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Full-Text Articles in Medical Nutrition

The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo May 2020

The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo

Senior Honors Projects

Stress is something that everyone faces in their lifetime and has an everlasting impact on their health. College students face high levels of stress throughout the semester, but how is that impacting their behavior? I conducted a survey alongside Dr. Melanson, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, to see just how college students are reacting to stress. The survey was circulated to different departments and classes to achieve a widespread collection of data. The survey remained completely anonymous and posed questions about eating, exercise, and sleep habits, along with questions on demographics and stress levels. Our ...


The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton Apr 2020

The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Over the millennia, the human body and microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and parasites have coevolved together forming an intimate relationship. These microorganisms are found on the skin, in the mouth, genitourinary tract and most abundantly in the large intestine of the digestive tract. States of microbial dysbiosis contribute to chronic inflammation, which can lead to the pathogenesis and progression of numerous diseases. Micro- and macro-nutrients as well as dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet can help improve health outcomes.


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp Apr 2020

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Apple Cider Vinegar Weight Loss Drinks On Pinterest, Sydney Chamberlain, Jana Mitchell, Davis Major, Lena Elimam, Cassandra Cleland Apr 2020

Apple Cider Vinegar Weight Loss Drinks On Pinterest, Sydney Chamberlain, Jana Mitchell, Davis Major, Lena Elimam, Cassandra Cleland

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Background: More than a third of adults in the U.S. are currently trying to lose weight. Social media, specifically Pinterest with more than 322 million users, has changed the way people seek health information specifically weight loss. Apple cider vinegar has shown great promise for weight loss in controlled lab settings, yet these claims are widely shared on social media and may not yield the same benefits.

Purpose: This study used directed content analysis to examine how apple cider vinegar weight loss drinks were portrayed on Pinterest, a social media website used to bookmark online content. Methods: Using the ...


Compassion And Suppression In Caregivers: Twin Masks Of Tragedy And Joy Of Caring, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Sean M. Mcnabney, Fabio Frisone, Federica Sicari, Mihai Paunica, Catalina Motofei, Salvatore Settineri Apr 2020

Compassion And Suppression In Caregivers: Twin Masks Of Tragedy And Joy Of Caring, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Sean M. Mcnabney, Fabio Frisone, Federica Sicari, Mihai Paunica, Catalina Motofei, Salvatore Settineri

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background: Compassionate caregiving is a critical skill for workers among the helping professions, but the degree of empathy required by caregivers can place high demands on their mental and emotional resources. While many professionals employ successful coping strategies to mitigate these stressors, others experience compassion fatigue or burnout from emotional exhaustion. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationships between caregivers’ demographic/career variables, compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and psychodynamic defense mechanisms such as suppression, repressive function, regression in the service of the Ego, and rationalization. Methods: Participants were 250 caregivers with 178 (71,2%) women and 72 ...


Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil Apr 2020

Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil

Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Prediction of energy expenditure allows for calculation of appropriate energy requirements, which is especially important for athletes. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the greatest contributor to total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and is typically measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry is not always available, which results in the need for predictive equations. Most predictive equations have been developed with participants resembling the general population and have not been found to be appropriate for athletes, as they may incorrectly predict RMR due to the unique differences of body composition between athletes and the general population. The purpose of the present study ...


Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik Apr 2020

Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Adverse maternal environment (AME) and high-fat diet in early childhood increase the risk of cognitive impairment and depression later in life. Cognitive impairment associates with hippocampal dysfunction. A key regulator of hippocampal function is the glucocorticoid receptor. Increased hippocampal GR expression associates with cognitive impairment and depression. Transcriptional control of GR relies in part upon the DNA methylation status at multiple alternative initiation sites that are tissue specific, with exon 1.7 being hippocampal specific. Increased exon 1.7 expression associates with upregulated hippocampal GR expression in early life stress animal models. However, the effects of AME combined with postweaning ...


Management Of Childhood Migraine By Headache Specialist Versus Non-Headache Specialists, Kelly Valentini, Radhika Gutta, Gunjanpreet Kaur, Ahmad Farooqi, Lalitha Sivaswamy Mar 2020

Management Of Childhood Migraine By Headache Specialist Versus Non-Headache Specialists, Kelly Valentini, Radhika Gutta, Gunjanpreet Kaur, Ahmad Farooqi, Lalitha Sivaswamy

Medical Student Research Symposium

This study aims to compare the management practices of a headache specialist with non-headache specialists in the treatment of pediatric migraine. The use of appropriate rescue medications and prophylactic agents, application of neuro-imaging, and short-term outcomes are compared in children treated by the two groups of physicians. A retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing the electronic medical records of children 3-18 years of age with migraine, who were evaluated at a tertiary care children’s hospital from 2016-2018. Of the 849 patients that met the study criteria, 469 were classified as having chronic migraine or high-frequency episodic migraine and were ...


Potential Use Of Biotherapeutic Bacteria To Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa, Gareth Lawrence, Maire Begley, Paul D. Cotter, Caitríona M. Guinane Jan 2020

Potential Use Of Biotherapeutic Bacteria To Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa, Gareth Lawrence, Maire Begley, Paul D. Cotter, Caitríona M. Guinane

Dept. of Biological Sciences Publications

The role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the focus of much attention. It has been widely agreed upon that our gut bacteria play a role in host immunity, nutrient absorption, digestion, metabolism, and other key drivers of health. Furthermore, certain microbial signatures and specific taxa have also been associated with the development of diseases, such as obesity; inflammatory bowel disease; and, indeed, colorectal cancer (CRC), which is the focus of this review. By extension, such taxa represent potential therapeutic targets. In particular, the emerging human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum represents an important agent in CRC development ...


Assessment Of Physical Fitness After Bariatric Surgery And Its Association With Protein Intake And Type Of Cholecalciferol Supplementation, Hendrika J M Smelt, Sjaak Pouwels, Alper Celik, Adarsh Gupta, Johannes F Smulders Jun 2019

Assessment Of Physical Fitness After Bariatric Surgery And Its Association With Protein Intake And Type Of Cholecalciferol Supplementation, Hendrika J M Smelt, Sjaak Pouwels, Alper Celik, Adarsh Gupta, Johannes F Smulders

School of Osteopathic Medicine Faculty Scholarship

Background: Several studies showed that there is a relationship between vitamin and mineral status and muscle strength. In particular this is the case for handgrip strength (HS) and vitamin D deficiency. In bariatric surgery there is a risk of decrease in muscle strength after surgery and also vitamin and mineral deficiencies are not uncommon. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of low vitamin 25 (OH) cholecalciferol levels, high dose cholecalciferol supplementation regime and protein intake on physical fitness, measured using handgrip strength (HS) and the shuttle walk run test (SWRT). Methods: For this retrospective study, 100 ...


Whole Genome Metagenomic Analysis Of The Gut Microbiome Of Differently Fed Infants Identifies Differences In Microbial Composition And Functional Genes, Including An Absent Crispr/Cas9 Gene In The Formula-Fed Cohort, Matthew D. Di Guglielmo, Karl Franke, Courtney Cox, Erin L. Crowgey Jun 2019

Whole Genome Metagenomic Analysis Of The Gut Microbiome Of Differently Fed Infants Identifies Differences In Microbial Composition And Functional Genes, Including An Absent Crispr/Cas9 Gene In The Formula-Fed Cohort, Matthew D. Di Guglielmo, Karl Franke, Courtney Cox, Erin L. Crowgey

Department of Pediatrics Faculty Papers

Background: Advancements in sequencing capabilities have enhanced the study of the human microbiome. There are limited studies focused on the gastro-intestinal (gut) microbiome of infants, particularly the impact of diet between breast-fed (BF) versus formula-fed (FF). It is unclear what effect, if any, early feeding has on short- term or long-term composition and function of the gut microbiome.

Results: Using a shotgun metagenomics approach, differences in the gut microbiome between BF (n = 10) and FF (n = 5) infants were detected. A Jaccard distance principle coordinate analysis was able to cluster BF versus FF infants based on the presence or absence ...


Optimizing Clinical And Cost Outcomes For Patients On Enteral Nutrition Support For Treatment Of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Proceedings From An Expert Advisory Board Meeting, Joseph I. Boullata, Janice L. Clarke, Archie Stone, Alexis Skoufalos, David B. Nash Jun 2019

Optimizing Clinical And Cost Outcomes For Patients On Enteral Nutrition Support For Treatment Of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Proceedings From An Expert Advisory Board Meeting, Joseph I. Boullata, Janice L. Clarke, Archie Stone, Alexis Skoufalos, David B. Nash

College of Population Health Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Rising Rural Body-Mass Index Is The Main Driver Of The Global Obesity Epidemic In Adults, Con Burns, Tara Coppinger, Janette Walton, Et Al May 2019

Rising Rural Body-Mass Index Is The Main Driver Of The Global Obesity Epidemic In Adults, Con Burns, Tara Coppinger, Janette Walton, Et Al

Dept. of Sports, Leisure & Early Childhood Studies Publications

Body-mass index (BMI) has increased steadily in most countries in parallel with a rise in the proportion of the population who live in cities1,2. This has led to a widely reported view that urbanization is one of the most important drivers of the global rise in obesity3,4,5,6. Here we use 2,009 population-based studies, with measurements of height and weight in more than 112 million adults, to report national, regional and global trends in mean BMI segregated by place of residence (a rural or urban area) from 1985 to 2017. We show that, contrary ...


Aortoduodenal Fistula Forms From Primary Aortic Stump Graft In A Two-Time Multi-Visceral Transplant Patient With Presentation Of Gastrointestinal Bleed And Bowel Perforation: A Case Report, Brielle Corrente Apr 2019

Aortoduodenal Fistula Forms From Primary Aortic Stump Graft In A Two-Time Multi-Visceral Transplant Patient With Presentation Of Gastrointestinal Bleed And Bowel Perforation: A Case Report, Brielle Corrente

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Usually not diagnosed until open laparotomy, aortoduodenalfistulas (ADF) are one of the rarest complications of intestinal transplant surgery. With an incidence rate of only 0.04% at autopsy and only 250 documented cases since the early 1800’s, aortoduodenal fistulas are the most deadly complications of intestinal transplantation with a mortality rate of 100% without surgical intervention. A 39 year old, two-time multi-visceral transplant African American female patient suffered from a primary aortoduodenal fistula formation in a primary modified multi-visceral transplant aortic stump graft site. With emergency open laparotomy repair, revascularization of the secondary multi-visceral transplant was performed, saving the ...


Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis Associated With Initiation Of A Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet., Sijan Basnet, Niranjan Tachamo, Salik Nazir, Rashmi Dhital, Asad Jehangir, Anthony Donato Apr 2019

Severe Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis Associated With Initiation Of A Very Low-Carbohydrate Diet., Sijan Basnet, Niranjan Tachamo, Salik Nazir, Rashmi Dhital, Asad Jehangir, Anthony Donato

Reading Hospital Internal Medicine Residency

Low carbohydrate diets have been popularized as an effective solution for weight loss. Although rare, life-threatening anion gap metabolic acidosis has been reported in patients on these diets. We present a case of a 31-year-old man with atypical symptoms of chest pain and shortness of breath found to have severe metabolic acidosis after starting low carbohydrate diet for a week.


The Pharmabiotic For Phenylketonuria: Development Of A Novel Therapeutic, Chloé Elizabeth Lebegue Apr 2019

The Pharmabiotic For Phenylketonuria: Development Of A Novel Therapeutic, Chloé Elizabeth Lebegue

Senior Theses

Phenylketonuria, now known as phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency, is a genetic disorder of metabolism affecting approximately one in every 15,000 infants born in the United States. Patients have nonfunctional PAH enzyme secondary to one or more genetic mutations. The enzyme deficit results in destructive supraphysiologic blood phenylalanine levels upon consumption of the essential dietary amino acid phenylalanine. Current standards of care mitigate signs and symptoms of the disorder, but do not approach a cure. The methods for creating a prototype pharmabiotic as an innovative treatment strategy for PAH deficiency are described herein.

DNA molecular cloning techniques were utilized to ...


Saturated Fatty Acid Activates T Cell Inflammation Through A Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase (Nnt)-Dependent Mechanism, Grace Mccambridge, Madhur Agrawal, Alanna Keady, Philip A. Kern, Hatice Hasturk, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Leena P. Bharath Feb 2019

Saturated Fatty Acid Activates T Cell Inflammation Through A Nicotinamide Nucleotide Transhydrogenase (Nnt)-Dependent Mechanism, Grace Mccambridge, Madhur Agrawal, Alanna Keady, Philip A. Kern, Hatice Hasturk, Barbara S. Nikolajczyk, Leena P. Bharath

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Circulating fatty acids (FAs) increase with obesity and can drive mitochondrial damage and inflammation. Nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT) is a mitochondrial protein that positively regulates nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), a key mediator of energy transduction and redox homeostasis. The role that NNT-regulated bioenergetics play in the inflammatory response of immune cells in obesity is untested. Our objective was to determine how free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate inflammation through impacts on mitochondria and redox homeostasis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs from lean subjects were activated with a T cell-specific stimulus in the presence or absence of generally pro-inflammatory ...


A Paleolithic Diet Lowers Resistant Starch Intake But Does Not Affect Serum Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Concentrations In Healthy Women, Angela Genoni, Johnny Lo, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Mary C. Boyce, Claus T. Christophersen, Anthony Bird, Amanda Devine Feb 2019

A Paleolithic Diet Lowers Resistant Starch Intake But Does Not Affect Serum Trimethylamine-N-Oxide Concentrations In Healthy Women, Angela Genoni, Johnny Lo, Philippa Lyons-Wall, Mary C. Boyce, Claus T. Christophersen, Anthony Bird, Amanda Devine

ECU Publications Post 2013

The Paleolithic diet excludes two major sources of fibre, grains and legumes. However, it is not known whether this results in changes to resistant starch (RS) consumption. Serum trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced mainly from colonic fermentation and hepatic conversion of animal protein and is implicated in CVD, but changes in RS intake may alter concentrations. We aimed to determine whether intake of RS and serum concentrations of TMAO varied in response to either the Paleolithic or the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) diets and whether this was related to changes in food group consumption. A total of thirty-nine women ...


Interplay Between Genetic Predisposition And Diet In Advancing Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes In The Tallyho Mouse, Jacaline Parkman Jan 2019

Interplay Between Genetic Predisposition And Diet In Advancing Obesity And Type 2 Diabetes In The Tallyho Mouse, Jacaline Parkman

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Obesity is a global epidemic, affecting all ages. It is one of the leading causes of preventable death, as it increases the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and some cancers. Obesity is a complex disease that is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors such as diets high in fat and sedentary life style. Despite our increased knowledge of obesity development and progression, current obesity treatments have not stopped the rise in obesity rates. There are still many unknowns related to the underlying mechanisms of obesity that need to be ...


The Effect Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption On Sodium-Dependent Nutrient Co-Transport In Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro And In Vivo, Molly Rae Butts Jan 2019

The Effect Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption On Sodium-Dependent Nutrient Co-Transport In Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro And In Vivo, Molly Rae Butts

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Background: Alcohol consumption leads to a variety of different health consequences including cardiovascular disease, cancer and malnutrition. This malnutrition is in part due to a sub-optimal diet but also due to the malabsorption of nutrients along the small intestine. Many studies have shown that ethanol directly decreases nutrient absorption along the small intestine; however, few studies have investigated the effect of a moderate dose of ethanol on the transmembrane nutrient co-transporters that line the brush border membrane of the small intestine. The primary fuel source for the small intestine, glutamine, as well as for the entire body, glucose, are absorbed ...


Metabolism Reprogramming In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Human Lung Carcinogenesis, James Tate Fortin Wise Jan 2019

Metabolism Reprogramming In Hexavalent Chromium-Induced Human Lung Carcinogenesis, James Tate Fortin Wise

Theses and Dissertations--Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences

Hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), is an established human carcinogen that is a worldwide environmental health concern. It is well understood that reactive oxygen species, genomic instability, and DNA damage repair deficiency are important contributors to Cr(VI)-induced carcinogenesis. After decades of research some cancer hallmarks remain understudied for the mechanism of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis. Dysregulated cellular energetics have been established as a hallmark of cancer. Energy pathways that become dysregulated in cancer include mitochondrial respiration, lipogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, one carbon metabolism, and increased anaerobic glycolysis in the presence of oxygen or ‘Warburg effect’.

To investigate metabolism changes in ...


Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Regulate Mammary Tumor Growth And Metastasis By Modulating Tissue Microenvironments, Saraswoti Khadge Dec 2018

Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Regulate Mammary Tumor Growth And Metastasis By Modulating Tissue Microenvironments, Saraswoti Khadge

Theses & Dissertations

Omega (ω)-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential fatty acids (FAs) and the precursors of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators respectively. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of breast cancer (BC) in the countries where long-chain (LC)-ω-3FAs consumption is higher; however, the role of ω-3FAs in BC growth and metastasis is poorly understood. We used isocaloric, isolipidic ω-6 and ω-3 (contains LC-ω-3FAs) diets and a pair-fed model to evaluate the effects of dietary PUFAs in mammary tumor metastasis. Our studies have resulted in several novel observations including that dietary LC-ω-3FAs modulate mammary gland (MG) microenvironments in ...


Early Oral Feeding After Bowel Resection, Jennifer Strang Dec 2018

Early Oral Feeding After Bowel Resection, Jennifer Strang

Theses & Dissertations

Research Focus: The primary purpose of this project was to determine if there was an association of factors with time to first solid meal in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery patients and the impact solid diet has on length of stay (LOS) in the hospital, GI symptoms, and incidence of post-operative ileus (POI). A secondary purpose was to observe and describe when an oral diet was started and the progression of diet after GI surgery.

Research Methods: This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective chart review of a convenience sample in a multi-centered hospital system conducted in 84 GI resection patients who were ...


Determining What Growers Need To Comply With The Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Arlene E. Enderton, Angela M. Shaw, Bridget J. Perry, Jacques Overdiep, Linda Naeve Dec 2018

Determining What Growers Need To Comply With The Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule, Catherine H. Strohbehn, Arlene E. Enderton, Angela M. Shaw, Bridget J. Perry, Jacques Overdiep, Linda Naeve

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Extension educators have been enlisted to assist farmers in meeting requirements of the Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule (PSR). Although food safety is a familiar topic for Extension educators, helping farmers learn how to prepare for PSR regulations is new. In this article, we describe a needs assessment conducted in the north central United States according to a modified Delphi approach. Results revealed unique characteristics of farmers in the region, least understood components of the PSR, preferences regarding educational tools, and the need for materials for varied audiences. Our process can be adapted for the purpose of determining ...


Isobavachalcone Sensitizes Cells To E2-Induced Paclitaxel Resistance By Down-Regulating Cd44 Expression In Er+ Breast Cancer Cells, Junfeng Shi, Yi Chen, Wenxing Chen, Cuiju Tang, Honghong Zhang, Yuetong Chen, Xiuwei H. Yang, Zhi Xu, Jingsun Wei, Jinfei Chen Nov 2018

Isobavachalcone Sensitizes Cells To E2-Induced Paclitaxel Resistance By Down-Regulating Cd44 Expression In Er+ Breast Cancer Cells, Junfeng Shi, Yi Chen, Wenxing Chen, Cuiju Tang, Honghong Zhang, Yuetong Chen, Xiuwei H. Yang, Zhi Xu, Jingsun Wei, Jinfei Chen

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Oestrogen receptor (ER) is expressed in approximately 60%‐70% of human breast cancer. Clinical trials and retrospective analyses have shown that ER‐positive (ER+) tumours are more tolerant to chemotherapeutic drug resistance than ER‐negative (ER−) tumours. In addition, isobavachalcone (IBC) is known as a kind of phytoestrogen with antitumour effect. However, the underlying mechanism of IBC in ER+ breast cancer needs to be elucidated further. Our in vitro experiments showed that IBC could attenuate 17β‐estradiol (E2)‐induced paclitaxel resistance and that E2 could stimulate CD44 expression in ER+ breast cancer cells but not in ER− cells ...


The Evidence For The Benefits From Breast Milk In The Neurodevelopment Of Premature Babies – A Review Of The Recent Literature, Danuta Iulia Paduraru Oct 2018

The Evidence For The Benefits From Breast Milk In The Neurodevelopment Of Premature Babies – A Review Of The Recent Literature, Danuta Iulia Paduraru

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. The brain in preterm babies is usually not fully developed and therefore early post-term events can have long-lasting neurodevelopment and cognitive outcomes. It is known that cerebral white matter connectivity is important for later intact cognitive functioning amongst children born very preterm and that breast milk imparts neurotrophic factors. The relationship between breastfeeding and child development is a long and well-studied area, and the evidence in support of breast milk is already substantial. Here we review the recent literature on the topic to establish whether additional evidence is available to strengthen the view that breast milk is superior in ...


Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walter Sep 2018

Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walter

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The factors that govern assembly of the gut microbiota are insufficiently understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that inter-individual microbiota variation can arise solely from differences in the order and timing by which the gut is colonized early in life. Experiments in which mice were inoculated in sequence either with two complex seed communities or a cocktail of four bacterial strains and a seed community revealed that colonization order influenced both the outcome of community assembly and the ecological success of individual colonizers. Historical contingency and priority effects also occurred in Rag1-/- mice, suggesting that the adaptive immune system is ...


Myocyte [Na+]I Dysregulation In Heart Failure And Diabetic Cardiomyopathy, Sanda Despa Sep 2018

Myocyte [Na+]I Dysregulation In Heart Failure And Diabetic Cardiomyopathy, Sanda Despa

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

By controlling the function of various sarcolemmal and mitochondrial ion transporters, intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) regulates Ca2+ cycling, electrical activity, the matching of energy supply and demand, and oxidative stress in cardiac myocytes. Thus, maintenance of myocyte Na+ homeostasis is vital for preserving the electrical and contractile activity of the heart. [Na+]i is set by the balance between the passive Na+ entry through numerous pathways and the pumping of Na+ out of the cell by the Na+/K+-ATPase. This equilibrium is perturbed in heart failure, resulting in higher [Na+]i. More recent studies have revealed that ...


Clean Up On Aisle 1: Food Environments In San Francisco’S Mission District, Diana Zamora Aug 2018

Clean Up On Aisle 1: Food Environments In San Francisco’S Mission District, Diana Zamora

Master's Projects and Capstones

Introduction: Underserved communities suffer from poor dietary habits and experience higher rates of chronic conditions mainly due to factors affecting their nutrition and grocery shopping behaviors. Method: A nutritional needs assessment was conducted with participants of the Community Wellness Program, a community resource center, at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital, to assess the perspectives of the participant’s nutrition and grocery shopping behaviors. Interviews were conducted with current members attending cooking demonstrations at the center (n=10). Results: 50% of the participants have struggled to purchase fresh, healthy foods in the past year. Half of the participants stated shopping for ...


Neuroimaging Biomarkers Of Mtor Inhibition On Vascular And Metabolic Functions In Aging Brain And Alzheimer’S Disease, Jennifer Lee, Lucille M. Yanckello, David Ma, Jared D. Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Scott Thalman, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Fahmeed Hyder, Ai-Ling Lin Jul 2018

Neuroimaging Biomarkers Of Mtor Inhibition On Vascular And Metabolic Functions In Aging Brain And Alzheimer’S Disease, Jennifer Lee, Lucille M. Yanckello, David Ma, Jared D. Hoffman, Ishita Parikh, Scott Thalman, Bjoern Bauer, Anika M. S. Hartz, Fahmeed Hyder, Ai-Ling Lin

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a nutrient sensor of eukaryotic cells. Inhibition of mechanistic mTOR signaling can increase life and health span in various species via interventions that include rapamycin and caloric restriction (CR). In the central nervous system, mTOR inhibition demonstrates neuroprotective patterns in aging and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by preserving mitochondrial function and reducing amyloid beta retention. However, the effects of mTOR inhibition for in vivo brain physiology remain largely unknown. Here, we review recent findings of in vivo metabolic and vascular measures using non-invasive, multimodal neuroimaging methods in rodent models for brain aging and ...