Perceptions Of On-Farm Emergency Slaughter For Dairy Cows In British Columbia, 2019 University of British Columbia
Perceptions Of On-Farm Emergency Slaughter For Dairy Cows In British Columbia, Katherine E. Koralesky, David Fraser
David Fraser, PhD
Some jurisdictions permit on-farm emergency slaughter (OFES) as one end-of-life option for dairy cows and other animals that cannot be transported humanely but are deemed fit for human consumption. Anecdotal reports suggest that OFES is controversial among dairy industry professionals, but to date their perceptions of OFES have not been studied systematically. Twentyfive individual interviews and 3 focus groups with 40 dairy producers, veterinarians, and other professionals in British Columbia, Canada, revealed positive and negative perceptions of OFES influenced by (1) individual values, (2) the perceived operational legitimacy of OFES, and (3) concern over social responsibility and public perception of ...
Use Of On-Farm Emergency Slaughter For Dairy Cows In British Columbia, 2019 University of British Columbia
Use Of On-Farm Emergency Slaughter For Dairy Cows In British Columbia, Katherine E. Koralesky, David Fraser
David Fraser, PhD
On-farm emergency slaughter (OFES), whereby inspection, stunning, and bleeding occur on the farm before the carcass is transported to a slaughterhouse, is permitted in some jurisdictions as a means to avoid inhumane transportation while salvaging meat from injured animals. However, OFES is controversial and its use for dairy cows has been little studied. Inspection documents for 812 dairy cows were examined to identify how OFES was used for dairy cows in British Columbia, Canada, over 16.5 mo. Producers used OFES for dairy cows aged 1 to 13 yr (median of 4 yr). Leg, hip, nerve, spinal, foot, and hind-end ...
Management Of Cull Dairy Cows—Consensus Of An Expert Consultation In Canada, 2019 University of British Columbia
Management Of Cull Dairy Cows—Consensus Of An Expert Consultation In Canada, Jane Stojkov, G. Bowers, M. Draper, Todd Duffield, P. Duivenvoorden, M. Groleau, Deb Haupstein, R. Peters, Jane Pritchard, C. Radom, N. Sillett, W. Skippon, H. Trépanier, David Fraser
David Fraser, PhD
Many cull dairy cows enter the marketing system and travel to widely dispersed and specialized slaughter plants, and they may experience multiple handling events (e.g., loading, unloading, mixing), change of ownership among dealers, and feed and water deprivation during transport and at livestock markets. The objectives of this study were to describe the diverse management of cull dairy cows in Canada and establish consensus on ways to achieve improvements. A 2-day expert consultation meeting was convened, involving farmers, veterinarians, regulators, and experts in animal transport, livestock auction, and slaughter. The 15 participants, recruited from across Canada, discussed regional management ...
International Consensus Principles For Ethical Wildlife Control, 2019 University of British Columbia
International Consensus Principles For Ethical Wildlife Control, Sara Dubois, Nicole Fenwick, Erin A. Ryan, Liv Baker, Sandra E. Baker, Ngaio J. Beausoleil, Scott Carter, Barbara Cartwright, Federico Costa, Chris Draper, John Griffin, Adam Grogan, Gregg Howald, Bidda Jones, Kate E. Littin, Amanda T. Lombard, David J. Mellor, Daniel Ramp, Catherine A. Schuppli, David Fraser
David Fraser, PhD
Human–wildlife conflicts are commonly addressed by excluding, relocating, or lethally controlling animals with the goal of preserving public health and safety, protecting property, or conserving other valued wildlife. However, declining wildlife populations, a lack of efficacy of control methods in achieving desired outcomes, and changes in how people value animals have triggered widespread acknowledgment of the need for ethical and evidence-based approaches to managing such conflicts. We explored international perspectives on and experiences with human–wildlife conflicts to develop principles for ethical wildlife control. A diverse panel of 20 experts convened at a 2-day workshop and developed the principles ...
Public Attitudes To Housing Systems For Pregnant Pigs, 2019 University of British Columbia
Public Attitudes To Housing Systems For Pregnant Pigs, E. B. Ryan, David Fraser, Daniel M. Weary
David Fraser, PhD
Understanding concerns about the welfare of farm animals is important for the development of socially sustainable production practices. This study used an online survey to test how views on group versus stall housing for pregnant sows varied when Canadian and US participants were provided information about these systems, including access to scientific papers, YouTube videos, Google images, and a frequently-asked-questions page (S1 Appendix). Initial responses and changes in responses after accessing the information were analyzed from Likert scores of 242 participants and from their written comments. Participants were less willing to accept the use of gestation stalls after viewing information ...
Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun
Toxicology and Animal Models in Research Collection
Systematic review methodology is a means of addressing specific questions through structured, consistent, and transparent examinations of the relevant scientific evidence. This methodology has been used to advantage in clinical medicine, and is being adapted for use in other disciplines. Although some applications to toxicology have been explored, especially for hazard identification, the present preparatory study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to adapt it to the assessment of toxicological test methods. As our test case, we chose the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental toxicity and its mammalian counterpart, the standard mammalian prenatal development toxicity study, focusing the ...
Commmunity, Ecology, And Modernity: Faunal Analysis Of Skútustaðir In Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, 2019 City University of New York (CUNY)
Commmunity, Ecology, And Modernity: Faunal Analysis Of Skútustaðir In Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, Megan Hicks
All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
This dissertation examines the archaeofaunal remains from Skútustaðir, a middle to high-status farm in Mývatnssveit, Northern Iceland, to understand the experience of rural communities and their ecologies during Iceland’s transition from regulated colonial exchange to a capitalist economy during the 17th through 19th centuries. Archaeofaunal analysis is used to reconstruct changes in the ways that people herded, hunted, and fished, providing insights into how they managed their local environments for subsistence and novel contexts of exchange. In addition to archaeofaunal analysis, primary textual sources are explored to assess how the Skútustaðir household and its rural community mobilized ...
Act On The Registration And Evaluation Of Chemicals (K-Reach) And Replacement, Reduction Or Refinement Best Practices, Soojin Ha, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim
Troy Seidle, PhD
Objectives - Korea’s Act on the Registration and Evaluation of Chemicals (K-REACH) was enacted for the protection of human health and the environment in 2015. Considering that about 2000 new substances are introduced annually across the globe, the extent of animal testing requirement could be overwhelming unless regulators and companies work proactively to institute and enforce global best practices to replace, reduce or refine animal use. In this review, the way to reduce the animal use for K-REACH is discussed. Methods - Background of the enforcement of the K-REACH and its details was reviewed along with the papers and regulatory documents ...
Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, 2019 Ewha Womans University
Mental Stress From Animal Experiments: A Survey With Korean Researchers, Minji Kang, Ahram Han, Da-Eun Kim, Troy Seidle, Kyung-Min Lim, Seungjin Bae
Troy Seidle, PhD
Animal experiments have been widely conducted in the life sciences for more than a century, and have long been a subject of ethical and societal controversy due to the deliberate infliction of harm upon sentient animals. However, the harmful use of animals may also negatively impact the mental health of researchers themselves. We sought to evaluate the anxiety level of researchers engaged in animal use to analyse the mental stress from animal testing. The State Anxiety Scale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to evaluate how researchers feel when they conduct animal, as opposed to non-animal, based experiments ...
Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, 2019 University of Lethbridge
Marine Invertebrates: Communities At Risk, Jennifer A. Mather
Jennifer Mather, PhD
Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org) has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean ...
Philosophical Background Of Attitudes Toward And Treatment Of Invertebrates, 2019 Psychology, University of Lethbridge
Philosophical Background Of Attitudes Toward And Treatment Of Invertebrates, Jennifer A. Mather
Jennifer Mather, PhD
People who interact with or make decisions about invertebrate animals have an attitude toward them, although they may not have consciously worked it out. Three philosophical approaches underlie this attitude. The fi rst is the contractarian, which basically contends that animals are only automata and that we humans need not concern ourselves with their welfare except for our own good, because cruelty and neglect demean us. A second approach is the utilitarian, which focuses on gains versus losses in interactions between animals, including humans. Given the sheer numbers of invertebrates—they constitute 99% of the animals on the planet—this ...
Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, 2019 Medical University of Vienna
Non-Invasive Methods Of Identifying And Tracking Wild Squid, Ruth A. Byrne, James B. Wood, Roland C. Anderson, Ulrike Griebel, Jennifer A. Mather
Jennifer Mather, PhD
The ability to identify individual free-living animals in the field is an important method for studying their behavior. Apart from invasive external or internal tags, which may cause injury or abnormal behavior, most cephalopods cannot be tagged, as their skin is too soft and delicate for tag retention. Additionally, cephalopods remove many types of tags. However, body markings have been successfully used as a non invasive method to identify individuals of many different species of animals, including whale sharks, grey whales, seals, and zebras. We developed methods to sex and individually identify Caribbean reef squid, Sepiotheuthis sepioidea. Males showed distinct ...
Geographic Variability Of Octopus Insularis Diet: From Oceanic Island To Continental Populations, 2019 Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
Geographic Variability Of Octopus Insularis Diet: From Oceanic Island To Continental Populations, Tatiana S. Leite, Allan T. Batista, Françoise D. Lima, Jaciana C. Barbosa, Jennifer A. Mather
Jennifer Mather, PhD
A predator’s choice of prey can be affected by many factors. We evaluated various influences on population dietary composition, individual specialization and size of prey in Octopus insularis populations from 2 continental and 4 insular locations. We expected that habitat diversity would lead to diet heterogeneity. Furthermore, in keeping with MacArthur & Wilson’s (1967) theory of island biogeography, we expected that diet diversity would be lower around islands than on the coast of the mainland. Both predictions were confirmed when prey remains from octopus middens were examined. The 2 continental areas exhibited a richer habitat diversity and a wider ...
Behaviour Development: A Cephalopod Perspective, 2019 University of Lethbridge
Behaviour Development: A Cephalopod Perspective, Jennifer A. Mather
Jennifer Mather, PhD
This paper evaluates the development of behaviour from the viewpoint of the intelligent and learningdependent cephalopod mollusks as a contrast to that of mammals. They have a short lifespan, commonly one to two years, and most are semelparous, reproducing only near the end of their lifespan. In the first two months of life, Sepia officinalis cuttlefish show drastic limitation on learning of prey choice and capture, gradually acquiring first short-term and then long-term learning over 60 days. This is paralleled by development of the vertical lobe of the brain which processes visually learned information. In the long nonreproductive adulthood, Octopus ...
Animal Organs In Humans: Uncalculated Risks And Unanswered Questions, 2019 British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection
Animal Organs In Humans: Uncalculated Risks And Unanswered Questions, Gillian R. Langley, Joyce D'Silva
Gill Langley, PhD
This report, produced jointly by the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection and Compassion in World Farming, fills a number of significant gaps in the current debate about xenotransplantation.
In this report we also summarise the ethical and welfare issues concerning experiments on animals for xenotransplant research and their possible use as source animals for organs. Both these aspects are responsible for much pain and distress caused to many animals. We prefer the term “source animals” to “donor animals”, because animals do not choose to donate their organs for xenotransplantation.
Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, 2019 University of British Columbia
Animal Research, Accountability, Openness And Public Engagement: Report From An International Expert Forum, Elisabeth H. Ormandy, Daniel M. Weary, Katarina Cvek, Mark Fisher, Kathrin Herrmann, Pru Hobson-West, Michael Mcdonald, William Milsom, Margaret Rose, Andrew Rowan, Joanne Zurlo, Marina A.G. Von Keyserlingk
Oversight of Animal Experimentation Collection
In November 2013, a group of international experts in animal research policy (n = 11) gathered in Vancouver, Canada, to discuss openness and accountability in animal research. The primary objective was to bring together participants from various jurisdictions (United States, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand, Germany, Canada and the United Kingdom) to share practices regarding the governance of animals used in research, testing and education, with emphasis on the governance process followed, the methods of community engagement, and the balance of openness versus confidentiality. During the forum, participants came to a broad consensus on the need for: (a) evidence-based metrics to allow ...
Nest-Site Selection By Belted Kingfishers (Ceryle Alcyon) In Colorado, 2019 Humane Society International
Nest-Site Selection By Belted Kingfishers (Ceryle Alcyon) In Colorado, Sara Shields, Jeffrey F. Kelly
Sara Shields, PhD
Along the Cache la Poudre River in northern Colorado, belted kingfishers nested in relatively tall banks that lacked a toe. Kingfishers constructed burrows in soils that contained significantly less sand than was present at systematically sampled points. This finding conflicts with earlier findings that indicate kingfishers select sandy soils for burrow construction. Otherwise, the physical characteristics of banks used by belted kingfishers in Colorado were similar to those found elsewhere.
Effect Of Sand And Wood-Shavings Bedding On The Behavior Of Broiler Chickens, 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Effect Of Sand And Wood-Shavings Bedding On The Behavior Of Broiler Chickens, S. J. Shields, J. P. Garner, J. A. Mench
Sara Shields, PhD
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different bedding types, sand and wood shavings, on the behavior of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 6 pens were divided down the center and bedded half with sand and half with wood shavings. Male broilers (10/pen) were observed by scan sampling at 5- or 12-min intervals throughout the 6-wk growth period during the morning (between 0800 to 0900 h), afternoon (1200 to 1500 h), and night (2300 to 0600 h). There was a significant behavior x substrate x week interaction during the day (P < 0.0001) and at night (P < 0.0002). Drinking, dustbathing, preening, and sitting increased in frequency on the sand side but decreased on the wood shavings side during the day, as did resting at night. In general, broilers performed a greater proportion of their total behavioral time budget on the sand (P < 0.0001) as they aged. Broilers used the divider between the 2 bedding types to perch; perching behavior peaked during wk 4. In experiment 2, male broilers were housed in 8 pens (50 birds/pen) bedded only in sand or wood shavings. Bedding type had no effect on behavioral time budgets (P = 0.8946), although there were age-related changes in behavior on both bedding types. These results indicate that when given a choice, broilers increasingly performed many of their behaviors on sand, but if only one bedding type was provided they performed those behaviors with similar frequency on sand or wood shavings.
A Decade Of Progress Toward Ending The Intensive Confinement Of Farm Animals In The United States, 2019 Humane Society International
A Decade Of Progress Toward Ending The Intensive Confinement Of Farm Animals In The United States, Sara Shields, Paul Shapiro, Andrew N. Rowan
Sara Shields, PhD
In this paper, the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) farm animal protection work over the preceding decade is described from the perspective of the organization. Prior to 2002, there were few legal protections for animals on the farm, and in 2005, a new campaign at the HSUS began to advance state ballot initiatives throughout the country, with a decisive advancement in California (Proposition 2) that paved the way for further progress. Combining legislative work with undercover farm and slaughterhouse investigations, litigation and corporate engagement, the HSUS and fellow animal protection organizations have made substantial progress in transitioning the ...
Salmonid Species Diversity Predicts Salmon Consumption By Terrestrial Wildlife, 2019 University of Victoria
Salmonid Species Diversity Predicts Salmon Consumption By Terrestrial Wildlife, Christina N. Service, Andrew N. Bateman, Megan S. Adams, Kyle A. Artelle, Thomas E. Reimchen, Paul C. Paquet, Chris T. Darimont
Chris Darimont, PhD
1. Resource waves—spatial variation in resource phenology that extends feeding opportunities for mobile consumers—can affect the behaviour and productivity of recipient populations. Interspecific diversity among Pacific salmon species (Oncorhynchus spp.) creates staggered spawning events across space and time, thereby prolonging availability to terrestrial wildlife.
2. We sought to understand how such variation might influence consumption by terrestrial predators compared with resource abundance and intra- and interspecific competition.
3. Using stable isotope analysis, we investigated how the proportion of salmon in the annual diet of male black bears (Ursus americanus; n = 405) varies with species diversity and density of ...