The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, 2017 Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, Pennsylvania
The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine Diguilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast
Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology
Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body. Exposure to microorganisms from the moment we are born and appropriate microbiome assembly during childhood are essential for establishing an ...
Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption Among Rural Western Australian Children?, 2017 Edith Cowan University
Which Food Security Determinants Predict Adequate Vegetable Consumption Among Rural Western Australian Children?, Stephanie L. Godrich, Johnny Lo, Christina R. Davies, Jill Darby, Amanda Devine
ECU Publications Post 2013
Improving the suboptimal vegetable consumption among the majority of Australian children is imperative in reducing chronic disease risk. The objective of this research was to determine whether there was a relationship between food security determinants (FSD) (i.e., food availability, access, and utilisation dimensions) and adequate vegetable consumption among children living in regional and remote Western Australia (WA). Caregiver-child dyads (n = 256) living in non-metropolitan/rural WA completed cross-sectional surveys that included questions on FSD, demographics and usual vegetable intake. A total of 187 dyads were included in analyses, which included descriptive and logistic regression analyses via IBM SPSS (version ...
The Political Economy Of Undernutrition. National Report, Pakistan, 2016 Aga Khan University
The Political Economy Of Undernutrition. National Report, Pakistan, Shehla Zaidi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Shandana Khan Mohmand, Andres Mejia Acosta
No abstract provided.
Nutrition Political Economy, Pakistan. Province Report: Punjab, 2016 Aga Khan University
Nutrition Political Economy, Pakistan. Province Report: Punjab, Shehla Zaidi, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Akhtar Rashid, Gul Nawaz, Noorya Hayat, Shandara Khan Mohmand, Andres Mejia Acosta
No abstract provided.
Oral Carbohydrate Administration Prior To Colorectal Surgery: Practice Change Outcomes And Economic Analysis, 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi
Oral Carbohydrate Administration Prior To Colorectal Surgery: Practice Change Outcomes And Economic Analysis, Joshua Kendrick Ezelle
Doctoral Nursing Capstone Projects
Difference in recovery times has been an interest of mine for many years. I observed that an open heart surgery routinely recovered and discharged on the third post-op day, while a colorectal patient often required a hospital stay of five to ten days. I began researching recovery methods of colorectal patients. I found enhanced recovery techniques like decreased narcotic, use of NSAID’s, early ambulation, and the use of medications that assist with bowel peristalsis are being employed nationally. Other techniques are now starting to be used with positive results. One of these is Carb-loading. Carb-loading is the oral intake ...
In Silico Investigation Into The Interactions Between Murine 5-Ht3 Receptor And The Principle Active Compounds Of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale)., Anna E. Lohning, Wolfgang Marx, Liz Isenring
Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications
Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and ...
Malnutrition In The Older Australian Rural Rehabilitation Community : Indentification, Patient Outcomes And The Role Of Informal Caregivers, Skye Marshall
Enhancing the effectiveness of nutritional care to improve the overall health of older adults will be key in reducing hospital and aged care facility demand, a priority target of current health service research and policy. Engaging informal caregivers as part of the nutrition care team presents an opportunity for improving the nutrition status of older Australians in rehabilitation and the community. This thesis provides evidence to improve malnutrition screening, assessment, diagnosis and resource allocation in rehabilitation facilities. It also makes recommendations to improve nutrition intervention in practice, and for how intervention studies should be designed in this setting. The thesis ...
Process Evaluation Of A Patient-Centred, Patientdirected, Group-Based Education Program For The Management Of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Kate Odgers-Jewell, Elisabeth Isenring, Rae Thomas, Dianne P Reidlinger
Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications
The present study developed and evaluated a patient-centred, patient-directed, group-based education program for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Two frameworks, the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions and the RE-AIM framework were followed. Data to develop the intervention were sourced from scoping of the literature and formative evaluation. Program evaluation comprised analysis of primary recruitment of participants through general practitioners, baseline and end-point measures of anthropometry, four validated questionnaires, contemporaneous facilitator notes and telephone interviews with participants.
A total of 16 participants enrolled in the intervention. Post-intervention results were obtained ...
Benefits Of A Flexitarian Diet: Educating College Students Of Lifestyle Approaches To Reduce The Risk Of Developing Breast And Prostate Cancer, Abbigail Pace
Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects
Practicing the Flexitarian diet, a plant-based diet, in conjunction with physical activity can promote a lifestyle consistent with the American Cancer Society’s recommendations for reducing risks of breast and prostate cancer (American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for Cancer Prevention, 2015) College students were assessed on knowledge of the relationship between diet and cancer risk prior to and after accessing information on the American Institute of Cancer Research site or the WKU Flexitarian Pinterest Page. Participants were recruited from the National Panhellenic and Interfraternity Council memberships and the International students at Western Kentucky University. Participants completed ...
Vitamin D Supplementation: Preventing Fractures, 2016 James Madison University
Vitamin D Supplementation: Preventing Fractures, Courtney L. Carn, Michael S. Doherty
Physician Assistant Capstones
Objective: To assess the ability of vitamin D supplementation in preventing musculoskeletal fractures. Methods: Systematic literature review using Google Scholar search terms “vitamin D supplementation” and “preventing hip fractures” from 2006-2015. Only RCTs, meta-analysis, and clinical guidelines were included. Results: Our search resulted in one meta-analysis and two randomized controlled trials. Conclusion: The summation of our investigation into vitamin D deficiency and the presence of musculoskeletal fractures has proven to be relatively inconclusive. The resulting data from our three studies did not provide any definitive proof that improved vitamin D levels correlates with better bone health.
Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, 2016 Marshall University, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine
Vitamin K2 (Menaquinone) Supplementation And Its Benefits In Cardiovascular Disease, Osteoporosis, And Cancer, Grant S. Buchanan, Md, Thomas Melvin, Brandon Merritt, Charles Bishop, Md, Franklin D. Shuler, Md, Phd
Marshall Journal of Medicine
Vitamin K is known to play an essential role in the coagulation cascade; however, a growing body of research has found that a subtype of this vitamin, vitamin K2 (menaquinone) may have a beneficial effect in osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. This purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of recent literature regarding menaquinone and its role in human health. This review discusses the physiology of menaquinone, its clinical benefits in cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and cancer, and how it may interact with certain medications. The authors conclude that menaquinone supplementation has been shown to improve carboxylation ...
Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Meeting 5-2-1-0 Recommendations Among Adolescents In The United States, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Meeting 5-2-1-0 Recommendations Among Adolescents In The United States, Christina Haughton, Stephenie C. Lemon
UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat
BACKGROUND: Obesity prevention has become a major focus of public health efforts in the United States. The Federal Government set forth national nutrition and physical activity recommendations to prevent obesity and promote well-being among children. A succinct message developed through a program in Maine “Let’s Go! 5-2-1-0” summarizes these obesity prevention behaviors including ≥5 fruit and vegetables, ≤2 hours of screen time, ≥1 hour of physical activity, and 0 sugar sweetened beverages daily. The study evaluates racial/ethnic disparities among adolescents meeting the 5-2-1-0 targets in a nationally representative sample.
METHODS: The 2011-2012 NHANES dataset was used to conduct ...
Proportion Of Heart Failure Patients Who Meet Criteria For Malnutrition Upon Hospital Admission Based On Aspen Guidelines, 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Proportion Of Heart Failure Patients Who Meet Criteria For Malnutrition Upon Hospital Admission Based On Aspen Guidelines, Sarah L. Johnson
Theses & Dissertations
Background: Current research estimates that approximately 50 percent of heart failure patients are categorized as malnourished. Heart failure patients are at increased risk of malnourishment due to increased catabolic processes that increase resting energy expenditure, decrease appetite, impair nutrient absorption, and lead to unintentional weight loss. The goal of standardized diagnostic criteria is to identify malnutrition early for more effective treatment. Current studies suggest the association of early diagnosis and nutrition intervention with increased positive patient outcomes and improved quality of life for heart failure (HF) patients. However, the proportion of patients with HF who meet criteria for malnutrition at ...
Vitamin A Compounds In Mothers And Infants At Birth, 2016 University of Nebraska Medical Center
Vitamin A Compounds In Mothers And Infants At Birth, Jenna M. Paseka
Theses & Dissertations
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the vitamin A status in mothers and infants at birth in the United States. The main objective of this study is to determine associations between maternal and infant serum retinol, provitamin A carotenoids, and non-provitamin A carotenoids. The secondary aim is to explore the relationship between maternal intake and maternal and infant serum levels of vitamin A compounds.
METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 34 mothers and their infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal and cord blood samples were collected at delivery. Serum retinol, lutein + zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, α-carotene, and ...
Evaluating Dietary Quality And Taste Preferences With A Simple Liking Survey: Application To Studying Individuals With Morbid Obesity, Marina L. Zoghbi
Honors Scholar Theses
Feasible ways are needed to screen for dietary behaviors and taste preferences in clinical settings. We examined the internal validity and reliability of a brief survey to assess food preferences and dietary behaviors among morbidly obese individuals considering bariatric surgery. Survey-reported liking is a proxy for dietary intake, correlating with reported food intake and biomarkers of nutritional status (Sharafi et al, 2015) and linking taste genetics with diet and health (Pallister et al, 2015). Methods –Enrolled were 138 morbidly obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery, who completed a 100-item liking survey of foods/beverages, physical/sedentary activities, and pleasurable/unpleasurable experiences ...
Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Evaluation Of Protein Source At Breakfast On Energy Metabolism, Metabolic Health, And Food Intake: A Pilot Study, Lauren A. Cambias
Human Nutrition and Hospitality Innovation Undergraduate Honors Theses
Over 30% of adults in the US are obese. A primary contributor to obesity is an unhealthy diet related to imbalanced macronutrients. Diets higher in protein (PRO) are associated with increased energy expenditure (EE) and reduced food intake. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if protein source at breakfast influences EE in young men (n=4; ages 18-35). Participants consumed three isocaloric (whey (WP), pea (PP), beef (BP); 275 kcal, 62% PRO, 23% CHO, 15% Fat) drinks in randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period. Each test day EE, appetite, and cravings were assessed at ...
The Effects Of Iron Deficiency Anemia And Iron Supplementation In Pregnancy, 2016 Liberty University
The Effects Of Iron Deficiency Anemia And Iron Supplementation In Pregnancy, Anna J. Cox
Senior Honors Theses
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a condition that occurs in both underdeveloped and developed countries worldwide. This disorder is diagnosed in an individual who presents the common signs and symptoms of anemia along with consistently low clinical markers of stored iron. Iron deficiency (ID) usually precedes a diagnosis of IDA as the insufficient amount of iron often goes undetected until one’s quality of life is diminished. Certain populations, such as women who are pregnant or of reproductive age, are particularly at risk for ID and the development of IDA. During pregnancy, the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for iron is ...
Effects Of Olfactory Sense On Chocolate Craving, 2016 Cedarville University
Effects Of Olfactory Sense On Chocolate Craving, Michael W. Firmin, Aubrey Gillette, Taylor E. Hobbs
The Research and Scholarship Symposium
Chocolate has been referred to as one of the most socially acceptable addictions. It is one of America’s most craved foods, and women tend to crave it more frequently than men. Kemps and Tiggemann (2013) conducted an innovative experiment to reconcile the ideas of mental imagery, scent, and craving. After presenting images of sweet foods and having female undergraduate students smell a neutral scent, the researchers found that the neutral smell decreased craving for sweet foods.
In the present study, researchers sought to replicate many aspects of Kemps and Tiggemann’s design. This new study went one step further ...
Connecting With The Ghanaian Community Through Church-Based Workshops: Healthy Ghanaian Cookbook, 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School
Connecting With The Ghanaian Community Through Church-Based Workshops: Healthy Ghanaian Cookbook, Samantha Harrington, Jason Stencel, Jacob Koshy, Shelly Yarnie
Based off our workshop series at Ghanaian churches in Worcester, MA, the Healthy Ghanaian Cookbook is a collection of recipes created by Peggy Akufo from the Apostolic Church at Bethsaida Christian Center. The recipes were altered to increase nutritional value. Calorie and nutrition breakdown for each recipe is included.
An Investigation Into The Dietary And Health Behaviours Of Pregnant Women In Ireland, 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology
An Investigation Into The Dietary And Health Behaviours Of Pregnant Women In Ireland, Laura Mullaney
Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic complications in pregnancy such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Effective weight management following childbirth may reduce long-term metabolic risks among women of child bearing age. The aim of this study was to investigate the diet and health behaviours of pregnant and postpartum women in Ireland. Accurate dietary assessment in pregnancy is often difficult to achieve. We have shown that dietary under-reporting is more likely among pregnant women who are younger, materially deprived, obese and who have increased adiposity. These findings suggest that dietary underreporting represents a source of potential bias in obstetric obesity ...