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Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology Commons

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Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals, is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases in later life. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. In this thesis, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on fetal lung development, and define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA were administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to 18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure ...


Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease which results from a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Patients with Pompe disease develop intra-lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, CNS and smooth muscle.

Pulmonary dysfunction is a hallmark of Pompe disease and has classically been attributed to muscle weakness and CNS neuropathology. However, the potential role of respiratory smooth muscles in the respiratory pathology is unknown. Therefore we postulated that GAA deficiency results in airway smooth muscle glycogen accumulation that leads to airway smooth muscle dysfunction.

Using the Pompe mouse model ...


Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long 2016 College Scholars Program

Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Exogenous Ubiquitin On Processes Associated With Atherosclerosis, Chase W. Mussard 2016 East Tennessee State University

In Vitro Investigation Of The Effect Of Exogenous Ubiquitin On Processes Associated With Atherosclerosis, Chase W. Mussard

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Atherosclerosis, characterized by the build-up of cholesterol, immune cells and cellular debris within arterial walls, is accelerated following myocardial infarction by poorly understood mechanisms. Ubiquitin, a small, well-studied intracellular protein involved in protein turnover via the proteasome pathway, has recently been shown to exert extracellular effects on cardiac myocytes, in vitro, and in mice undergoing myocardial remodeling. This study investigates the potential role of extracellular ubiquitin in atherosclerosis by determining its effects on two critical atherosclerotic processes: the migration of vascular smooth muscles cells and the uptake of modified LDL by monocyte/macrophages in foam cell formation. In the presence ...


Effects Of Resistance Training On Vascular Function In Middle-Aged Women., Benjamin A. Kantura II, Yu LunTai, Curtis Fennel, J. Derek Kingsley Ph.D. 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Effects Of Resistance Training On Vascular Function In Middle-Aged Women., Benjamin A. Kantura Ii, Yu Luntai, Curtis Fennel, J. Derek Kingsley Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Effects of resistance training on vascular function in middle-aged women.

Ben Kantura, Yu Lun Tai, Curtis Fennell, & J. Derek Kingsley

PROBLEM: Aging is associated with increases in peripheral and central aortic blood pressure (BP) due to declines in vascular health. Researchers have suggested that resistance training (RT) may improve vascular function in older adults, but the data in middle-aged women are lacking. METHODS: Sixteen young (mean±SD; Age: 21±2 yrs; BMI: 24.1±3.8kg/m2) and thirty-two middle-aged (Age: 50±11 yrs; BMI: 30.1±5.9kg/m2) women volunteered for the study. The middle-aged women underwent 12-weeks of RT using 9 different exercises, 2 times per week, using 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions beginning at 50-60% 1 repetition maximum. Pulse wave reflection characteristics were evaluated using applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Before RT the young women had lower brachial diastolic blood pressure (BP) (YW: 72±8mmHg; MW ...


Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore 2015 University of Dayton

Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore

C. Jayne Brahler

Over-fatness and poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness are well-documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but less is known about their association with disease risk in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationship between anthropometrics, fitness, and CVD risk.

Six anthropometric indicators of body fatness, seven measures of fitness, and seven metabolic and hemodynamic CVD risk factors were measured in a convenience sample of 28 female high school students (15-18 years of age). A tally was made of the number of factors for which each subject was outside the normal reference range (CVD risk).

Correlation analyses were completed ...


Interaction Of Alu Polymorphisms And Novel Measures Of Discrimination In Association With Blood Pressure In African Americans Living In Tallahassee, Alexis C. Boulter, Jackyn Quinlan, Aida T. Miró-Herrans, Laurel N. Pearson, Nubiana L. Todd, Clarence C. Gravlee, Connie J. Mulligan 2015 University of Florida

Interaction Of Alu Polymorphisms And Novel Measures Of Discrimination In Association With Blood Pressure In African Americans Living In Tallahassee, Alexis C. Boulter, Jackyn Quinlan, Aida T. Miró-Herrans, Laurel N. Pearson, Nubiana L. Todd, Clarence C. Gravlee, Connie J. Mulligan

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

African Americans are 40% more likely to be afflicted with hypertension in comparison to non-Hispanic, white Americans, resulting in a 30% higher instance of mortality due to cardiovascular disease. There is debate about the relative contributions of genetic and sociocultural risk factors to the racial disparity in hypertension.

We assayed three Alu insertion polymorphisms located in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE), tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT), and with no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) genes. We also estimated West African genetic ancestry and developed novel measures of perceived discrimination to create a biocultural model of blood pressure among African- American adults in Tallahassee, FL ...


Cardiovascular Regulation And Effects Of Respiratory Motor Training In Patients With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Bonnie Legg Ditterline 2015 University of Louisville

Cardiovascular Regulation And Effects Of Respiratory Motor Training In Patients With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Bonnie Legg Ditterline

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation attempts to discover the mechanisms between cardiovascular and respiratory motor control post spinal cord injury (SCI): in normal, non-injured (NI) persons, cardiovascular regulation is dependent upon respiration, but there is nothing that suggests the mechanism for this relationship post-SCI. Thus we hoped to evaluate various aspects of cardiovascular regulation to further illustrate how this relationship is changed or unchanged by SCI. Chapter I describes the anatomy and physiology of the spine, respiratory system, and cardiovascular system in a NI person, and then describes how the function of these systems is changed by SCI. In addition, we describe therapies ...


Gadolinium Free Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance With 2-Point Cine Balanced Steady State Free Precession, Tori A. Stromp, Steve W. Leung, Kristin N Andres, Linyuan Jing, Brandon K. Fornwalt, Richard Charnigo, Vincent L. Sorrell, Moriel H. Vandsburger 2015 University of Kentucky

Gadolinium Free Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance With 2-Point Cine Balanced Steady State Free Precession, Tori A. Stromp, Steve W. Leung, Kristin N Andres, Linyuan Jing, Brandon K. Fornwalt, Richard Charnigo, Vincent L. Sorrell, Moriel H. Vandsburger

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of ventricular structure and function is widely performed using cine balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) MRI. The bSSFP signal of myocardium is weighted by magnetization transfer (MT) and T1/T2-relaxation times. In edematous and fibrotic tissues, increased T2 and reduced MT lead to increased signal intensity on images acquired with high excitation flip angles. We hypothesized that acquisition of two differentially MT-weighted bSSFP images (termed 2-point bSSFP) can identify tissue that would enhance with gadolinium similar to standard of care late gadolinium enhancement (LGE).

METHODS: Cine bSSFP images (flip angles of 5° and 45 ...


Hyperpolarized 129xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury, Ozkan Doganay 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Hyperpolarized 129xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury, Ozkan Doganay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lung cancer is the largest contributor to cancer-related mortality worldwide. Only 20% of stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients survive after 5-years post radiation therapy (RT). Although RT is an important treatment modality for lung cancer, it is limited by Radiation-Induced Lung Injury (RILI). RILI develops in two phases: (i) the early phase (days-weeks) referred to radiation pneumonitis (RP), and (ii) the late phase (months). There is a strong interest in early detection of RP using imaging to improve outcomes of RT for lung cancer. This thesis describes a promising approach based on 129Xe gas as a contrast ...


Effects Of Adipocyte Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency On Pcb-Induced Disruption Of Glucose Homeostasis In Lean And Obese Mice, Nicki A. Baker, Robin Shoemaker, Victoria English, Nika Larian, Manjula Sunkara, Andrew J. Morris, Mary Walker, Frederique Yiannikouris, Lisa A. Cassis 2015 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Adipocyte Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency On Pcb-Induced Disruption Of Glucose Homeostasis In Lean And Obese Mice, Nicki A. Baker, Robin Shoemaker, Victoria English, Nika Larian, Manjula Sunkara, Andrew J. Morris, Mary Walker, Frederique Yiannikouris, Lisa A. Cassis

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote adipocyte inflammation and impair glucose homeostasis in lean mice. The diabetes-promoting effects of lipophilic PCBs have been observed only during weight loss in obese mice. The molecular mechanisms linking PCB exposures to impaired glucose metabolism are unclear.

OBJECTIVES: In this study we tested the hypothesis that coplanar PCBs act at adipocyte aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) to promote adipose inflammation and impair glucose homeostasis in lean mice and in obese mice during weight loss.

METHODS AND RESULTS: PCB-77 administration impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in LF (low fat diet)-fed control (AhRfl/fl) mice ...


Engaging General Practitioners In Public–Private Mix Tuberculosis Dots Program In An Urban Area In Pakistan Need For Context-Specific Approach, Amin Pethani, Mubashir Zafar, Adeel Khan, Unaib Sana, Sana Ahmed, Zafar Fatmi 2015 Aga Khan University

Engaging General Practitioners In Public–Private Mix Tuberculosis Dots Program In An Urban Area In Pakistan Need For Context-Specific Approach, Amin Pethani, Mubashir Zafar, Adeel Khan, Unaib Sana, Sana Ahmed, Zafar Fatmi

Zafar Fatmi

A public–private mix tuberculosis (TB) DOTS project was implemented to enhance coverage and collaboration between the public and private sectors, with an objective to increase case detection and to improve TB case management in a large urban area. General practitioners (GPs) were trained to provide DOTS services. Patients were diagnosed and treated as per national guidelines and outcomes were reported to national TB control program. Treatment and sputum microscopy were provided free of cost. A total of 94 GPs were trained. In all, 57.4% of trained GPs remained actively involved in the project. Overall treatment success rate of ...


Indoor Air Pollution (Pm2.5) Due To Secondhand Smoke In Selected Hospitality And Entertainment Venues Of Karachi, Pakistan, Asaad Nafees, Tahir Taj, Muhammad Kadir, Zafar Fatmi, Kiyoung Lee, Nalini Sathiakumar 2015 Aga Khan University

Indoor Air Pollution (Pm2.5) Due To Secondhand Smoke In Selected Hospitality And Entertainment Venues Of Karachi, Pakistan, Asaad Nafees, Tahir Taj, Muhammad Kadir, Zafar Fatmi, Kiyoung Lee, Nalini Sathiakumar

Zafar Fatmi

Objective : To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods : This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and cafés) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM2.5 levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. Results : All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM2.5 levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM2.5 levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m3 and the outdoor ...


Pattern And Predictors For Respiratory Illnesses And Symptoms And Lung Function Among Textile Workers In Karachi, Pakistan, Asaad Nafees, Zafar Fatmi, Muhammad Kadir, Nalini Sathiakumar 2015 Aga Khan University

Pattern And Predictors For Respiratory Illnesses And Symptoms And Lung Function Among Textile Workers In Karachi, Pakistan, Asaad Nafees, Zafar Fatmi, Muhammad Kadir, Nalini Sathiakumar

Zafar Fatmi

Objectives : To determine pattern and predictors for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and lung function among textile workers in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods : This was a cross-sectional survey of 372 adult male textile workers from the spinning and weaving sections of 15 textile mills from Karachi. Data were collected from November to December 2009 through a structured, pretested questionnaire and spirometry. Results : Prevalence of byssinosis was 10.5%, chronic cough 7.5%, chronic phlegm 12.9%, wheeze with shortness of breath 22.3%, shortness of breath (grade 2) 21%, chest tightness ever 33.3%; whereas, a low prevalence of asthma (4%) was ...


Left Ventricular Mechanical Dysfunction In Diet-Induced Obese Mice Is Exacerbated During Inotropic Stress: A Cine Dense Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study, Christopher M. Haggerty, Andrea C. Mattingly, Sage P. Kramer, Cassi M. Binkley, Linyuan Jing, Jonathan D. Suever, David K. Powell, Richard J. Charnigo, Frederick H. Epstein, Brandon K. Fornwalt 2015 University of Kentucky

Left Ventricular Mechanical Dysfunction In Diet-Induced Obese Mice Is Exacerbated During Inotropic Stress: A Cine Dense Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study, Christopher M. Haggerty, Andrea C. Mattingly, Sage P. Kramer, Cassi M. Binkley, Linyuan Jing, Jonathan D. Suever, David K. Powell, Richard J. Charnigo, Frederick H. Epstein, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. There is evidence of impaired left ventricular (LV) function associated with obesity, which may relate to cardiovascular mortality, but some studies have reported no dysfunction. Ventricular function data are generally acquired under resting conditions, which could mask subtle differences and potentially contribute to these contradictory findings. Furthermore, abnormal ventricular mechanics (strains, strain rates, and torsion) may manifest prior to global changes in cardiac function (i.e., ejection fraction) and may therefore represent more sensitive markers of cardiovascular disease. This study evaluated LV mechanics under both resting and stress conditions with the ...


Atrial Fibrillation Promotion By Intermittent Hypoxia In The Rat, Sara Bober 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Atrial Fibrillation Promotion By Intermittent Hypoxia In The Rat, Sara Bober

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a significant risk factor for developing atrial fibrillation (AF) in clinical populations, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), as elicited by nocturnal airway obstructive events in OSA patients, has been implicated as the mediator of OSA-related cardiovascular outcomes. However, the role of IH in OSA-related atrial arrhythmogenesis has not been reported. For the first time, this thesis demonstrates AF promotion in a rodent model of OSA using IH to mimic hypoxic events, and investigates the underlying vulnerable substrates of induced AF. Rats exposed to IH for 7 days had significantly enhanced AF ...


The Kinetics Of Cystatin C: A Marker For Dialysis Adequacy, Huang S. Shih-Han 2015 The University of Western Ontario

The Kinetics Of Cystatin C: A Marker For Dialysis Adequacy, Huang S. Shih-Han

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

When 90% or more of native kidney function is lost, renal replacement therapy must be initiated to sustain life. Renal transplantation is the preferred method, but availability is limited. The ideal dialysis prescription remains elusive. Small molecular weight molecules (such as urea and creatinine) have been used as markers of both kidney (native and transplant) and dialysis toxin clearance (function), but there are pitfalls in using these markers to assess total ‘renal’ dose (kidney plus dialysis). Body weight, gender and other factors also affect the concentrations of these small molecules, but not cystatin C. Furthermore, cystatin C has been shown ...


Vascular Medicine: A ‘Primary’ Specialty, Mark W. Mewissen 2015 Aurora Health Care Vascular Center

Vascular Medicine: A ‘Primary’ Specialty, Mark W. Mewissen

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

N/A


Exogenous 17-Β Estradiol Administration Blunts Progression Of Established Angiotensin Ii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In Female Ovariectomized Mice, Sean E. Thatcher, Xuan Zhang, Shannon Woody, Yu Wang, Yasir Alsiraj, Richard Charnigo, Alan Daugherty, Lisa A. Cassis 2015 University of Kentucky

Exogenous 17-Β Estradiol Administration Blunts Progression Of Established Angiotensin Ii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms In Female Ovariectomized Mice, Sean E. Thatcher, Xuan Zhang, Shannon Woody, Yu Wang, Yasir Alsiraj, Richard Charnigo, Alan Daugherty, Lisa A. Cassis

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) occur predominately in males. However, AAAs in females have rapid growth rates and rupture at smaller sizes. Mechanisms contributing to AAA progression in females are undefined. We defined effects of ovariectomy, with and without 17-β estradiol (E2), on progression of established angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AAAs in female mice.

METHODS: We used neonatal testosterone exposures at 1 day of age to promote susceptibility to AngII-induced AAAs in adult female Ldlr-/- mice. Females were infused with AngII for 28 days to induce AAAs, and then stratified into groups that were sham, ovariectomized (Ovx, vehicle), or Ovx ...


Telemetric Blood Pressure Assessment In Angiotensin Ii-Infused Apoe-/- Mice: 28 Day Natural History And Comparison To Tail-Cuff Measurements, Christopher M. Haggerty, Andrea C. Mattingly, Ming C. Gong, Wen Su, Alan Daugherty, Brandon K. Fornwalt 2015 University of Kentucky

Telemetric Blood Pressure Assessment In Angiotensin Ii-Infused Apoe-/- Mice: 28 Day Natural History And Comparison To Tail-Cuff Measurements, Christopher M. Haggerty, Andrea C. Mattingly, Ming C. Gong, Wen Su, Alan Daugherty, Brandon K. Fornwalt

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a disease of the aortic wall, which can progress to catastrophic rupture. Assessment of mechanical characteristics of AAA, such as aortic distensibility, may provide important insights to help identify at-risk patients and understand disease progression. While the majority of studies on this topic have focused on retrospective patient data, recent studies have used mouse models of AAA to prospectively evaluate the evolution of aortic mechanics. Quantification of aortic distensibility requires accurate measurement of arterial blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, which is challenging to perform accurately in murine models. We hypothesized that volume/pressure tail-cuff measurements ...


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