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Articles 1 - 30 of 346

Full-Text Articles in Medical Nutrition

The Evidence For The Benefits From Breast Milk In The Neurodevelopment Of Premature Babies – A Review Of The Recent Literature, Danuta Iulia Paduraru Oct 2018

The Evidence For The Benefits From Breast Milk In The Neurodevelopment Of Premature Babies – A Review Of The Recent Literature, Danuta Iulia Paduraru

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. The brain in preterm babies is usually not fully developed and therefore early post-term events can have long-lasting neurodevelopment and cognitive outcomes. It is known that cerebral white matter connectivity is important for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm and that breast milk imparts neurotrophic factors. The relationship between breastfeeding and child development is a long and well-studied area, and the evidence in support of breast milk is already substantial. Here we review the recent literature on the topic to establish whether additional evidence is available to strengthen the view that breast milk is superior in ...


Clean Up On Aisle 1: Food Environments In San Francisco’S Mission District, Diana Zamora Aug 2018

Clean Up On Aisle 1: Food Environments In San Francisco’S Mission District, Diana Zamora

Master's Projects and Capstones

Introduction: Underserved communities suffer from poor dietary habits and experience higher rates of chronic conditions mainly due to factors affecting their nutrition and grocery shopping behaviors. Method: A nutritional needs assessment was conducted with participants of the Community Wellness Program, a community resource center, at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, to assess the perspectives of the participant’s nutrition and grocery shopping behaviors. Interviews were conducted with current members attending cooking demonstrations at the center (n=10). Results: 50% of the participants have struggled to purchase fresh, healthy foods in the past year. Half of the participants stated shopping for ...


Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang Jun 2018

Alcohol Consumption Promotes Colorectal Carcinoma Metastasis Via A Ccl5-Induced And Ampk-Pathway-Mediated Activation Of Autophagy, Haodong Zhao, Danlei Chen, Rui Cao, Shiqing Wang, Dandan Yu, Yakun Liu, Yu Jiang, Mei Xu, Jia Luo, Siying Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

There is a definite relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We investigated effect of alcohol consumption on CRC patients’ progression and prognosis by utilizing epidemiological data and found patients with alcohol consumption increased risks of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM), organ metastasis and poorer prognosis. Because their tumor tissues displayed increased expression of C-C chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), we hypothesized CCL5 might participate in cancer progression in such patients. Ethanol increased the secretion of CCL5 in two CRC cell lines, HT29 and DLD-1. Treatment with CCL5 directly increased migratory ability of these cells, whereas neutralization or knockdown of CCL5 can ...


Lost Seasonality And Overconsumption Of Plants: Risking Oxalate Toxicity, Sally K. Norton May 2018

Lost Seasonality And Overconsumption Of Plants: Risking Oxalate Toxicity, Sally K. Norton

Journal of Evolution and Health

In many plants, oxalate crystals are present. These relatively large microcrystals have the potential to inflict mechanical injury. On the other hand, ionic, soluble, and nano-crystal forms of oxalate are readily absorbed. Bioaccumulation in humans is well documented. Crystals and ionic oxalate are associated with pain and both functional and chronic disorders.

Today’s many health challenges have led people to select foods purported to be healthier, many of which are high in oxalate. Modern dietary approaches have placed great emphasis on the health benefits of vegetables, nuts, and spices. Many of these are high oxalate foods that are now ...


Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence May 2018

Pkm2 Influences The Metabolic Fate Of Butyrate In Colorectal Cancer Cells, Megan Louise Pence

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Dietary Habits And Lifestyle In School-Aged Children From Bucharest, Romania, Anca Pantea Stoian, Liliana F. Andronache, Razvan Hainarosie, Dan N. Paduraru, Cristinel D. Badiu, Andreea Arsene, Claudia Mehedintu, Georgiana Ditu, Silviu M. Pituru, Cristina Orlov, Mihaela Oros, Cornelia Nitipir Mar 2018

Dietary Habits And Lifestyle In School-Aged Children From Bucharest, Romania, Anca Pantea Stoian, Liliana F. Andronache, Razvan Hainarosie, Dan N. Paduraru, Cristinel D. Badiu, Andreea Arsene, Claudia Mehedintu, Georgiana Ditu, Silviu M. Pituru, Cristina Orlov, Mihaela Oros, Cornelia Nitipir

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background. This study evaluated the difference between boys and girls in terms of nutritional status, lifestyle, and dietary habits during school life.

Materials and Methods. A descriptive and observational study was conducted in 2016, in which 251 children, aged 7-17, from 3 elementary schools and a high school inBucharest,Romania, were evaluated. A questionnaire was used to assess food behavior, eating, and lifestyle habits.

Results. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (71.18±9) than girls (67.46±9.91) (p=0.004). Thus 27% of boys were overweight or obese compared with only 22% of the girls. Differences ...


Binge Alcohol Exposure Causes Neurobehavioral Deficits And Gsk3Β Activation In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Rats, Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke Feb 2018

Binge Alcohol Exposure Causes Neurobehavioral Deficits And Gsk3Β Activation In The Hippocampus Of Adolescent Rats, Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus. Alcohol also induced neurodegeneration which was confirmed by ultrastructural analysis by electronic microscopy and was accompanied with the activation of microglia. Binge alcohol exposure impaired spatial learning and memory which was evaluated by the Morris ...


Fk506-Binding Protein 12.6/1b, A Negative Regulator Of [Ca2+], Rescues Memory And Restores Genomic Regulation In The Hippocampus Of Aging Rats, John C. Gant, Eric M. Blalock, Kuey-Chu Chen, Inga Kadish, Olivier Thibault, Nada M. Porter, Philip W. Landfield Jan 2018

Fk506-Binding Protein 12.6/1b, A Negative Regulator Of [Ca2+], Rescues Memory And Restores Genomic Regulation In The Hippocampus Of Aging Rats, John C. Gant, Eric M. Blalock, Kuey-Chu Chen, Inga Kadish, Olivier Thibault, Nada M. Porter, Philip W. Landfield

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Hippocampal overexpression of FK506-binding protein 12.6/1b (FKBP1b), a negative regulator of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release, reverses aging-induced memory impairment and neuronal Ca2+ dysregulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that FKBP1b also can protect downstream transcriptional networks from aging-induced dysregulation. We gave hippocampal microinjections of FKBP1b-expressing viral vector to male rats at either 13 months of age (long-term, LT) or 19 months of age (short-term, ST) and tested memory performance in the Morris water maze at 21 months of age. Aged rats treated ST or LT with FKBP1b substantially outperformed age-matched vector controls and performed similarly ...


Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick Jan 2018

Impact Of Bodyweight On Tissue-Specific Folate Status, Genome Wide And Gene-Specific Dna Methylation In Normal Breast Tissues From Premenopausal Women, Armina-Lyn Frederick

Masters Theses

Obesity has reached an epidemic level in the United States. A number of epidemiological studies have established obesity as a critical risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (post-BC), whereas a reverse association holds prior to menopause. A significant scientific gap exists in understanding the mechanism(s) underpinning this epidemiological phenomenon, particularly the reverse association between obesity and premenopausal breast cancer (pre-BC). This study aimed to understand how folate metabolism and DNA methylation informs the association between obesity and pre-BC. Fifty normal breast tissue samples were collected from premenopausal women who underwent reduction mammoplasty. We developed and measured the breast tissue ...


Systematic Review Of The Effects Of Physical Exercise And Nutrition Interventions On Body Composition In Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer., Celia Innerarity Jan 2018

Systematic Review Of The Effects Of Physical Exercise And Nutrition Interventions On Body Composition In Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer., Celia Innerarity

Theses

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women. In metastatic breast cancer, quality of life is essential and directly associated with body composition. This review aims to evaluate the evidence for physical exercise intervention and/or nutrition intervention on body composition in women with metastatic breast cancer. Secondary outcomes of interest are fatigue, quality of life, survival, toxicity, and depression.


Significant Loss Of Blood Amino Acids And Free Carnitine In Newborns Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (Crrt), Uttam Garg, Marita Thompson, Bradley A. Warady, Vimal Chadha Jan 2018

Significant Loss Of Blood Amino Acids And Free Carnitine In Newborns Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (Crrt), Uttam Garg, Marita Thompson, Bradley A. Warady, Vimal Chadha

Posters

Background

•Newborns with acute kidney injury (AKI) or end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) often receive prolonged CRRT when the early initiation of peritoneal dialysis is either contraindicated or unable to be performed. •These patients often receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN) to meet their nutritional goals. •Little to no information exists on the loss of blood amino acids (AA) and carnitine during CRRT in these patients. •The objective of this study was to determine the amino acids and carnitine losses in newborns receiving prolonged CRRT and TPN. Material and Methods

•Three newborns who received prolonged (> 2 weeks) CRRT and TPN were included ...


The Effect Of Polyphenol-Rich Interventions On Cardiovascular Risk Factors In Haemodialysis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysii, Wolfgang Marx, Jaimon Kelly, Skye Marshall, Stacey Nakos, Katrina Campbell, Catherine Itsiopoulos Dec 2017

The Effect Of Polyphenol-Rich Interventions On Cardiovascular Risk Factors In Haemodialysis: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysii, Wolfgang Marx, Jaimon Kelly, Skye Marshall, Stacey Nakos, Katrina Campbell, Catherine Itsiopoulos

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

End-stage kidney disease is a strong risk factor for cardiovascular-specific mortality. Polyphenol-rich interventions may attenuate cardiovascular disease risk factors; however, this has not been systematically evaluated in the hemodialysis population. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the following databases were searched: Cochrane Library (http://www.cochranelibrary.com/), MEDLINE (https://health.ebsco.com/products/medline-with-full-text), Embase (https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/embase-biomedical-research), and CINAHL (https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/cinahl-databases/cinahl-complete). Meta-analyses were conducted for measures of lipid profile, inflammation, oxidative stress, and blood pressure. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration ...


Hydroxyurea Differentially Modulates Activator And Repressors Of Γ-Globin Gene In Erythroblasts Of Responsive And Non-Responsive Patients With Sickle Cell Disease In Correlation With Index Of Hydroxyurea Responsiveness, Xingguo Zhu, Tianxiang Hu, Meng Hsuan Ho, Yongchao Wang, Miao Yu, Niren Patel, Wenhu Pi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Hongyan Xu, Vadivel Ganapathy, Ferdane Kutlar, Abdullah Kutlar, Dorothy Tuan Dec 2017

Hydroxyurea Differentially Modulates Activator And Repressors Of Γ-Globin Gene In Erythroblasts Of Responsive And Non-Responsive Patients With Sickle Cell Disease In Correlation With Index Of Hydroxyurea Responsiveness, Xingguo Zhu, Tianxiang Hu, Meng Hsuan Ho, Yongchao Wang, Miao Yu, Niren Patel, Wenhu Pi, Jeong-Hyeon Choi, Hongyan Xu, Vadivel Ganapathy, Ferdane Kutlar, Abdullah Kutlar, Dorothy Tuan

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Hydroxyurea (HU), the first of two drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), produces anti-sickling effect by re-activating fetal γ-globin gene to enhance production of fetal hemoglobin. However, approximately 30% of the patients do not respond to HU therapy. The molecular basis of non-responsiveness to HU is not clearly understood. To address this question, we examined HU-induced changes in the RNA and protein levels of transcription factors NF-Y, GATA-1, -2, BCL11A, TR4, MYB and NF-E4 that assemble the γ-globin promoter complex and regulate transcription of γ-globin gene. In erythroblasts cultured ...


Alcohol And Cancer Stem Cells, Mei Xu, Jia Luo Nov 2017

Alcohol And Cancer Stem Cells, Mei Xu, Jia Luo

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Heavy alcohol consumption has been associated with increased risk of several cancers, including cancer of the colon, rectum, female breast, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, liver, and esophagus. It appears that alcohol exposure not only promotes carcinogenesis but also enhances the progression and aggressiveness of existing cancers. The molecular mechanisms underlying alcohol tumor promotion, however, remain unclear. Cancer stem cells (CSC), a subpopulation of cancer cells with self-renewal and differentiation capacity, play an important role in tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy resistance. The recent research evidence suggests that alcohol increases the CSC population in cancers, which may underlie alcohol-induced ...


Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Carnitine Supplementation For Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis, Wolfgang Marx, Laisa Teleni, Rachelle S. Opie, Jaimon T Kelly, Skye Marshall, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Elisabeth A Isenring Nov 2017

Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Carnitine Supplementation For Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Systematic Literature Review And Meta-Analysis, Wolfgang Marx, Laisa Teleni, Rachelle S. Opie, Jaimon T Kelly, Skye Marshall, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Elisabeth A Isenring

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Background Carnitine deficiency has been implicated as a potential pathway for cancer-related fatigue that could be treated with carnitine supplementation. The aim of this systematic literature review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the literature regarding the use of supplemental carnitine as a treatment for cancer-related fatigue.
Methods
Using the PRISMA guidelines, an electronic search of the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and reference lists was conducted. Data were extracted and independently assessed for quality using the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics evidence analysis by two reviewers. In studies with positive quality ratings, a meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model ...


Epigenetic Impact Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals On Lipid Homeostasis And Atherosclerosis: A Pregnane X Receptor-Centric View, Robert N. Helsley, Changcheng Zhou Oct 2017

Epigenetic Impact Of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals On Lipid Homeostasis And Atherosclerosis: A Pregnane X Receptor-Centric View, Robert N. Helsley, Changcheng Zhou

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Despite the major advances in developing diagnostic techniques and effective treatments, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. While considerable progress has been achieved to identify gene variations and environmental factors that contribute to CVD, much less is known about the role of “gene–environment interactions” in predisposing individuals to CVD. Our chemical environment has significantly changed in the last few decades, and there are more than 100,000 synthetic chemicals in the market. Recent large-scale human population studies have associated exposure to certain chemicals including many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with increased ...


Deletion Of The Nr4a Nuclear Receptor Nor1 In Hematopoietic Stem Cells Reduces Inflammation But Not Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation, Hua Qing, Karrie L. Jones, Elizabeth B. Heywood, Hong Lu, Alan Daugherty, Dennis Bruemmer Oct 2017

Deletion Of The Nr4a Nuclear Receptor Nor1 In Hematopoietic Stem Cells Reduces Inflammation But Not Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Formation, Hua Qing, Karrie L. Jones, Elizabeth B. Heywood, Hong Lu, Alan Daugherty, Dennis Bruemmer

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background: The NR4A3 orphan nuclear hormone receptor, NOR1, functions as a constitutively active transcription factor to regulate inflammation, proliferation, and cell survival during pathological vascular remodeling. Inflammatory processes represent key mechanisms leading to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation. However, a role of NOR1 in AAA formation has not been investigated previously.

Methods: Inflammatory gene expression was analyzed in bone marrow-derived macrophages isolated from NOR1-deficient mice. Low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (LDLr−/−) mice were irradiated and reconstituted with hematopoietic stem cells obtained from NOR1−/− or wild-type littermate mice. Animals were infused with angiotensin II and fed a diet enriched in saturated fat to ...


Different Effects Of Maternal Low-Isoflavone Soy Protein And Genistein Consumption On Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Of 21-Day-Old Male Rat Offspring., Anna Han, Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon Sep 2017

Different Effects Of Maternal Low-Isoflavone Soy Protein And Genistein Consumption On Hepatic Lipid Metabolism Of 21-Day-Old Male Rat Offspring., Anna Han, Sae Bom Won, Young Hye Kwon

Department of Cancer Biology Faculty Papers

Amino acid composition and isoflavone are alleged contributors to the beneficial effects of soy protein isolate (SPI) on lipid metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the contributing component(s) of SPI in a maternal diet to the regulation of lipid metabolism in offspring. We also determined serum parameters in dams to investigate specific maternal cues that might be responsible for this regulation. Female rats were fed either a casein (CAS), a low-isoflavone SPI, or a casein plus genistein (GEN, 250 mg/kg) diet for two weeks before mating, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring (CAS, SPI and GEN groups ...


The Effect Of A Standardized Ginger Extract On Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality Of Life In Patients Undergoing Moderately Or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial, Wolfgang Marx, Alexandra L Mccarthy, Karin Ried, Dan Mckavanagh, Luis Vitetta, Avni Sali, Anna Lohning, Elisabeth Isenring Aug 2017

The Effect Of A Standardized Ginger Extract On Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea-Related Quality Of Life In Patients Undergoing Moderately Or Highly Emetogenic Chemotherapy: A Double Blind, Randomized, Placebo Controlled Trial, Wolfgang Marx, Alexandra L Mccarthy, Karin Ried, Dan Mckavanagh, Luis Vitetta, Avni Sali, Anna Lohning, Elisabeth Isenring

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

Ginger supplementation could be an effective adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea (CIN). The aim of this clinical trial was to address significant methodological limitations in previous trials. Patients (N = 51) were randomly allocated to receive either 1.2 g of standardised ginger extract or placebo per day, in addition to standard anti-emetic therapy, during the first three cycles of chemotherapy. The primary outcome was CIN-related quality of life (QoL) measured with the Functional Living Index- Emesis (FLIE) questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included acute and delayed nausea, vomiting, and retching as well as cancer-related fatigue, nutritional status, and CIN and vomiting-specific prognostic ...


Optimizing Heart Failure Outcomes Through Diet: A Review, Farley B. Neasman Iii Jul 2017

Optimizing Heart Failure Outcomes Through Diet: A Review, Farley B. Neasman Iii

Marshall Journal of Medicine

Heart failure is a growing epidemic that will add significant monetary and human costs to an already overtaxed health-care system. Though promising new medications have recently been approved, this complex condition is largely preventable through aggressive risk factor modification, with diet being shown to have a greater effect than exercise. An underrated component of a healthy diet is the simple addition of nuts – the anti-inflammatory fatty acids, healthy proteins, and general availability have been shown to improve survival and reduce the primary risk factors contributing to heart failure, making the addition of nuts and legumes to the diet an attractive ...


Changes In Dietary Patterns And Body Composition Within 12 Months Of Liver Transplantation, Mccoy Simone, Katrina Campbell, Annie-Claude Lassemillante, Matthew P. Wallen, Jonathan Fawcett, Maree Jarrett, Graeme A. Macdonald, Ingrid J. Hickman Jun 2017

Changes In Dietary Patterns And Body Composition Within 12 Months Of Liver Transplantation, Mccoy Simone, Katrina Campbell, Annie-Claude Lassemillante, Matthew P. Wallen, Jonathan Fawcett, Maree Jarrett, Graeme A. Macdonald, Ingrid J. Hickman

Katrina Campbell

Background:

Cardiometabolic risk factors are increasing in liver transplant recipients (LTR). Influencing dietary factors have not been assessed. The aim of this observational study was to assess changes in weight, metabolic function, dietary intake and eating behaviours in the first year after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).

Methods:

Consecutive recruitment of 17 patients (14 males) awaiting OLT at a single tertiary hospital. Dietary intake, food behaviours and anthropometry were recorded at baseline, and 6 and 12 months post-transplant.

Results:

By 12 months, patients had gained on average 7.3% of body weight. The prevalence of overweight or obesity increased from baseline ...


Vitamin D Supplementation In Allo-Hsct Patients, Bailey Nelson May 2017

Vitamin D Supplementation In Allo-Hsct Patients, Bailey Nelson

Theses & Dissertations

BACKGROUND: Bone health is a serious concern for long-term survivors of Allo-HSCT due to multiple risk factors including steroids, chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs, and poor nutrition status1. Steroids have been long proven to have negative impact on bone health and the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF) lists steroids as a contributing factor to osteoporosis and fractures. NOF guidelines recommend providing adequate daily vitamin D as a safe and inexpensive way to help reduce fracture risk1. Therefore, proper supplementation of vitamin D may increase the quality of life for patients post Allo-HSCT.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine if Allo-HSCT ...


The Malnutrition Screening Tool In Geriatric Rehabilitation: A Comparison Of Validity When Completed By Health Professionals With And Without Malnutrition Screening Training Has Implications For Practice, Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Elizabeth Isenring May 2017

The Malnutrition Screening Tool In Geriatric Rehabilitation: A Comparison Of Validity When Completed By Health Professionals With And Without Malnutrition Screening Training Has Implications For Practice, Skye Marshall, Adrienne Young, Elizabeth Isenring

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

BACKGROUND:

The validity of the Malnutrition Screening Tool (MST) in geriatric rehabilitation has been evaluated in a research environment but not in professional practice.

OBJECTIVE:

In older adults admitted to rehabilitation, this study was undertaken to compare the MST scoring agreement (inter-rater reliability) between health professionals with and without malnutrition risk and screening training; to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MST completed by the trained and untrained health professionals compared to the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Australian Modification using different MST score cutoffs; and to determine whether patient characteristics were associated with MST scoring accuracy when completed ...


Compliance With Dietary Guidelines Affects Capillary Recruitment In Healthy Middle-Aged Men And Women, Virginia Govoni, Thomas A B Sanders, Dianne P Reidlinger, Julia Darzi, Sarah E E Berry, Louise M Goff, Paul T Seed, Philip J Chowienczyk, Wendy L Hall Apr 2017

Compliance With Dietary Guidelines Affects Capillary Recruitment In Healthy Middle-Aged Men And Women, Virginia Govoni, Thomas A B Sanders, Dianne P Reidlinger, Julia Darzi, Sarah E E Berry, Louise M Goff, Paul T Seed, Philip J Chowienczyk, Wendy L Hall

Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine Publications

PURPOSE:

Healthy microcirculation is important to maintain the health of tissues and organs, most notably the heart, kidney and retina. Single components of the diet such as salt, lipids and polyphenols may influence microcirculation, but the effects of dietary patterns that are consistent with current dietary guidelines are uncertain. It was hypothesized that compliance to UK dietary guidelines would have a favourable effect on skin capillary density/recruitment compared with a traditional British diet (control diet).

METHODS:

A 12-week randomized controlled trial in men and women aged 40-70 years was used to test whether skin microcirculation, measured by skin video-capillaroscopy ...


Clinical Significance Of A False Positive Glucose Challenge Test In Patients With A High Body Mass Index, A Borja, M Moretti, Nisha Lakhi Apr 2017

Clinical Significance Of A False Positive Glucose Challenge Test In Patients With A High Body Mass Index, A Borja, M Moretti, Nisha Lakhi

NYMC Faculty Publications

OBJECTIVE: To determine if there is an increased maternal or neonatal morbidity in overweight and obese patients with a false positive glucose challenge test (GCT). METHODS: Patients with a body mass index (BMI) >/=25.0 at registration were included in this prospective 36-month study. The study cohort consisted of patients with a false positive (FP) GCT, with two comparison cohorts: those with a (1) screen negative (SN) GCT result and (2) true positive (TP) GCT result. Risks were reported as odd ratios with 95% confidence intervals, with a P/=4000 g in the FP cohort, but this fell short of ...


Role Of Cytokines And Chemokines In Alcohol-Induced Tumor Promotion, Danlei Chen, Fengyun Zhang, Haifeng Ren, Jia Luo, Siying Wang Mar 2017

Role Of Cytokines And Chemokines In Alcohol-Induced Tumor Promotion, Danlei Chen, Fengyun Zhang, Haifeng Ren, Jia Luo, Siying Wang

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Excessive chronic alcohol consumption has become a worldwide health problem. The oncogenic effect of chronic alcohol consumption is one of the leading concerns. The mechanisms of alcohol-induced tumorigenesis and tumor progression are largely unknown, although many factors have been implicated in the process. This review discusses the recent progress in this research area with concentration on alcohol-induced dysregulation of cytokines and chemokines. Based on the available evidence, we propose that alcohol promotes tumor progression by the dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine system. In addition, we discuss specific transcription factors and signaling pathways that are involved in the action of these ...


Lactose Intolerance: An Overview Of The Facts And Their Implications, Noelle M. Yeo Mar 2017

Lactose Intolerance: An Overview Of The Facts And Their Implications, Noelle M. Yeo

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Lactose intolerance is often blamed for the symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, gas, abdominal pain, and nausea, that ail many people. Patients often do not seek proper diagnosis from a physician and create their own treatment plans, severely restricting lactose intake, without professional guidance. Even those who do seek the care of a physician find that diagnosis is complicated by less-than ideal testing and confusion due to the symptoms common to many other conditions. The misconceptions and inability to confirm a diagnosis of lactose intolerance can cause nutrient deficiencies in these patients, as well as begin a pattern of unnecessary ...


Mammary Epithelial Polarity And Macrophage Infiltration, Ren Xu Mar 2017

Mammary Epithelial Polarity And Macrophage Infiltration, Ren Xu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Loss of epithelial cell polarity and inflammation are hallmarks of breast cancer development. Although the association between the disruption of tissue polarity and inflammation has been demonstrated, we know little about how these two events are coupled. Using the 3D co-culture model of mammary epithelial cells and monocytes, a recent study reveals a link between disruption of epithelial polarity and monocytes infiltration.


The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine Diguilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast Mar 2017

The Host Microbiome Regulates And Maintains Human Health: A Primer And Perspective For Non-Microbiologists, Sunil Thomas, Jacques Izard, Emily Walsh, Kristen Batich, Pakawat Chongsathidkiet, Gerard Clarke, David A. Sela, Alexander J. Muller, James M. Mullin, Korin Albert, John P. Gilligan, Katherine Diguilio, Rima Dilbarova, Walker Alexander, George P. Prendergast

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

Humans consider themselves discrete autonomous organisms, but recent research is rapidly strengthening the appreciation that associated microorganisms make essential contributions to human health and well being. Each person is inhabited and also surrounded by his/her own signature microbial cloud. A low diversity of microorganisms is associated with a plethora of diseases, including allergy, diabetes, obesity, arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, an interaction of microorganisms with the host immune system is required for a healthy body. Exposure to microorganisms from the moment we are born and appropriate microbiome assembly during childhood are essential for establishing an ...


Dub3 Inhibition Suppresses Breast Cancer Invasion And Metastasis By Promoting Snail1 Degradation, Yadi Wu, Yu Wang, Yiwei Lin, Yajuan Liu, Yifan Wang, Jianhang Jia, Puja Singh, Young-In Chi, Chi Wang, Chenfang Dong, Wei Li, Min Tao, Dana L. Napier, Qiuying Shi, Jiong Deng, B. Mark Evers, Binhua P. Zhou Feb 2017

Dub3 Inhibition Suppresses Breast Cancer Invasion And Metastasis By Promoting Snail1 Degradation, Yadi Wu, Yu Wang, Yiwei Lin, Yajuan Liu, Yifan Wang, Jianhang Jia, Puja Singh, Young-In Chi, Chi Wang, Chenfang Dong, Wei Li, Min Tao, Dana L. Napier, Qiuying Shi, Jiong Deng, B. Mark Evers, Binhua P. Zhou

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Snail1, a key transcription factor of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), is subjected to ubiquitination and degradation, but the mechanism by which Snail1 is stabilized in tumours remains unclear. We identify Dub3 as a bona fide Snail1 deubiquitinase, which interacts with and stabilizes Snail1. Dub3 is overexpressed in breast cancer; knockdown of Dub3 resulted in Snail1 destabilization, suppressed EMT and decreased tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. These effects are rescued by ectopic Snail1 expression. IL-6 also stabilizes Snail1 by inducing Dub3 expression, the specific inhibitor WP1130 binds to Dub3 and inhibits the Dub3-mediating Snail1 stabilization in vitroand in vivo ...