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Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating Egg Storage Conditions, Hatch Characteristics, And Feeding Methods Of Commercially Produced Poultry, Joshua R. Deines

Theses and Dissertations

Advancements in poultry research continue to add knowledge and understanding to an already technical industry. Such information has led to new developments in early feeding strategies which provide nutrients to broiler chicks while in the egg or during transport. This wealth of knowledge in poultry research extends beyond chickens and is utilized for other species, such as quail and pheasants, including how fertile eggs are stored and incubated. However, methods of early feeding broilers have not been investigated in industry relevant approaches to understand its effects, including how timing of feed access interacts with the hatch window. As well, quail ...


Strategies To Improve Forage Utilization By Sheep Offered Forage Mixtures, Valens Niyigena 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Strategies To Improve Forage Utilization By Sheep Offered Forage Mixtures, Valens Niyigena

Theses and Dissertations

In the first experiment, alfalfa and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue (NE+) forages were harvested after a killing frost, then mixed to formulate 4 different treatments; alfalfa alone, 67% alfalfa +33% fescue, 33% alfalfa + 67% fescue, or 100% fescue. After 3 months of storage as silage, Dorper ewe lambs (n = 20; mean BW = 34.7 ± 6.65 kg) were fed silage for ad libitum consumption, using 5 animals per treatment. Increasing the proportion of NE+ tall fescue improved (P < 0.05) silage total acids and lactic acid concentrations and decreased silage ammonia concentration. Digestible dry matter and organic matter intake and nitrogen utilization parameters decreased with increasing inclusion of NE+ in diet. In the second experiment, 16 Dorper ewe lambs (41.8 ± 4.61 kg BW) were assigned to 4 different treatments; alfalfa silage alone (0 g/kg; CONT) or alfalfa silage mixed with chopped sericea lespedeza (SL) hay to provide 90 (LOW), 180 (MED), or 270 g/kg SL (HIGH) on a dry matter basis in a randomized complete block design experiment with 2 period to provide 4 observations per treatment for each experimental period. Increasing the proportion of sericea lespedeza in the diet decreased dry matter and organic matter digestibility but did not affect feed intake. Fecal nitrogen (g/kg N intake) increased linearly (P < 0.01) while urinary N (g/ day and g/ kg of N intake) tended to decreased linearly and quadratically (P ≤ 0.1) with increasing the proportion of SL in diet. In the third experiments, 16 gestating Dorper ewe lambs (49.1 ± 4.61 kg BW) were allocated to 4 treatments; alfalfa silage alone (0% g/kg; CONT) or alfalfa silage mixed with lablab purpureus(LP) hay to provide 90 (LOW), 180 (MED), or 270 g/kg LP (HIGH) on a dry matter (DM) basis, in a randomized complete block design experiment with a total 8 replication per treatment. Supplementation of LP in diet increased quadratically (P ≤ 0.04) forage dry matter, organic matter intake, digestible dry matter and digestible organic matter intake (P < 0.05). Nitrogen apparently absorbed and urinary N both decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with adding more LP hay in diet. Harvesting and mixing alfalfa and fescue after a killing frost improved silage fermentation characteristics and supplementation of tannins from SL and polyphenol from LP altered N excretion.

Key words: lablab, sericea lespedeza, alfalfa silage, nitrogen, sheep.


Visual Illusion Susceptibility In Dogs Using The Ebbinghaus-Titchener Illusion In A Spontaneous Choice Task, Nicolette Becker 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Visual Illusion Susceptibility In Dogs Using The Ebbinghaus-Titchener Illusion In A Spontaneous Choice Task, Nicolette Becker

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

In recent years, dogs have been a popular test subject when studying visual illusion susceptibility. Multiple studies have investigated whether animals perceive illusions as humans do, but few studies have evaluated dogs’ perception of illusory stimuli. In this thesis, we studied if dogs are visually susceptible to the Ebbinghaus-Titchener illusion when presented in a spontaneous choice task. Subjects were presented two visual images on a board, which had bologna pieces embedded in the stimuli. In control trials, two different sized bologna pieces were placed in the center of the images. In these control conditions, dogs were expected to choose the ...


Ethics And Care: For Animals, Not Just Mammals, Jennifer A. Mather 2019 University of Lethbridge

Ethics And Care: For Animals, Not Just Mammals, Jennifer A. Mather

Speciesism and Breed Discrimination Collection

In the last few decades, we have made great strides in recognizing ethics and providing care for animals, but the focus has been mainly on mammals. This stems from a bias of attention not only in research but predominantly in non-scientists’ attention (to ‘popular’ animals), resulting partly from discussion about and depiction of animals in publications addressed to the public. This is somewhat due to political pressure, and can result in uneven conservation efforts and biases in targets for welfare concerns. As a result, there has been a huge backlash again, with concerns about pain sensitivity and welfare in fish ...


#6 - Implications Of Visual Social Access On The Welfare And Behavior Of Shelter Dogs, Christina M. Walthers, Maddie J. Pattillo, Jessie A. Catchpole, Lauren E. Faulkner, Lauren N. Mitchell, Allison L. Martin 2019 Kennesaw State University

#6 - Implications Of Visual Social Access On The Welfare And Behavior Of Shelter Dogs, Christina M. Walthers, Maddie J. Pattillo, Jessie A. Catchpole, Lauren E. Faulkner, Lauren N. Mitchell, Allison L. Martin

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Given the large number of dogs housed in animal shelters each year, it is important to consider how the shelter environment impacts dog welfare. The shelter environment is stressful due to factors such as excessive noise, lack of predictability and control, and social isolation. Social isolation in shelter dogs has been found to increase abnormal behavior and aggression and lead to poorer adoption outcomes. While social housing is ideal, it requires resources not available to all shelters. Providing visual access to other dogs is a relatively easy environmental modification that increases social opportunities and allows for more predictability and control ...


Relationships Between Personality Type And Cognitive Ability In Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix Jacchus), Zachary Marciano 2019 University of Massachusetts, Amherst

Relationships Between Personality Type And Cognitive Ability In Marmoset Monkeys (Callithrix Jacchus), Zachary Marciano

Masters Theses

Personality refers to multiple traits that are thought to be stable over time and across situations. It is recognized that personality has a neural basis and is associated with health outcomes. Whether personality is also associated with cognitive ability, however, is still a matter of intense debate. One way to examine these potential relationships is to use a nonhuman primate model for which complexities present in humans can be minimized. Recent research into the varying personality types of marmoset monkeys suggests that there are predominantly three to five core primary domains that most marmosets and other primates can be categorized ...


The Third International Humane Dog Population Management Conference, Andrew N. Rowan 2019 WellBeing International

The Third International Humane Dog Population Management Conference, Andrew N. Rowan

WellBeing News

The third International Conference on humane dog management, organized by the International Coalition on Companion Animal Management (ICAM) was held in Mombasa, Kenya in September 2019. There were a range of excellent presentations including one from Sri Lanka on dog management and rabies vaccination in Negombo and another reviewing progress on rabies control globally.


Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation And Wrongful Species Discrimination, C. E. Abbate, Bob Fischer 2019 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Don’T Demean “Invasives”: Conservation And Wrongful Species Discrimination, C. E. Abbate, Bob Fischer

Philosophy Faculty Publications

It is common for conservationists to refer to non-native species that have undesirable impacts on humans as “invasive”. We argue that the classification of any species as “invasive” constitutes wrongful discrimination. Moreover, we argue that its being wrong to categorize a species as invasive is perfectly compatible with it being morally permissible to kill animals—assuming that conservationists “kill equally”. It simply is not compatible with the double standard that conservationists tend to employ in their decisions about who lives and who dies.


Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg 2019 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Assessing Undergraduate Student And Faculty Views On Animal Research: What Do They Know, Whom Do They Trust, And How Much Do They Care?, Eric P. Sandgren, Robert Streiffer, Jennifer Dykema, Nadia Assad, Jackson Moberg

Attitudes Toward Animal Research Collection

Research using animals is controversial. To develop sound public outreach and policy about this issue, we need information about both the underlying science and people’s attitudes and knowledge. To identify attitudes toward this subject at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we developed and administered a survey to undergraduate students and faculty. The survey asked respondents about the importance of, their confidence in their knowledge about, and who they trusted to provide information on animal research. Findings indicated attitudes varied by academic discipline, especially among faculty. Faculty in the biological sciences, particularly those who had participated in an animal research project ...


A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck 2019 University of Pennsylvania

A Belmont Report For Animals?, Hope Ferdowsian, L. Syd M. Johnson, Jane Johnson, Andrew Fenton, Adam Shriver, John Gluck

John P. Gluck, PhD

Human and animal research both operate within established standards. In the United States, criticism of the human research environment and recorded abuses of human research subjects served as the impetus for the establishment of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, and the resulting Belmont Report. The Belmont Report established key ethical principles to which human research should adhere: respect for autonomy, obligations to beneficence and justice, and special protections for vulnerable individuals and populations. While current guidelines appropriately aim to protect the individual interests of human participants in research, no similar, comprehensive ...


A Global Spatial Analysis Reveals Where Marine Aquaculture Can Benefit Nature And People, Seth J. Theuerkauf, James A. Morris Jr, Tiffany J. Waters, Lisa C. Wickliffe, Heidi K. Alleway 2019 The Nature Conservancy

A Global Spatial Analysis Reveals Where Marine Aquaculture Can Benefit Nature And People, Seth J. Theuerkauf, James A. Morris Jr, Tiffany J. Waters, Lisa C. Wickliffe, Heidi K. Alleway

Aquaculture and Fisheries Collection

Aquaculture of bivalve shellfish and seaweed represents a global opportunity to simultaneously advance coastal ecosystem recovery and provide substantive benefits to humanity. To identify marine ecoregions with the greatest potential for development of shellfish and seaweed aquaculture to meet this opportunity, we conducted a global spatial analysis using key environmental (e.g., nutrient pollution status), socioeconomic (e.g., governance quality), and human health factors (e.g., wastewater treatment prevalence). We identify a substantial opportunity for strategic sector development, with the highest opportunity marine ecoregions for shellfish aquaculture centered on Oceania, North America, and portions of Asia, and the highest opportunity ...


The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn 2019 University of Kent at Canterbury

The Land Of Meat And Potatoes? Exploring Ireland’S Vegan And Vegetarian Foodscape, Corey Lee Wrenn

Corey Lee Wrenn, PhD

While it would not be accurate to suggest that Ireland is a hub of veganism or vegetarianism, too often it is written off as inherently unsympathetic to the ethics of plant-based eating and anti-speciesist politics. While it is true that Irish culture is historically tied to speciesism and its economy is especially dependent upon “meat” and dairy production, Ireland’s relationship with other animals is complex and sometimes forgiving. This essay seeks to bring shape to the Irish vegan ethic, one that can be traced along its history of animism, agrarianism, ascendency, adaptation, and activism. From its pagan roots to ...


Building A Vegan Feminist Network In The Professionalized Digital Age Of Third Wave Animal Activism, Corey Lee Wrenn 2019 University of Kent at Canterbury

Building A Vegan Feminist Network In The Professionalized Digital Age Of Third Wave Animal Activism, Corey Lee Wrenn

Corey Lee Wrenn, PhD

Despite its legacy of feminist leadership and a continued female majority, the Nonhuman Animal rights movement has exhibited structural sexism across its various waves of protest. This institutionalized sexism not only inhibits women’s ability to protest safely and effectively, but also permeates the activist imagination and aggravates interpersonal violence. Even Nonhuman Animals as a feminized group are unwittingly disparaged in popular campaigns. This essay suggests that structural sexism in the Nonhuman Animal rights movement is nourished by its patriarchal organization, specifically its decision to professionalize. Twenty-first century vegan feminist activism on the margins has been able to circumvent the ...


Using Qualitative Behaviour Assessment To Investigate Human-Animal Relationships In Zoo-Housed Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis), Freisha Patel, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Samantha J. Ward 2019 Nottingham Trent University

Using Qualitative Behaviour Assessment To Investigate Human-Animal Relationships In Zoo-Housed Giraffes (Giraffa Camelopardalis), Freisha Patel, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Samantha J. Ward

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Human-Animal Relationships (HAR) in zoos develop from repeated interactions between animals and their caretakers. HAR have been shown to affect health and welfare in farm animals, but limited zoo-based studies exist. This study investigates the association between the qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA) of emotional expression in giraffes and keeper action score in four types of keeper-animal interaction (KAI). Three giraffes generating 38 clips. QBA, using a free-choice profiling methodology, was applied instructing 18 observers to assess giraffe expressions shown in these clips. QBA scores were analysed using Generalized Procrustes Analysis. Keeper actions during each KAI event were rated by an ...


Evaluation Of Animal-Based Indicators To Be Used In A Welfare Assessment Protocol For Sheep, Susan E. Richmond, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Ina Beltran de Heredia, Roberto Ruiz, Elisabetta Canali, Cathy M. Dwyer 2019 Scotland's Rural College

Evaluation Of Animal-Based Indicators To Be Used In A Welfare Assessment Protocol For Sheep, Susan E. Richmond, Françoise Wemelsfelder, Ina Beltran De Heredia, Roberto Ruiz, Elisabetta Canali, Cathy M. Dwyer

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Sheep are managed under a variety of different environments (continually outdoors, partially outdoors with seasonal or diurnal variation, continuously indoors) and for different purposes, which makes assessing welfare challenging. This diversity means that resource-based indicators are not particularly useful and, thus, a welfare assessment scheme for sheep, focusing on animal-based indicators, was developed. We focus specifically on ewes, as the most numerous group of sheep present on farm, although many of the indicators may also have relevance to adult male sheep. Using the Welfare Quality® framework of four Principles and 12 Criteria, we considered the validity, reliability, and feasibility of ...


Environmental Challenge And Animal Agency, Marek Špinka, Françoise Wemelsfelder 2019 Scottish Agricultural College

Environmental Challenge And Animal Agency, Marek Špinka, Françoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

Challenges are there to be overcome – seen usually as problems to avoid rather than as opportunities to enjoy. However, for humans a life without challenge would be likely to be dull and boring, lacking the enthusiasm and satisfaction that come with individual development. Could this also be true for animals? This chapter looks at the positive value of engaging with environmental challenges for animal welfare, proposing that this value lies in an animal’s expression of agency and the enhanced functional competence that it gains through this. It explores the different facets of agency, and provides more detailed discussion of ...


The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder 2019 Instituut voor Theoretische Biologie

The Question Of Animal Awareness, Francoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The problem of animal awareness lies at the interface of science and philosophy. As a starting point for the study of phenomena such as awareness, mind, consciousness, etc., we hardly have any reference other than our own human experience and in the context of a nondualistic ontology this can be justified. In philosophy and psychology it appears to be very difficult to give direct operational definitions of terms such as consciousness, etc. So we might expect this to be even more difficult in the study of animals. A detailed knowledge of animals and their behaviour is necessary in order to ...


Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder 2019 Instituut voor Theoretische Biologie

Animal Boredom: Is A Scientific Study Of The Subjective Experiences Of Animals Possible?, Françoise Wemelsfelder

Françoise Wemelsfelder, PhD

The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between different meta-scientific frameworks and the science of animal welfare. Animal Boredom 117 During the past few years, I have become more and more convinced that the great difficulty science has in studying subjective experience in its objects, might be related to the denial of any role to subjective experience in the observer as an interpretational guide. Can a quality in the world around us be observed, when this same quality is deliberately excluded from the process of observing?

As a practical example for the discussion described above, the phenomenon ...


Evidence-Based Toxicology For The 21st Century: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin L. Stephens, Melvin E. Andersen, Richard A. Becker, Kellyn Betts, Kim Boekelheide, Ed Carney, Robert Chapin, Dennis Devlin, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Patricia Harlow, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Michael P. Holsapple, Abigail Jacobs, Richard Judson, Olga Naidenko, Tim Pastoor, Grace Patlewicz, Andrew Rowan, Roberta Scherer, Rashid Shaikh, Ted Simon, Douglas Wolf, Joanne Zurlo 2019 Johns Hopkins University

Evidence-Based Toxicology For The 21st Century: Opportunities And Challenges, Martin L. Stephens, Melvin E. Andersen, Richard A. Becker, Kellyn Betts, Kim Boekelheide, Ed Carney, Robert Chapin, Dennis Devlin, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Patricia Harlow, Thomas Hartung, Sebastian Hoffman, Michael P. Holsapple, Abigail Jacobs, Richard Judson, Olga Naidenko, Tim Pastoor, Grace Patlewicz, Andrew Rowan, Roberta Scherer, Rashid Shaikh, Ted Simon, Douglas Wolf, Joanne Zurlo

Martin Stephens, PhD

The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration (EBTC) was established recently to translate evidence-based approaches from medicine and health care to toxicology in an organized and sustained effort. The EBTC held a workshop on “Evidence-based Toxicology for the 21st Century: Opportunities and Challenges” in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA on January 24-25, 2012. The presentations largely reflected two EBTC priorities: to apply evidence-based methods to assessing the performance of emerging pathwaybased testing methods consistent with the 2007 National Research Council report on “Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century” as well as to adopt a governance structure and work processes to move that ...


Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob de Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun 2019 Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Adaptation Of The Systematic Review Framework To The Assessment Of Toxicological Test Methods: Challenges And Lessons Learned With The Zebrafish Embryotoxicity Test, Martin L. Stephens, Sevcan Gül Akgün-Ölmez, Sebastian Hoffman, Rob De Vries, Burkhard Flick, Thomas Hartung, Manoj Lalu, Alexandra Maertens, Hilda Witters, Robert Wright, Katya Tsaioun

Martin Stephens, PhD

Systematic review methodology is a means of addressing specific questions through structured, consistent, and transparent examinations of the relevant scientific evidence. This methodology has been used to advantage in clinical medicine, and is being adapted for use in other disciplines. Although some applications to toxicology have been explored, especially for hazard identification, the present preparatory study is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to adapt it to the assessment of toxicological test methods. As our test case, we chose the zebrafish embryotoxicity test (ZET) for developmental toxicity and its mammalian counterpart, the standard mammalian prenatal development toxicity study, focusing the ...


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