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Do Sequential Lineups Impair Underlying Discriminability?, Matthew Kaesler, John C. Dunn, Keith Ransom, Carolyn Semmler 2020 Edith Cowan University

Do Sequential Lineups Impair Underlying Discriminability?, Matthew Kaesler, John C. Dunn, Keith Ransom, Carolyn Semmler

ECU Publications Post 2013

© 2020, The Author(s). Debate regarding the best way to test and measure eyewitness memory has dominated the eyewitness literature for more than 30 years. We argue that resolution of this debate requires the development and application of appropriate measurement models. In this study we developed models of simultaneous and sequential lineup presentations and used these to compare these procedures in terms of underlying discriminability and response bias, thereby testing a key prediction of diagnostic feature detection theory, that underlying discriminability should be greater for simultaneous than for stopping-rule sequential lineups. We fit the models to the corpus of studies ...


Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University 2020 Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • GS Criminal Justice & Criminology Grad Student Promoted in Military


Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University 2020 Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • Visiting Professor Speaks on Role of Rice in Coastal Regions during National Rice Month


Effects Of Microwave Radiation On The Digestion Of Proteins Involved In Body Fluid Identification, Aaron J. Fox 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Effects Of Microwave Radiation On The Digestion Of Proteins Involved In Body Fluid Identification, Aaron J. Fox

Student Theses

Body fluid identification plays an important role in understanding how the events during a crime may have taken place. The presence of a body fluid may help identify an individual who committed a crime, while the type of body fluid present may help investigators determine how a crime occurred. Current body fluid identification techniques are not always conclusive and may only suggest the presence of a body fluid type. A protocol developed by the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCME) established a method that confirms body fluid type through mass spectrometry. To identify marker proteins in ...


Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University 2020 Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • GS Criminal Justice and Criminology Sponsor the 2020 Southern Criminal Justice Association Research Showcase

  • Welcome New Criminal Justice Faculty Members!!!


Wrongful Conviction Documentaries: Influences Of Crime Media Exposure On Mock Juror Decision-Making, Patricia Y. Sanchez 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Wrongful Conviction Documentaries: Influences Of Crime Media Exposure On Mock Juror Decision-Making, Patricia Y. Sanchez

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Psychology and law researchers have urged colleagues to collaborate with the makers of popular media, such as documentary filmmakers, in efforts to educate the general public about wrongful convictions (Kassin, 2017; Wells et al., 2000). Recently, programs depicting wrongful convictions, such as Making a Murderer (Demos & Ricciardi, 2015) and When They See Us (DuVernay, 2019) have garnered substantial viewership. Research on general and case-specific pretrial publicity (Daftary-Kapur et al., 2014; Kovera, 2002) and the effects of crime media (Baskin & Sommers, 2010; Schweitzer & Saks, 2007) demonstrate that although consuming crime-related media and being exposed to information about a criminal trial can influence jurors’ attitudes, these effects do not always translate into informed case decisions (Holmgren & Fordham, 2011; Kim et al., 2009). This research aimed to answer the following question: does exposure to commentary on the risk factors of wrongful conviction, such as eyewitness errors and false confessions, lead viewers to become more discriminating as jurors, voting to convict when the primary ...


Examining Racial And Ethnic Disparity In Prosecutor’S Bail Requests And Downstream Decision Making, Connor Concannon 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Examining Racial And Ethnic Disparity In Prosecutor’S Bail Requests And Downstream Decision Making, Connor Concannon

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Rigorous academic research into prosecutorial and judicial decision making has been taking place for over three decades, but a great deal remains unknown about the mechanics of prosecution. A majority of the work done by prosecutors occurs outside of public view, and most research focuses on the ‘back end’ of the adjudication process, leaving unanalyzed numerous decision points made upstream of the final plea and sentencing outcomes. Using unique data from the New York County District Attorney’s Office that tracks 43,971 felony complaints, this research examines racial and ethnic disparity at multiple decision points during case processing, with ...


Statutory Immunity For Educators: An Analysis Of Decisions By The Texas Commissioner Of Education And Texas Appellate Courts After House Bill 4, Melissa Ballou Kates 2020 Abilene Christian University

Statutory Immunity For Educators: An Analysis Of Decisions By The Texas Commissioner Of Education And Texas Appellate Courts After House Bill 4, Melissa Ballou Kates

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This qualitative legal study explored statutory immunity protection provided to Texas educators under the Texas Education Code §22.0511 and §22.0512. The Texas legislature enacted the statutory immunity provisions as part of House Bill 4 and tort reform in 2003. Researchers have called for more balance when providing immunity protections for educators. The researcher limited the study to Texas Commissioner of Education decisions and Texas appellate court cases. The study utilized a legal framework to determine under what circumstances the rulings of statutory immunity shields educators from liability. The findings in this study provide evidence that Texas educators have ...


Faithfully Negligent: Religious Implications For Criminal Negligence Cases, Supreet Kaur Bath 2020 Western University

Faithfully Negligent: Religious Implications For Criminal Negligence Cases, Supreet Kaur Bath

Master of Laws Research Papers Repository

Do the actions of parents in withholding medical treatment from their children due to religious influence show wanton or reckless disregard for the safety and lives of their children? This project investigates the morally and legally complicated issue of the influence of religious beliefs in criminal negligence cases. My MRP is animated by the idea that similar cases in the past have been treated with leniency and ought to be given stricter punishments.

I focus in particular on cases in which parents opt for alternative remedies or faith healing for ill children in ignorance or defiance of available medical treatments ...


How Medicalization Of Civil Rights Could Disappoint, Allison K. Hoffman 2020 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

How Medicalization Of Civil Rights Could Disappoint, Allison K. Hoffman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This essay reflects on Craig Konnoth’s recent Article, Medicalization and the New Civil Rights, which is a carefully crafted and thought-provoking description of the refashioning of civil rights claims into medical rights frameworks. He compellingly threads together many intellectual traditions—from antidiscrimination law to disability law to health law—to illustrate the pervasiveness of the phenomenon that he describes and why it might be productive as a tool to advance civil rights.

This response, however, offers several reasons why medicalization may not cure all that ails civil rights litigation’s pains and elaborates on the potential risks of overinvesting ...


The Relationship Between Impact Energy And Glass Fracture Via .177 Caliber Steel Bbs, Jocenel Beach 2020 CUNY John Jay College

The Relationship Between Impact Energy And Glass Fracture Via .177 Caliber Steel Bbs, Jocenel Beach

Student Theses

Fractured glass is often found at shooting scenes and can provide useful information for crime scene reconstruction. Mechanical glass fracture from a projectile impact can result in different types of fracture patterns. The degree of fracture depends on several factors including: type of glass, the thickness of the glass, curvature (if any), distance from the muzzle, contact angle, and type of projectile. Correlating impact energy to the degree of glass fracture can provide useful information regarding the muzzle-to-target distance for a particular firearm/ammunition combination. This research focuses on the projectile impact velocity of .177 steel BBs shot from a ...


Beyond Social Disorganization Theory: The Influence Of Multiple Structural Determinants Of Crime On An Urban Community, Rodney C. Boyd 2020 Seton Hall University

Beyond Social Disorganization Theory: The Influence Of Multiple Structural Determinants Of Crime On An Urban Community, Rodney C. Boyd

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This correlational, explanatory, cross-sectional study explains the influence of neighborhoods’ structural determinants on the rate of violent crimes in New York City’s communities. Guided by the theoretical foundation of social disorganization theory, the variables in this study included the economically disadvantaged, racial/ethnic heterogeneity, residential instability/mobility, and the level of educational attainment. The statistical analysis in this study included correlational matrix and simultaneous multiple regression model (ordinary least squares). The study consisted of 59 New York City community districts (encompassing the City’s population of 8,622,698 residents) and included the violent crime rates for 2017. The ...


Further Evaluation Of A Dry Vacuuming Technique For Recovery Of Dna From Handwritten Documents, Christian Hopkins 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Further Evaluation Of A Dry Vacuuming Technique For Recovery Of Dna From Handwritten Documents, Christian Hopkins

Student Theses

A previously developed, non-destructive, homemade vacuum method for collecting biological material from handwritten documents had promising DNA results for white copy paper, preserved indented writing, and latent prints. Prior to casework implementation, additional validation experiments are warranted and here the method was tested for different paper substrates. This work describes testing of notebook paper, bank deposit slips, magazine pages, and manila envelopes. The quantity of recovered DNA varied from donor to donor, but the mean quantities showed a trend that can be explained by the different sizes and surface properties of the tested paper types. The rougher paper type, like ...


Covid And Crime: An Early Empirical Look, David S. Abrams 2020 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Covid And Crime: An Early Empirical Look, David S. Abrams

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We collect data from over 25 large cities in the U.S. and document the short-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on crime. There is a widespread immediate drop in both criminal incidents and arrests most heavily pronounced among drug crimes, theft, residential burglaries, and most violent crimes. The decline appears to precede most stay-at-home orders, and arrests follow a similar pattern as reports. We find no decline in homicides and shootings, and an increase in non-residential burglary and car theft in most cities, suggesting that criminal activity was displaced to locations with fewer people. Pittsburgh, New York City, San ...


Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University 2020 Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice News, Georgia Southern University

Criminal Justice & Criminology News

  • Announcement of Thesis Proposal Defense


College Students’ Perception Of Racism On A Predominantly White College Campus, Johnathan Garcia Ramos 2020 University of Northern Colorado

College Students’ Perception Of Racism On A Predominantly White College Campus, Johnathan Garcia Ramos

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

Racism is a controversial but present topic in our society. Researchers have identified negative outcomes associated with interactions with racism, microaggression, and racist campus climate. Because universities tend to have racially/ethnically diverse student populations, students might experience racism on campus, which could negatively impact their academic performance. The purpose of this research is to examine how students at a four-year liberal arts institution in the Rocky Mountain region perceive racism on a predominantly white campus and to explore possible associations between racism problems on campus, students’ academics, experiences or witnesses of racism, students’ year in school, and college within ...


New Jersey Overdose Prevention Act: Police Officers’ Experiences At A Drug Overdose Scene, Michael Ziarnowski 2020 University of New England

New Jersey Overdose Prevention Act: Police Officers’ Experiences At A Drug Overdose Scene, Michael Ziarnowski

All Theses And Dissertations

The number of drug overdose deaths in the United States from opioids has led to national attention about the problem commonly described as the “opioid epidemic.” Federal and state policymakers have shifted from a hardline punitive approach to a rehabilitative approach in an attempt to save lives. Good Samaritan Laws (GSLs) and advances in medicine have been implemented differently in different states. For example, the enactment of the New Jersey Overdose Prevention Act (NJOPA) and the use of naloxone by first responders are ways that state officials try to save lives. However, there is limited research on the first responders ...


The Application Of A Simple Tissue-Disruption Method To Dna Extraction For Species Identification, Jordana R. Fox 2020 CUNY John Jay College

The Application Of A Simple Tissue-Disruption Method To Dna Extraction For Species Identification, Jordana R. Fox

Student Theses

The TissueLyser II was used to disrupt animal bones and plant tissue without dry ice or liquid nitrogen for species identification. Bone fragments of fresh swine (Sus scrofa) ribs were used. A 521bp fragment of the cyt b locus was analyzed, and the BLASTn results confirmed that the origin of all the samples was swine (E-value = 0.0). Bone fragments of bovine, chicken, duck, fish, sheep, and swine were also used to test the procedure. An approximately 600bp fragment of the COI locus was analyzed, and the BLASTn results confirmed the origin of all the samples (E-value = 0.0). Fresh ...


Archaeology Or Crime Scene? Teeth Micro And Macro Structure Analysis As Dating Variable, Jessica A. Vincenty 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Archaeology Or Crime Scene? Teeth Micro And Macro Structure Analysis As Dating Variable, Jessica A. Vincenty

Student Theses

Simple methods to aid in the determination of forensic or archaeologic relevancy of skeletonized remains have been researched since the 1950s. With advances in microscopic imaging techniques and machine learning computer data analysis methods the relevancy of decontextualized, comingled remains has room for improvement. This thesis is a study done to pioneer a new approach to analyzing dental skeletal remains to determine forensic relevancy.

Archaeological dental samples collected from the ancient city of Ur in modern day southern Iraq in addition to modern dental extractions were processed for scanning electron microscopy imaging. Archaeological and modern samples displayed different surface and ...


Developing A Maceration Method For Isolation Of Dna From Cancellous Bones, Bryan Bernal 2020 CUNY John Jay College

Developing A Maceration Method For Isolation Of Dna From Cancellous Bones, Bryan Bernal

Student Theses

Prior to isolating DNA, it is necessary to remove any biological materials that may be present on commingled remains. Manual maceration of the outer surface is time-consuming. This study will address this issue by developing a simple method for processing bone samples prior to DNA isolation. A liquid-based technique was applied to macerate bone fragments by incubating bone fragments in an enzyme solution, removing potential contaminants, followed by a bone tissue disruption. Swine (Sus scrofa) bones were used to simulate human bones. Microscopic analysis suggested this method was effective for surface material removal. The methods effect on the quantities of ...


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