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Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Meeting 5-2-1-0 Recommendations Among Adolescents In The United States, Christina Haughton, Stephenie C. Lemon 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Meeting 5-2-1-0 Recommendations Among Adolescents In The United States, Christina Haughton, Stephenie C. Lemon

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

BACKGROUND: Obesity prevention has become a major focus of public health efforts in the United States. The Federal Government set forth national nutrition and physical activity recommendations to prevent obesity and promote well-being among children. A succinct message developed through a program in Maine “Let’s Go! 5-2-1-0” summarizes these obesity prevention behaviors including ≥5 fruit and vegetables, ≤2 hours of screen time, ≥1 hour of physical activity, and 0 sugar sweetened beverages daily. The study evaluates racial/ethnic disparities among adolescents meeting the 5-2-1-0 targets in a nationally representative sample.

METHODS: The 2011-2012 NHANES dataset was used to conduct ...


Proportion Of Heart Failure Patients Who Meet Criteria For Malnutrition Upon Hospital Admission Based On Aspen Guidelines, Sarah L. Johnson 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Proportion Of Heart Failure Patients Who Meet Criteria For Malnutrition Upon Hospital Admission Based On Aspen Guidelines, Sarah L. Johnson

Theses & Dissertations

Background: Current research estimates that approximately 50 percent of heart failure patients are categorized as malnourished. Heart failure patients are at increased risk of malnourishment due to increased catabolic processes that increase resting energy expenditure, decrease appetite, impair nutrient absorption, and lead to unintentional weight loss. The goal of standardized diagnostic criteria is to identify malnutrition early for more effective treatment. Current studies suggest the association of early diagnosis and nutrition intervention with increased positive patient outcomes and improved quality of life for heart failure (HF) patients. However, the proportion of patients with HF who meet criteria for malnutrition at ...


Vitamin A Compounds In Mothers And Infants At Birth, Jenna M. Paseka 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Vitamin A Compounds In Mothers And Infants At Birth, Jenna M. Paseka

Theses & Dissertations

OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the vitamin A status in mothers and infants at birth in the United States. The main objective of this study is to determine associations between maternal and infant serum retinol, provitamin A carotenoids, and non-provitamin A carotenoids. The secondary aim is to explore the relationship between maternal intake and maternal and infant serum levels of vitamin A compounds.

METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 34 mothers and their infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at delivery. Serum retinol, lutein + zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, and ...


Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias

Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at ...


The Effects Of Iron Deficiency Anemia And Iron Supplementation In Pregnancy, Anna J. Cox 2016 Liberty University

The Effects Of Iron Deficiency Anemia And Iron Supplementation In Pregnancy, Anna J. Cox

Senior Honors Theses

Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a condition that occurs in both underdeveloped and developed countries worldwide. This disorder is diagnosed in an individual who presents the common signs and symptoms of anemia along with consistently low clinical markers of stored iron. Iron deficiency (ID) usually precedes a diagnosis of IDA as the insufficient amount of iron often goes undetected until one’s quality of life is diminished. Certain populations, such as women who are pregnant or of reproductive age, are particularly at risk for ID and the development of IDA. During pregnancy, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for iron is ...


Effects Of Olfactory Sense On Chocolate Craving, Michael W. Firmin, Aubrey Gillette, Taylor E. Hobbs 2016 Cedarville University

Effects Of Olfactory Sense On Chocolate Craving, Michael W. Firmin, Aubrey Gillette, Taylor E. Hobbs

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Chocolate has been referred to as one of the most socially acceptable addictions. It is one of America’s most craved foods, and women tend to crave it more frequently than men. Kemps and Tiggemann (2013) conducted an innovative experiment to reconcile the ideas of mental imagery, scent, and craving. After presenting images of sweet foods and having female undergraduate students smell a neutral scent, the researchers found that the neutral smell decreased craving for sweet foods.

In the present study, researchers sought to replicate many aspects of Kemps and Tiggemann’s design. This new study went one step further ...


Connecting With The Ghanaian Community Through Church-Based Workshops: Healthy Ghanaian Cookbook, Samantha Harrington, Jason Stencel, Jacob Koshy, Shelly Yarnie 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Connecting With The Ghanaian Community Through Church-Based Workshops: Healthy Ghanaian Cookbook, Samantha Harrington, Jason Stencel, Jacob Koshy, Shelly Yarnie

Capstone Presentations

Based off our workshop series at Ghanaian churches in Worcester, MA, the Healthy Ghanaian Cookbook is a collection of recipes created by Peggy Akufo from the Apostolic Church at Bethsaida Christian Center. The recipes were altered to increase nutritional value. Calorie and nutrition breakdown for each recipe is included.


The Association Between Vitamin A Status Or Supplementation And Hiv/Aids, Mikaela Kathleen Curtis 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Association Between Vitamin A Status Or Supplementation And Hiv/Aids, Mikaela Kathleen Curtis

Food Science and Nutrition

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected millions of people since the start of the epidemic in the early 1980s. HIV is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has taken millions of lives. It is extremely difficult for particular populations to receive medication to treat HIV infection and prevent the progression of HIV to AIDS. Multiple studies have examined the effect of vitamin A on HIV infection, due to its immune stimulating effects. It is unclear whether an association exists between vitamin A and different aspects of HIV. This review examined the effect of vitamin A ...


An Investigation Into The Dietary And Health Behaviours Of Pregnant Women In Ireland, Laura Mullaney 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

An Investigation Into The Dietary And Health Behaviours Of Pregnant Women In Ireland, Laura Mullaney

Doctoral

Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic complications in pregnancy such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Effective weight management following childbirth may reduce long-term metabolic risks among women of child bearing age. The aim of this study was to investigate the diet and health behaviours of pregnant and postpartum women in Ireland. Accurate dietary assessment in pregnancy is often difficult to achieve. We have shown that dietary under-reporting is more likely among pregnant women who are younger, materially deprived, obese and who have increased adiposity. These findings suggest that dietary underreporting represents a source of potential bias in obstetric obesity ...


Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans MD, Elias Salloum MD, Matthew K. Wingate MD, Thomas Melvin MD, Grant S. Buchanan MD, Franklin D. Shuler MD, PhD 2016 Marshall University

Vitamin D Deficiency: "At Risk" Patient Populations And Potential Drug Interactions, Dana Lycans Md, Elias Salloum Md, Matthew K. Wingate Md, Thomas Melvin Md, Grant S. Buchanan Md, Franklin D. Shuler Md, Phd

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Vitamin D is known to play an essential role in calcium homeostasis; however, excessive amounts can have harmful effects. Calcium and vitamin D levels are known to be influenced by drug interactions and pathology ranging from of cancer to cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D supplementation has become widespread, and it is important for clinicians to understand the way that certain conditions and medications interact with vitamin D and calcium homeostasis. The purpose of this review is to outline the benefits and adverse effects of vitamin D and how its levels are affected by certain pathologic and pharmacologic interactions.


The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley 2016 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Pxr And Ikkβ Signaling In Cardiometabolic Disease, Robert N. Helsley

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and is partially attributed to perturbations in lipid metabolism. Xenobiotics, such as pharmaceutical drugs and environmental chemicals, have been associated with increased risk of CVD in multiple large-scale human population studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. We and others have identified several xenobiotics as potent agonists for the pregnane X receptor (PXR), a nuclear receptor that can be activated by numerous drugs as well as environmental and dietary chemicals. However, the role of PXR in mediating the pathophysiological effects of xenobiotic exposure in humans and animals remains elusive ...


Golden Rice: Effectiveness And Safety, A Literature Review, Janel M. Albaugh 2016 University of Akron

Golden Rice: Effectiveness And Safety, A Literature Review, Janel M. Albaugh

Honors Research Projects

This literature review begins by introducing GMOs, then moving on to golden rice and its background and development, including The Golden Rice Project. The literature review portion discusses the effectiveness and health and safety issues surrounding golden rice. Methodology for this paper includes agriculture and food science databases in addition to keyword searches.


Determinants Of Child Health In Rural South Africa, Carly Ratekin 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Determinants Of Child Health In Rural South Africa, Carly Ratekin

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This study examines the correlation between household characteristics—namely household head education, sex of household head, assets, livestock ownership, and field usage—and children's nutritional status, quantified by growth stunting, underweight status, and wasting, in rural South Africa. Children aged 1-5 years old in the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance Site of South Africa were sampled in 2010 and 2011. The proportion of children who were growth stunted was 16% in 2010 and 26% in 2011. In 2010 and 2011, 3% and 6% of the children sampled were underweight, respectively. The percent of children considered to have wasting syndrome ...


The Effect Of Body Mass Index On Graft Function And Kidney Transplant Outcomes, Morgan Galle 2015 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Effect Of Body Mass Index On Graft Function And Kidney Transplant Outcomes, Morgan Galle

Theses & Dissertations

Background: When determining eligibility for kidney transplantation, body mass index (BMI) is often a debatable criterion for transplant due to the clinical indication, an elevated BMI has adverse effects on kidney transplant outcomes. There is a current gap in research on the effect BMI has on kidney transplant outcomes.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the role BMI plays in post-kidney transplant clinical outcomes including delayed graft function, new onset diabetes after transplant, wound complications, hospital length of stay, albumin, and readmissions to the hospital from initial hospitalization and at six months following kidney transplantation. The primary ...


Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mechanisms By Which Dietary Ellagic Acid Attenuates Obesity And Obesity-Mediated Metabolic Complications, Inhae Kang

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Ellagic acid (EA) is a polyphenol found in various fruits and plants, such as berries, pomegranates, muscadine grapes, nuts and bark of oak tree. EA has been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects in various types of cancer. However, little is known about the effects of EA on obesity. Herein, 1) the lipid-lowering role of EA was identified in primary human adipose stem cells (hASCs) and human hepatoma Huh7 cells; 2) the molecular mechanisms by which EA attenuates adipogenesis by epigenetic modification were identified; 3) the effects of EA on high fat and high sucrose-mediated obesity was determined ...


Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Ethanol Neurotoxicity, Fanmuyi Yang, Jia Luo 2015 University of Kentucky

Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress And Ethanol Neurotoxicity, Fanmuyi Yang, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of ...


Dashing Away Hypertension: Evaluating The Efficacy Of The Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension Diet In Controlling High Blood Pressure, Preeya Shah, Kyle Maxwell, Joseph Shapiro 2015 Marshall University

Dashing Away Hypertension: Evaluating The Efficacy Of The Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension Diet In Controlling High Blood Pressure, Preeya Shah, Kyle Maxwell, Joseph Shapiro

Joseph I Shapiro MD

The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet has been developed and popularized as a non-pharmaceutical intervention for high blood pressure reduction since 1995. However, to date, a comprehensive description of the biochemical rationale behind the diet’s principal guidelines has yet to be compiled. With rising interest for healthy and reliable life-style modifications to combat cardiovascular disease, this review aims to compile the most recent and relevant studies on this topic and make an informed assessment as to the efficacy of and underlying mechanisms operant in the DASH diet. Specifically, the merits of lowering dietary intake of sodium and ...


Dashing Away Hypertension: Evaluating The Efficacy Of The Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension Diet In Controlling High Blood Pressure, Preeya Shah PhD, Kyle D. Maxwell, Joseph I. Shapiro MD 2015 Marshall University

Dashing Away Hypertension: Evaluating The Efficacy Of The Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension Diet In Controlling High Blood Pressure, Preeya Shah Phd, Kyle D. Maxwell, Joseph I. Shapiro Md

Biochemistry and Microbiology

The dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet has been developed and popularized as a non-pharmaceutical intervention for high blood pressure reduction since 1995. However, to date, a comprehensive description of the biochemical rationale behind the diet’s principal guidelines has yet to be compiled. With rising interest for healthy and reliable life-style modifications to combat cardiovascular disease, this review aims to compile the most recent and relevant studies on this topic and make an informed assessment as to the efficacy of and underlying mechanisms operant in the DASH diet. Specifically, the merits of lowering dietary intake of sodium and ...


Brief Report: Nutrition And Weight Loss Information In A Popular Diet Book: Is It Fact, Fiction, Or Something In Between, Sarah Goff, Joanne Foody, Silvio Inzucchi, David Katz, Susan Mayne, Harlan Krumholz 2015 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Brief Report: Nutrition And Weight Loss Information In A Popular Diet Book: Is It Fact, Fiction, Or Something In Between, Sarah Goff, Joanne Foody, Silvio Inzucchi, David Katz, Susan Mayne, Harlan Krumholz

Sarah L. Goff MD

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet books dominate the New York Times Advice Best Seller list and consumers cite such books as an important source of nutrition information. However, the scientific support for nutrition claims presented as fact (nutrition facts) in diet books is not known. DESIGN/MEASUREMENTS: We assessed the quality of nutrition facts in the best-selling South Beach Diet using support in peer-reviewed literature as a measure of quality. We performed structured literature searches on nutrition facts located in the books' text, and then assigned each fact to 1 of 4 categories (1) fact supported, (2) fact not supported, (3) fact ...


Intracellular Na+ Concentration ([Na+]I) Is Elevated In Diabetic Hearts Due To Enhanced Na+–Glucose Cotransport, Rebekah Lambert, Sarah Srodulski, Xiaoli Peng, Kenneth B. Margulies, Florin Despa, Sanda Despa 2015 University of Kentucky

Intracellular Na+ Concentration ([Na+]I) Is Elevated In Diabetic Hearts Due To Enhanced Na+–Glucose Cotransport, Rebekah Lambert, Sarah Srodulski, Xiaoli Peng, Kenneth B. Margulies, Florin Despa, Sanda Despa

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) regulates Ca2+ cycling, contractility, metabolism, and electrical stability of the heart. [Na+]i is elevated in heart failure, leading to arrhythmias and oxidative stress. We hypothesized that myocyte [Na+]i is also increased in type 2 diabetes (T2D) due to enhanced activity of the Na+-glucose cotransporter.

METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we used myocardial tissue from humans with T2D and a rat model of late-onset T2D (HIP rat). Western blot analysis showed increased Na+-glucose cotransporter expression in failing hearts from T2D patients compared with nondiabetic persons (by 73±13 ...


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