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“The Lolelaplap (Marshall Islands) In Us: Sailing West To East (Ralik→Ratak) To These Our Atolls (Aelon Kein Ad) Ad Jolet Jen Anij (Our Blessed Inheritance From God)”, Desmond N. Doulatram 2018 University of San Francisco

“The Lolelaplap (Marshall Islands) In Us: Sailing West To East (Ralik→Ratak) To These Our Atolls (Aelon Kein Ad) Ad Jolet Jen Anij (Our Blessed Inheritance From God)”, Desmond N. Doulatram

Master's Projects and Capstones

This paper discusses the expansion of Oceania through a Marshallese indigenous lens as a focal point. It explains that decolonizing methodologies allows reclaiming of space for mental liberation and reassurement of constitutional rights. It highlights similar occurrences of decolonization practices meeting resistance in the 21st century all while strengthening the human right argument that no human deserves any less than their fellow human brothers and sisters. It argues that an indigenous imagery can only be viewed through an indigenous lens where the researches’ level of purity is retained and unfiltered. It nevertheless argues that Marshallese ethnolinguistics reveal the same cultural ...


Teachers’ Response To Infants’ Nonverbal Communication And Use Of Response To Facilitate A Dialogue, Stephanie Stephens 2018 East Tennessee State University

Teachers’ Response To Infants’ Nonverbal Communication And Use Of Response To Facilitate A Dialogue, Stephanie Stephens

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Beginning with birth, typically developing children use strategies to communicate, and the functions of their language change with maturation and interaction. Since communication cannot exist if both parties do not participate, it is important to not only study the ability of the child, but also the behavior of the adult. Numerous studies have examined the behavior of the parent or other domestic adult, but few have included the study of teacher behaviors.

This study investigated teachers’ response to four types of nonverbal communication attempts made by infants. The gestures included: deictic, affect signaling, object-related, and conventional. The type of response ...


Multimodal Depression Detection: An Investigation Of Features And Fusion Techniques For Automated Systems, Michelle Renee Morales 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Multimodal Depression Detection: An Investigation Of Features And Fusion Techniques For Automated Systems, Michelle Renee Morales

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Depression is a serious illness that affects a large portion of the world’s population. Given the large effect it has on society, it is evident that depression is a serious health issue. This thesis evaluates, at length, how technology may aid in assessing depression. We present an in-depth investigation of features and fusion techniques for depression detection systems. We also present OpenMM: a novel tool for multimodal feature extraction. Lastly, we present novel techniques for multimodal fusion. The contributions of this work add considerably to our knowledge of depression detection systems and have the potential to improve future systems ...


Perspectives From The Streets And The Classrooms In The Same 'Hood: Linguistic Landscapes Of Sunset Park, Brooklyn, Luis Guzman Valerio 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Perspectives From The Streets And The Classrooms In The Same 'Hood: Linguistic Landscapes Of Sunset Park, Brooklyn, Luis Guzman Valerio

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation studies the linguistic landscape of the neighborhood of Sunset Park, in Brooklyn, New York by taking into account both a main commercial avenue and a public school with a dual language bilingual program in English and Spanish. Sunset Park is a multi-ethnic and immigrant neighborhood (Hum, 2014). While research has been done into the linguistic landscape of streets, cities, and communities, on the one hand, and about the linguistic landscape in education, on the other, the co-existence of these two in the same context has barely been studied (cf. Maldonado, 2015). This dissertation makes a contribution to the ...


Natural Semantic Metalanguage: Primes, Universals, And Syntax With Data From The Semantic Field Grace In The Old Testaments Of The King James Bible And Martin Luther’S German Bible, Mary Bolin 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Natural Semantic Metalanguage: Primes, Universals, And Syntax With Data From The Semantic Field Grace In The Old Testaments Of The King James Bible And Martin Luther’S German Bible, Mary Bolin

Faculty Publications, UNL Libraries

This paper examines the use of "Semantic Primes" or "Natural Semantic Metalanguage" (NSM) as developed by Wierzbicka and Goddard, comparing it with other techniques of semantic analysis and applying to the semantic field "Grace" as defined by Bolin (1999) in the King James English Bible and Luther's German Bible.


La Revalorisation Économique Des Langues Ivoiriennes Et Leur Enseignement A L'École, Ettien Koffi 2018 St. Cloud State University

La Revalorisation Économique Des Langues Ivoiriennes Et Leur Enseignement A L'École, Ettien Koffi

Linguistic Portfolios

Jadis considérée comme un handicap au développement économique, voici que grâce à la Théorie des Jeux, la pluralité linguistique s’avère maintenant comme une aubaine financière pour la Côte d’Ivoire et les états francophones d’Afrique sub-saharienne. La Côte d’Ivoire pourrait bénéficier d’une manne financière d’environ 7,196 milliards de francs CFA ($1.5 million) annuellement rien qu’en planifiant ses ressources linguistiques. La langue maternelle est une richesse économique intarissable et non polluante pourvu qu’on sache l’exploiter. Nous démontrons dans cet article sur la base de données statistiques fiables qu’à partir d ...


Gradience In Coda Cluster Devoicing In A Central Minnesota English Idiolect, Ettien Koffi, Andrea Simmonds 2018 St. Cloud State University

Gradience In Coda Cluster Devoicing In A Central Minnesota English Idiolect, Ettien Koffi, Andrea Simmonds

Linguistic Portfolios

When voiced segments occur in coda clusters, they undergo varying degrees of devoicing. We investigate this phenomenon in the speech of the second author, a native speaker of American English from Central Minnesota. The coda clusters under investigation occur in the lexical items transcribed phonemically as /θɪŋz/ (things repeated twice), /spunz/ (spoons), and /wɛnz.de/ (Wednesday), /slæbz/ (slabs), /kɪdz/ (kids),and /bægz/ (bags). Acoustic measurements and the 40/60 threshold are used in tandem to determine the gradience of devoicing that take place in the coda clusters /ŋz/, /nz/, /bz/, /dz/, and /gz/.


The Acoustic Correlates Of Brazilian Portuguese-Accented English Vowels, Ettien Koffi, Lillian Duarte Ribeiro 2018 St. Cloud State University

The Acoustic Correlates Of Brazilian Portuguese-Accented English Vowels, Ettien Koffi, Lillian Duarte Ribeiro

Linguistic Portfolios

This study is an acoustic phonetic analysis of Brazilian Portuguese English (BPE) vowels produced by seven Brazilian students. The research was carried out in the Spring of 2016 when the participants, mostly exchange students, were in their last semester of study in the United States after an average length of residency (LOR) of 19.71 months at St. Cloud State University. They were recorded producing the 11 vowel phonemes of American English. The main findings are that four vowels in particular – [ ɪ, æ, ʌ, ʊ] – interfere with intelligibility the most. The participants’ inability to produce these vowels intelligibly has a ...


Number Resolution Rule Agreement In Arabic Writers L2 English Compositions, Jon Cotner 2018 St Cloud State University

Number Resolution Rule Agreement In Arabic Writers L2 English Compositions, Jon Cotner

Linguistic Portfolios

The proper agreement of phi-features (person, number, and gender) between a noun/noun phrase and a verb phrase within a grammatical language system is the realm of resolution rules; these resolution rules are the syntactic parameters that regulate this agreement. The initial study, of which this paper highlights a portion, examines L2 English compositions written by native Arabic speakers and investigates whether these students transfer phi-feature agreement patterns from their L1 to their L2. The findings discussed in this paper are focused on agreement errors in the application of number resolution rules, and the majority of these number agreement errors ...


Differential Analysis Of Lexical Pitch In Accent And Tone Languages, Ettien Koffi 2018 St. Cloud State University

Differential Analysis Of Lexical Pitch In Accent And Tone Languages, Ettien Koffi

Linguistic Portfolios

According to the Critical Band Theory, the auditory perception of F0 data is the same for all human beings. However, when F0 signals are transferred through the auditory cortex to specialized areas of the brain, they are perceived and processed differently, depending on whether the language is tonal or accentual. In tone languages, F0 data appears to be processed in Heschl’s gyrus (Schneider 2005, Bendor 2012), whereas in accent languages, it appears to be processed in the planum temporale (Binder et al. 1996). Furthermore, in accent languages, F0 signals are computed on a nominal scale, but in tone languages ...


Acoustic Correlates Of Lexical Stress In Central Minnesota English, Ettien Koffi, Grace Mertz 2018 St. Cloud State University

Acoustic Correlates Of Lexical Stress In Central Minnesota English, Ettien Koffi, Grace Mertz

Linguistic Portfolios

In 1958, Fry published a very influential paper detailing the interaction between F0, duration, and intensity in the perception of lexical stress. His main finding was that that hearers of American English rely more on F0 than on the other correlates in the perception of lexical stress. He ranked these three correlates as follows: F0 > Duration > Intensity. However, subsequent research by other phoneticians has yielded a variety of rankings: F0 > Intensity > Duration, Duration > Intensity > F0, Intensity > F0 > Duration, Intensity > Duration > F0, etc. The goal of this paper is to investigate how speakers of Central Minnesota English encode and rank the ...


Sibling Acoustics: Phonetic Measurements Of The Vowels Produced By Three Brothers Who "Sound Alike", Ettien Koffi, James Lyons 2018 St. Cloud State University

Sibling Acoustics: Phonetic Measurements Of The Vowels Produced By Three Brothers Who "Sound Alike", Ettien Koffi, James Lyons

Linguistic Portfolios

This paper seeks to apply an acoustic phonetic methodology to measure and account for the impressionistic assessment of the speech of three brothers whose relatives, friends, and acquaintances say “they sound exactly alike.” The current investigation is limited to the pronunciation of the 11 phonemic monophthong vowels in American English. The psychoacoustic instruments of masking and Just Noticeable Difference (JND) are used to verify if the brothers “sound alike” acoustically. The correlates of the vowels that are investigated in this study are F0, F1, F2, F3, intensity, and duration.


The Acoustic Correlates Of Alveolar Fricatives In The Idiolect Of A Northern Minnesota Female, Ettien Koffi, Michel Lopez-Backstrom 2018 St. Cloud State University

The Acoustic Correlates Of Alveolar Fricatives In The Idiolect Of A Northern Minnesota Female, Ettien Koffi, Michel Lopez-Backstrom

Linguistic Portfolios

This study investigates the acoustic correlates of the sibilant alveolar fricatives [s] and [z] in the first author’s idiolect. The corpus consists of 32 words containing 13 word-initial [s]s, six wordmedial [s]s, and 13 word-final [z]s. The 32 words are extracted from two texts read in running speech. All in all, 160 tokens are measured acoustically (32 fricatives x 5 correlates). The correlates in question are Center of Gravity, intensity, F2, duration, and voicing attributes. The findings indicate that only Center of Gravity and duration are significant correlates for differentiating between the alveolar fricatives [s] and ...


The Intelligibility Of The Onset Cluster [Pl] And The Coda Cluster [Ƞz] In Arabic-Accented English, Ettien Koffi, Phillip A. Klopfenstein 2018 St. Cloud State University

The Intelligibility Of The Onset Cluster [Pl] And The Coda Cluster [Ƞz] In Arabic-Accented English, Ettien Koffi, Phillip A. Klopfenstein

Linguistic Portfolios

This paper analyzes two specific instances of English consonant-cluster production among native Arabic speakers of English. We analyze the onset cluster /pl/ and the coda cluster /ŋz/. These clusters are of interest because the first segment in each cluster does not exist in Arabic but the second is shared by both Arabic and English. Five Arabic-speaking subjects were selected based on a number of shared features, including a shared city of origin, beginning their acquisition of English after the critical period, and having spent no more than one year in an English-speaking environment at the time of the recordings. The ...


A Corpus Analysis Of The Syntactic Distributions Of The Verb 'Get' : Meanings And Usages, Barbara Kennedy, Ettien Koffi, Glynis Perschke 2018 St. Cloud State University

A Corpus Analysis Of The Syntactic Distributions Of The Verb 'Get' : Meanings And Usages, Barbara Kennedy, Ettien Koffi, Glynis Perschke

Linguistic Portfolios

This paper is a corpus analysis of the syntactic distributions of . We examine the 198 most common usages of based on Corpus of American Soap Operas (CASO) databanks, a subset of the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). We also provide 12 subcategorization frames to account for all the syntactic environments in which occurs in the database. This comprehensive investigation confirms that is unique among all English verbs by the sheer number of complements that it selects. Its varied uses and its frequency of occurrence in everyday English make a hard verb to master for native and non-native speakers alike ...


A Just Noticeable Difference (Jnd) Reanalysis Of Fry's Original Acoustic Correlates Of Stress In American English, Ettien Koffi 2018 St. Cloud State University

A Just Noticeable Difference (Jnd) Reanalysis Of Fry's Original Acoustic Correlates Of Stress In American English, Ettien Koffi

Linguistic Portfolios

In 1955, 1958, and 1965, Fry published three very influential papers that have revolutionized phoneticians’ understanding of the acoustic correlates of lexical stress. Fry does not only show that F0, duration, intensity, and vowel quality interact, but he also ranks them relative to each other for their individual contribution to the perception of stress. His experiments led him to rank the four correlates as follows: F0 > Duration > Intensity > Vowel Quality. I review Fry’s papers and highlight his main findings. I re-analyze his raw data on duration and intensity and re-interpret them in light of Just Noticeable Differences (JND) thresholds ...


Editor's Prologue Volume 7, Issue 1, Ettien Koffi 2018 St. Cloud State University

Editor's Prologue Volume 7, Issue 1, Ettien Koffi

Linguistic Portfolios

No abstract provided.


Automatic Analysis Of Musical Lyrics, Joanna Gormley 2018 Merrimack College

Automatic Analysis Of Musical Lyrics, Joanna Gormley

Honors Senior Capstone Projects

Is music getting less sophisticated over time? That is the question which this study aims to answer, with the goal of improving upon previous analysis done on the topic. The blog posts which inspired this project lacked accuracy and dimensionality. Realizing that a larger data set of songs would make a significant difference in the precision of our analysis, we set out to design a piece of software constructed with the capability to analyze several thousand songs. Mimicking previous works which analyzed sophistication of music, the software focuses on the lyrics of songs. Three metrics were used in order to ...


Review Of Landmarks, By Robert Macfarlane. Published By Hamish Hamilton, London, 2015. Cover Price £20.00., Patrick Armstrong 2018 Edith Cowan University and University of Western Australia

Review Of Landmarks, By Robert Macfarlane. Published By Hamish Hamilton, London, 2015. Cover Price £20.00., Patrick Armstrong

Landscapes: the Journal of the International Centre for Landscape and Language

A review of Robert Macfarlane's book, Landmarks.


The Language Agenda In Post-Colonial African Music, Quintina Carter-Enyi 2018 University of Georgia

The Language Agenda In Post-Colonial African Music, Quintina Carter-Enyi

Africana Digital Ethnography Project

For post-colonial African musicians, decolonization became an imperative. For musicians, singing in one’s native language was no longer merely creative expression, it took on a more significant role in decolonizing the African continent. This was also the case for composers, particularly those who traveled abroad to study in conservatories and universities in the United Kingdom or the United States of America.

In Decolonising the Mind, Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o makes a case for African literature to be written in African languages. He also points out that singers and musicians have resisted mental colonization by retaining indigenous musical practices and ...


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