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Sea Wrack Delivery And Accumulation On Islands: Factors That Mediate Marine Nutrient Permeability, Sara B. Wickham, Nancy Shackelford, Chris T. Darimont, Wiebe Nijland, Luba Y. Reshitnyk, John D. Reynolds, Brian M. Starzomski 2020 University of Victoria

Sea Wrack Delivery And Accumulation On Islands: Factors That Mediate Marine Nutrient Permeability, Sara B. Wickham, Nancy Shackelford, Chris T. Darimont, Wiebe Nijland, Luba Y. Reshitnyk, John D. Reynolds, Brian M. Starzomski

Biogeography and Ecological Opportunity Collection

Sea wrack provides an important vector of marine-derived nutrients to many terrestrial environments. However, little is known about the processes that facilitate wrack transport, deposition, and accumulation on islands. Three broad factors can affect the stock of wrack along shorelines: the amount of potential donor habitat nearby, climatic events that dislodge seaweeds and transfer them ashore, and physical characteristics of shorelines that retain wrack at a site. To determine when, where, and how wrack accumulates on island shorelines, we surveyed 455 sites across 101 islands in coastal British Columbia, Canada. At each site, we recorded wrack biomass, species composition, and ...


A Neural Mechanism For Capnotaxis In The Naked Mole-Rat, Michael Zions 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

A Neural Mechanism For Capnotaxis In The Naked Mole-Rat, Michael Zions

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

A Neural Mechanism for Capnotaxis in the Naked Mole-Rat

The Naked Mole-Rat (NM-R) is a small hairless rodent that has thrived underground in the Horn of Africa for the past 40 million years. It was first discovered in 1847, but has only been maintained in captivity and studied as a laboratory animal over the past 40 years. To date, more than 400 scientific papers have been published on this species. This is relatively few compared to established lab animals like rats and mice, but those papers contain a trove of information that has changed our understanding of the constraints of ...


Social Referencing In The Domestic Horse, Anne Schrimpf, Marie-Sophie Single, Christian Nawroth 2020 Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences

Social Referencing In The Domestic Horse, Anne Schrimpf, Marie-Sophie Single, Christian Nawroth

Recognition Collection

Dogs and cats use human emotional information directed to an unfamiliar situation to guide their behavior, known as social referencing. It is not clear whether other domestic species show similar socio-cognitive abilities in interacting with humans. We investigated whether horses (n = 46) use human emotional information to adjust their behavior to a novel object and whether the behavior of horses differed depending on breed type. Horses were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an experimenter positioned in the middle of a test arena directed gaze and voice towards the novel object with either (a) a positive or (b) a ...


Picture Perfect Pups: How Do Attributes Of Photographs Of Dogs In Online Rescue Profiles Affect Adoption Speed?, Mizuho Nakamura, Navneet Dhand, Bethany J. Wilson, Melissa J. Starling, Paul D. McGreevy 2020 University of Sydney

Picture Perfect Pups: How Do Attributes Of Photographs Of Dogs In Online Rescue Profiles Affect Adoption Speed?, Mizuho Nakamura, Navneet Dhand, Bethany J. Wilson, Melissa J. Starling, Paul D. Mcgreevy

Rescue and Surrender of Companion Animals Collection

To increase the public’s awareness of and exposure to animals needing homes, PetRescue, Australia’s largest online directory of animals in need of adoption, lists all currently available animals from rescue and welfare shelters nationwide. The current study examined the photographs in the PetRescue online profiles of the three most common breeds within these data, namely, Staffordshire bull terriers (n = 3988), Labrador retrievers (n = 2246), and Jack Russell terriers (n = 2088), to identify the inferred preferences of potential adopters. By investigating the attributes of these photographs, we were able to identify visual risk factors associated with protracted lengths of ...


Musical Dogs: A Review Of The Influence Of Auditory Enrichment On Canine Health And Behavior, Abigail Lindig, Paul McGreevy, Angela Crean 2020 University of Sydney

Musical Dogs: A Review Of The Influence Of Auditory Enrichment On Canine Health And Behavior, Abigail Lindig, Paul Mcgreevy, Angela Crean

Stress Collection

Music therapy yields many positive health outcomes in humans, but the effects of music on the health and welfare of nonhuman animals vary greatly with the type of music played, the ethology of the species, and the personality and learning history of individual animals. One context in which music therapy may be used to enhance animal welfare is to alleviate stress in domestic environments. Here, we review studies of the effects of music exposure on dogs as a case study for the implementation of music therapy in veterinary medicine. Nine reports of experimental testing for the therapeutic effects of music ...


Exploring The Use Of A Qualitative Behavioural Assessment Approach To Assess Emotional State Of Calves In Rodeos, Sally Rizzuto, Di Evans, Bethany Wilson, Paul McGreevy 2020 University of Sydney

Exploring The Use Of A Qualitative Behavioural Assessment Approach To Assess Emotional State Of Calves In Rodeos, Sally Rizzuto, Di Evans, Bethany Wilson, Paul Mcgreevy

Rodeo Competitions Collection

There are longstanding disagreements between the rodeo industry stakeholders and animal welfare advocates about the wellbeing of the animals used in events. The current study aims to determine whether qualitative behavioural assessment (QBA) is effective in identifying the emotional state of calves in so-called calf-roping events. Still images of calves captured from videos of calf-roping were shown to two groups: practitioners (n = 7) and students (n = 16). For each image, they scored (on a scale of 1–10) 12 descriptive terms—e.g., stressed, energetic, confused, frightened—based on how strongly they thought the animal was experiencing that emotion. Scores ...


Does Clicker Training Lead To Faster Acquisition Of Behavior For Dog Owners?, Brian J. Burton 2020 CUNY Hunter College

Does Clicker Training Lead To Faster Acquisition Of Behavior For Dog Owners?, Brian J. Burton

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Clicker training is a method of dog training that has increased in popularity over the past 20 years (Feng et al., 2017). However, while there has been an increased use of clicker training, studies examining the claims that clicker training leads to faster acquisition of new behavior (Skinner, 1951; Pryor, 1999) has only been investigated in a handful of studies with domesticated animals. In addition, all known published studies comparing a clicker-plus-food group to a food-only group have found no significant difference in acquisition of a novel behavior (Dorey & Cox, 2018; Feng et al. 2017), which suggests that a clicker is no ...


Owner Perceptions Of Cat-Human Communication, Kendal Cler 2020 Eastern Washington University

Owner Perceptions Of Cat-Human Communication, Kendal Cler

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

This study focuses on cat to human communication with an emphasis on the way humans perceive cats' communicative signals. Compared to other animals, the domestication of cats has been a slow process and humans have begun to recognize the communicative signals from cats and vice versa. Based on the results of this survey research, humans have started to notice different forms of communication from cats, and are able to decipher their cat’s needs, most of the time. Owners of cats in this study appear to be projecting human values of communication onto their cats. Cats have begun to adjust ...


Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown 2020 Macquarie University

Social Learning In Solitary Juvenile Sharks, Catarina Vila Pouca, Dennis Heinrich, Charlie Huveneers, Culum Brown

Social Behavior Collection

Social learning can be a shortcut for acquiring locally adaptive information. Animals that live in social groups have better access to social information, but gregarious and nonsocial species are also frequently exposed to social cues. Thus, social learning might simply reflect an animal's general ability to learn rather than an adaptation to social living. Here, we investigated social learning and the effect of frequency of social exposure in nonsocial, juvenile Port Jackson sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. We compared (1) Individual Learners, (2) Sham-Observers, paired with a naïve shark, and (3) Observers, paired with a trained demonstrator, in a novel foraging ...


A Dynamic Model Of U.S. Beef Cattle, Dinesh R. Poddaturi, Chad E. Hart, Lee L. Schulz, Sébastien Pouliot 2020 Iowa State University

A Dynamic Model Of U.S. Beef Cattle, Dinesh R. Poddaturi, Chad E. Hart, Lee L. Schulz, Sébastien Pouliot

Economics Presentations, Posters and Proceedings

We develop a simple and tractable model that will ultimately estimate and project prices and quantities in the U.S. beef cattle industry. While the economic literature focuses on static equilibrium displacement models to measure the impacts of policy proposals, the present study develops a dynamic model that includes cattle of all ages, price expectations, and demand for meat. In the cattle market, dynamics is an important feature, and absence of dynamics could lead to biased long-run estimates. By including dynamics we directly use data to estimate prices and quantities rather than relying on static counterfactuals. First we present and ...


Naturalness And The Legitimacy Of Thoroughbred Racing: A Photo-Elicitation Study With Industry And Animal Advocacy Informants, Iris Bergmann 2020 WellBeing International

Naturalness And The Legitimacy Of Thoroughbred Racing: A Photo-Elicitation Study With Industry And Animal Advocacy Informants, Iris Bergmann

Horse racing and competitions

The idea of what is natural has particular relevance in the thoroughbred racing and breeding discourse. It guides breeding regulations; influences how the thoroughbreds’ behaviour is perceived and has implications for husbandry, handling, training and racing practices. This study investigates how key industry and animal advocacy informants based in the US, Australia and the UK conceptualise naturalness within the context of common racing practices that potentially impact the horses’ welfare. The informants were interviewed using semi-structured interviewing and photo-elicitation. Four common images of thoroughbreds on race day were presented to elicit the informants’ responses. Differences emerged between how the two ...


Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal 2020 The University of Akron

Neuroanatomy Of The Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus Striatus, Pooja Dayal

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Here I characterized the central neuroanatomy of the Blackspotted Rockskipper, Entomacrodus striatus, native to French Polynesia. The neuroanatomy of E. striatus has not been studied prior to this paper. I used several histology and antibody staining techniques to accomplish this, including Crystal Violet, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Bielschowsky’s Silver Nitrate staining. This paper describes the most successful techniques used, identifies major structures in the species’ neuroanatomy, and also explains why studying E. striatus is important in the future of vertebrate research.


The Presence Of Food Likely Has No Influence On Substrate Use Of Tokay Geckos (Gekkonidae: Gekko Gecko), Timothy Zatkos 2020 The University of Akron

The Presence Of Food Likely Has No Influence On Substrate Use Of Tokay Geckos (Gekkonidae: Gekko Gecko), Timothy Zatkos

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Geckos and their adhesive capabilities have been thoroughly examined for the past two decades, especially in terms of adhesion and its mechanics. However, few studies have focused on how the adhesive performance of geckos influences ecologically relevant behaviors (e.g., habitat/substrate use). The limited work on the topic in the laboratory suggests that geckos spend more time on substrates in which their adhesive capabilities are superior, such as glass. In their natural habitat, however, multiple factors besides adhesive performance alone is likely to collectively impact the substrate use of geckos. The presence of food is one such factor. Here ...


Safety Concepts For Every Ride: A Statistical Ensemble Simulation To Mitigate Rotational Falls In Eventing Cross Country, Shannon Wood 2020 University of Kentucky

Safety Concepts For Every Ride: A Statistical Ensemble Simulation To Mitigate Rotational Falls In Eventing Cross Country, Shannon Wood

Theses and Dissertations--Mechanical Engineering

Rotational falls are the leading cause of death and serious injury in the equestrian sport of eventing. Previous studies to develop safety devices used physical models representing one or at most several physical situations leading to different designs and no common understanding. In this thesis, a statistical ensemble model is developed and applied to generate and evaluate 10,000 different situations that might potentially lead to rotational falls. For accurate statistical representation of the horse and rider inertia distributions, measurements of over 400 training or competing horses and riders were recorded and incorporated. Video was recorded of 218 total competitors ...


Diet Of A Recently Reintroduced River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Population In Taos County, New Mexico, Gabriela Alexandra Wolf-Gonzalez 2020 University of Kentucky

Diet Of A Recently Reintroduced River Otter (Lontra Canadensis) Population In Taos County, New Mexico, Gabriela Alexandra Wolf-Gonzalez

Theses and Dissertations--Forestry and Natural Resources

North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), native to every U.S. state and Canada, experienced extensive population decreases and range reduction until the mid-20th century as a result of overexploitation and habitat loss during European colonization. The last known river otter in New Mexico was killed on the Gila River in 1953, although unverified reports continued thru 2008. After a nearly 60-year absence from New Mexico, 33 adult river otters were reintroduced to the Rio Pueblo de Taos in the northern part of the state between 2008-2010; however, they were not subsequently monitored or studied. I characterized diet of this ...


The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran 2020 University of Kentucky

The Midsession Reversal Task With Pigeons: Effects Of A Brief Delay Between Choice And Reinforcement, Megan Ashley Halloran

Theses and Dissertations--Psychology

During a midsession reversal task, the session begins with a simple simultaneous discrimination in which one stimulus (S1) is correct and the alternate stimulus (S2) is incorrect (S1+/S2-). At the halfway point, the discrimination reverses and S2 becomes the correct choice (S2+/S1-). When choosing optimally, a pigeon should choose S1 until the first trial in which it is not reinforced and then shift to S2 (win-stay/lose-shift). With this task pigeons have been shown to respond suboptimally by anticipating the reversal (anticipatory errors) and continuing to choose S1 after the reversal (perseverative errors). This suboptimal behavior may result ...


Intraspecific Aggression Towards Common Bottlenose Dolphin Calves, Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Errol Ronje, Sarah Piwetz, Heidi Whitehead, Keith D. Mullin 2020 Independent Researcher

Intraspecific Aggression Towards Common Bottlenose Dolphin Calves, Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Errol Ronje, Sarah Piwetz, Heidi Whitehead, Keith D. Mullin

Gulf and Caribbean Research

Infanticide has been widely documented throughout the animal kingdom, and has generally been viewed as an evolved, or adaptive behavior for the perpetrators. Infanticide motivated by increased sexual access to females with calves, or the elimination of potential genetic competition in the form of calf-directed aggression or infanticide, has been proposed for delphinids including killer whales, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, Guiana dolphins, and bottlenose dolphins. However, reports of intraspecific aggression towards bottlenose dolphin calves are relatively infrequent, and accounts of confirmed infanticide are rarer still. Reporting instances of intraspecific calf-directed aggression aids researchers to better understand the socio-behavioral context of these ...


The Illegal Wildlife Trade: Through The Eyes Of A One-Year-Old Pangolin (Manis Javanica), Lelia Bridgeland-Stephens 2020 University of Birmingham

The Illegal Wildlife Trade: Through The Eyes Of A One-Year-Old Pangolin (Manis Javanica), Lelia Bridgeland-Stephens

Animal Studies Journal

This paper explores the literature on the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) by following the journey of a single imagined Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) through the entire trading process. Literature on IWT frequently refers to non-human animals in terms of collectives, species, or body parts, for example ‘tons of pangolin scales’, rather than as subjective individuals. In contrast, this paper centralizes the experiences of an individual pangolin by using a cross- disciplinary methodology, combining fact with a fictional narrative of subjective pangolin experience, in an empathetic and egomorphic process. The paper draws together known legislation, trade practices, and pangolin biology, structured ...


Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of The Prospect Of Transport On Captive Tiger Behavior And Fecal Cortisol In Naïve And Experienced Tigers, Callan Lichtenwalter

Theses and Dissertations

With close to 5,000 captive tigers in the United States, it is vital to ensure that these tigers are receiving adequate welfare whether they are in an accredited facility, or privately owned. The goal of this study was to assess whether captive tigers at a rescue facility with experience being transported outside of the facility would respond differently to the presentation of their transport vehicle than their naïve counterparts who had only been transported within the facility. The behavior of 5 naïve and 7 experienced tigers (n = 12) located at Turpentine Creek Wildlife Refuge in Eureka Springs, Arkansas was ...


Effects Of Different Housing Configurations On Captive Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Behavior In Holding Area During Construction, Kailyn Campbell 2020 Central Washington University

Effects Of Different Housing Configurations On Captive Chimpanzee (Pan Troglodytes) Behavior In Holding Area During Construction, Kailyn Campbell

All Master's Theses

In this study, I explored the behaviors, social interactions, and effects different housing configurations on chimpanzees in a zoological environment during a period of construction. I collected noninvasive, observational data at the Oregon Zoo in Portland, Oregon on a small group of chimpanzees, three females and one male, between the ages of 45 and 50 that are split daily into two separate groups of two. I used the focal animal sampling method to record behaviors from an adapted ethogram. I hypothesized that the Oregon Zoo chimpanzees would behave differently depending on which chimpanzee they were housed with. I predicted that ...


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