Racial And Ethnic Profiling In Massachusetts: An Examination Of Police Policy And Practice, 2014 Northeastern University
Racial And Ethnic Profiling In Massachusetts: An Examination Of Police Policy And Practice, Anne-Marie Gabrielle Hakstian
Law and Public Policy Dissertations
The use of extra-legal factors such as race and ethnicity in police decision-making impacts the public's overall trust and confidence in the law and in the police as enforcers of the law. Because the police play a key role in ensuring the primacy of the rule of law, the practice of racial profiling can undermine the legitimacy of the law in American communities. Widespread recognition of the problem during the 1990s led several states to pass legislation banning the practice of racial profiling.
In Massachusetts, the legislature enacted a statute with the purpose of identifying the cities and towns ...
Microfoundations Of The Rule Of Law, 2014 USC Gould School of Law
Microfoundations Of The Rule Of Law, Gillian K. Hadfield, Barry R. Weingast
Gillian K Hadfield
Many social scientists rely on the rule of law in their accounts of political or economic development. Many however simply equate law with a stable government capable of enforcing the rules generated by a political authority. As two decades of largely failed efforts to build the rule of law in poor and transition countries and continuing struggles to build international legal order demonstrate, we still do not understand how legal order is produced, especially in places where it does not already exist. We here canvas literature in the social sciences to identify the themes and gaps in the existing accounts ...
Corporate Social Responsibility In A Remedy-Seeking Society: A Public Choice Perspective, 2014 Chapman University School of Law
Mass Incarceration: Why Do We Punish And What Are The Consequences?, 2013 La Salle University
Mass Incarceration: Why Do We Punish And What Are The Consequences?, Caitlin Taylor Phd
No abstract provided.
An Overview Of The Effect Of Mental Illness Under U.S. Criminal Law, 2013 University of Pennsylvania Law School
An Overview Of The Effect Of Mental Illness Under U.S. Criminal Law, Paul H. Robinson
This paper reviews the various ways in which an offender's mental illness can have an effect on liability and offense grading under American criminal law. The 52 American jurisdictions have adopted a variety of different formulations of the insanity defense. A similar diversity of views is seen in the way in which different states deal with mental illness that negates an offense culpability requirement, a bare majority of which limit a defendant's ability to introduce mental illness for this purpose. Finally, the modern successor of the common law provocation mitigation allows, in its new breadth, certain forms of ...
An Examination Of Felony Case Processing In The Circuit Court Of Cook County, 2000-2012, 2013 Loyola University Chicago
An Examination Of Felony Case Processing In The Circuit Court Of Cook County, 2000-2012, Don Stemen
Criminal Justice & Criminology: Faculty Publications & Other Works
This research bulletin provides an examination of felony cases filed in the Circuit Court of Cook County between 2000 and 2012. The examination considers trends in the volume of felony cases filed, the percent of cases disposed of within twelve months of filing, and the average length of time to dispose of cases. The analyses indicate that the number of felony cases filed in Cook County has decreased over the last decade and the percentage of felony cases disposed of within 12 months of filing has increased during the same period. However, the time to case disposition has increased -- for ...
Examination Of The Kendall County Youth Education Class, 2013 Loyola University Chicago
Examination Of The Kendall County Youth Education Class, David E. Olson, Taheri Sema, Michelle Mioduszewski, Olson Mollie
David E Olson
The research examined the characteristics of youth served by the Kendall County Probation and Court Services Department's Youth Education Class, a diversion program for youth charged with alcohol-related offenses. The research examined changes in awareness of alcohol and drug risks and health consequencies, and post-program recidivism.
The Structure And Limits Of Criminal Law, 2013 University of Pennsylvania Law School
The Structure And Limits Of Criminal Law, Paul H. Robinson, Joshua Samuel Barton
The forthcoming book The Structure and Limits of Criminal Law (Ashgate) collects and reprints classic articles on three topics: the conceptual structure of criminal law doctrine, the conduct necessary and that sufficient for criminal liability, and the offender culpability and blameworthiness necessary and that sufficient for criminal liability. The collection includes articles by H.L.A. Hart, Sanford Kadish, George Fletcher, Herbert Packer, Norval Morris, Gordon Hawkins, Andrew von Hirsch, Bernard Harcourt, Richard Wasserstrom, Andrew Simester, John Darley, Kent Greenawalt, and Paul Robinson. This essay serves as an introduction to the collection, explaining how each article fits into the larger ...
The Role Of Parents And Parens Patriae: Developing Views Of Legitimacy And Justice In Juvenile Delinquency Court, 2013 Northeastern University
The Role Of Parents And Parens Patriae: Developing Views Of Legitimacy And Justice In Juvenile Delinquency Court, Liana J. Pennington
Law, Policy, and Society Dissertations
The juvenile delinquency court aims to modify children's behavior, but little is known about how parents' experiences in the juvenile justice system may be affecting the court's efforts. Whether parents believe the court system is fair and effective and how they discuss the court's legitimacy with their child could have important implications for the juvenile justice system. There exists widespread distrust of courts and the justice system in poor and minority communities (Rottman and Hansen 2001). Since children from disadvantaged communities are disproportionately represented in the juvenile justice system (Feld 1999), it is critical to understand how ...
Jurors’ Subjective Certainty And Standards Of Proof: The Role Of Emotion And Severity Of Charge In Subjective Probability Judgment, 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Jurors’ Subjective Certainty And Standards Of Proof: The Role Of Emotion And Severity Of Charge In Subjective Probability Judgment, Yimoon Choi
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research: Department of Psychology
Recent empirical research suggests that jurors struggle to understand and correctly apply the standard of proof. Many researchers have focused on methods to re-write jury instructions so that standards of proof are clearer and easier for jurors to understand. This dissertation suggests the fundamental cause of jurors’ confusion concerning standards of proof is that jurors may use different decision processes (intuitive decision processing or systematic decision processing) and decision indices (objective probabilistic judgment or subjective confidence) depending upon their transient emotions or the seriousness of charge.
Study 1 assessed whether experiencing particular emotions (sadness or anger) could change mock jurors ...
Testing Orthodox Utilitarian And Extrajudical Determinants Of Incarceration In The U.S. At The State-Level, 1980-2005, 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Testing Orthodox Utilitarian And Extrajudical Determinants Of Incarceration In The U.S. At The State-Level, 1980-2005, Pavel V. Vasiliev
UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones
This project is a theory-driven secondary data analysis of state-level incarceration trends in the U.S. between 1980 and 2005. I replicate and advance Smith's (2004) study of the relationship between the socioeconomic, demographic, political, electoral, and criminal justice factors and incarceration rates at the state level. The purpose of this project is to determine the empirical validity of the major explanations of the incarceration trends in the U.S. I advance Smith's (2004) study using important novel elements. First, I extend the scrutinized historic period by a decade by compiling time-series data for 1980-2005. Second, I employ ...
Introduction: Lynching, Incarceration’S Cousin: From Till To Trayvon, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
Introduction: Lynching, Incarceration’S Cousin: From Till To Trayvon, Barbara Lewis
The wholesale criminalizing of the black male has been much in the news, put there by the Trayvon Martin case and the Florida verdict. (Incidentally, even though we don’t often think of it, Florida was where the first African slaves were installed in America, back in the 1500s in the city of St. Augustine.) As an academic, which, loosely translated means that I often bury my head between the covers of a book trying to figure out one thing or another, I am thought of as someone who is cautious and circumspect in what I think and write, but ...
Inside/Outside: A Model For Social Support And Rehabilitation Of Young Black Men, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
Inside/Outside: A Model For Social Support And Rehabilitation Of Young Black Men, Harold Adams, Castellano Turner
This paper first identifies some of the most important problems facing incarcerated young black males. Next, we present an historical analysis that pinpoints the War on Drugs as the primary origin of mass incarceration of that group. Then we describe the major consequences for prisoners as well as collateral problems for their families, friends, and communities. We then outline the types of programs created to address these problems. We summarize research that shows the key to solving high recidivism rates is social support during incarceration and after release. We describe in particular a Boston-based organization, the Committee of Friends and ...
Studies On Religion And Recidivism: Focus On Roxbury, Dorchester, And Mattapan, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
Studies On Religion And Recidivism: Focus On Roxbury, Dorchester, And Mattapan, George Walters-Sleyon
This research article raises the question of whether religion can be considered a viable partner in the reduction of the high rate of recidivism associated with the increasing mass incarceration in the United States. Can sustainable transformation in the life of a prisoner or former prisoner as a result of religious conversion be subjected to evidenced-based practices to derive impartial conclusions about the value of religion in their lives? With a particular focus on three neighborhoods of Boston—Roxbury, Dorchester, and Mattapan—this study examines the relevance of religion and faith-based organizations in lowering the high rate of recidivism associated ...
Gray Matters Behind Bars, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
Gray Matters Behind Bars, Howard Manly
Forty years ago, the nation got tough on crime. It is now paying the price as the skyrocketing cost of incarcerating aging inmates is haunting state and federal prison budgets.
The Personal And Family Challenges Of Reentry: Interview With Helen Credle, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
The Personal And Family Challenges Of Reentry: Interview With Helen Credle, Kenneth J. Cooper
For 40 years, Helen Credle has worked with prison inmates and exoffenders in Massachusetts, from inside or outside the state corrections system. The Boston native, who grew up in Roxbury, did not set out to become an advocate for prisoners and their families. Oddly, it was music that first took her inside prison walls and into that role. As director of community services for the New England Conservatory of Music, Credle organized concerts by bluesman B.B. King and balladeer Bobby Womack in state prisons. Her involvement grew deeper when the conservatory’s administrators and faculty members decided to teach ...
Stop And Frisk: From Slave-Catchers To Nypd, A Legal Commentary, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
Stop And Frisk: From Slave-Catchers To Nypd, A Legal Commentary, Gloria J. Browne-Marshall
Today’s “stop and frisk” practices stem from centuries of legal control of Africans in America. Colonial laws were drafted specifically to control Africans, enslaved and free. Slave catchers culled the woods in search of those Africans who dared escape. After slavery ended, “Black Codes” or criminal laws were enacted to ensnare African Americans, including the sinister convict-lease system that existed well into the twentieth century. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled to extend police authority to stop and frisk during the Civil Rights Movement.
Police abuse of stop and frisk has led to tens of millions of people detained ...
Life After Prison: A Different Kind Of Sentence?, A Forum At The Boston Center For The Arts, 2013 University of Massachusetts Boston
Life After Prison: A Different Kind Of Sentence?, A Forum At The Boston Center For The Arts, Andrea J. Cabral, Daniel Cordon, Lyn Levy, Gary Little, Janet Rodriguez
In September 2012, the Boston Center for the Arts (BCA) hosted a forum on life after prison as part of its series, Dialogue: Social Issues Examined Through the Playwright’s Pen. The forum coincided with performances at the Boston Center for the Arts of The MotherF**ker with the Hat, a play by Stephen Andy Guirgis about prisoner reentry.
Andrea J. Cabral, then sheriff of Suffolk County and secretary of public safety in Massachusetts, moderated the forum in BCA’s Calderwood Pavilion, the same theater where SpeakEasy Stage Company was putting on the play. The four panelists work for nonprofit ...
Asymmetric Empirical Similarity, 2013 Georgetown University Law Center
Asymmetric Empirical Similarity, Joshua C. Teitelbaum
Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works
The paper suggests a similarity function for applications of empirical similarity theory in which the notion of similarity is asymmetric. I propose defining similarity in terms of a quasimetric. I suggest a particular quasimetric and explore the properties of the empirical similarity model given this function. The proposed function belongs to the class of quasimetrics induced by skewed norms. Finally, I provide a skewness axiom that, when imposed in lieu of the symmetry axiom in the main result of Billot et al. (2008), characterizes an exponential similarity function based on a skewed norm.
The Different Duties And Responsibilities Of Clinical And Forensic Psychologists In Legal Proceedings, 2013 St. John Fisher College
The Different Duties And Responsibilities Of Clinical And Forensic Psychologists In Legal Proceedings, Denise Hugaboom
Undergraduate Review: a Journal of Undergraduate Student Research
In lieu of an abstract, below is the essay's first paragraph.
Clinicians and forensic psychologists are two types of psychologists who are often required to appear as witnesses in court proceedings. Their roles, duties, and responsibilities in legal issues arc surprisingly different, but it is possible for them to overlap. It is important for psychologists to recognize both the obligations and limitations of their responsibilities when testifying. An important and often unclear question that generally arises is: how can psychologists best fulfill their legal and ethical duties to their clients?