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Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology Commons

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Problems In Embalming: Cyanide Poisoning, Rebecca Majus 2017 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Problems In Embalming: Cyanide Poisoning, Rebecca Majus

ASA Multidisciplinary Research Symposium

To inform funeral professionals, or anyone interested, what cyanide poisoning is, how death from it occurs, how to detect it in postmortem remains, how it poses a problem for embalmers, and what embalming techniques can be used to treat it.


Effect Of Intranasally Delivered Rh-Vegf165 On Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia In The Cerebral Cortex Of Newborn Piglets., Amit Jain, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amishi Jain, Amulya Buddhavarapu, Jahan Ara 2017 George Washington University

Effect Of Intranasally Delivered Rh-Vegf165 On Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia In The Cerebral Cortex Of Newborn Piglets., Amit Jain, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amishi Jain, Amulya Buddhavarapu, Jahan Ara

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets.

Objective: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF165 (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization.

Design/Methods: Ventilated newborn piglets were divided into three groups (n = 5/group): normoxic (Nx), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), and HI treated with intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 (HI-VEGF). HI piglets were exposed to HI (0.05 FiO2) for 30 min. Recombinant h-VEGF165 (100 ...


Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Ventilation encompasses both active and passive processes. Air is initially drawn into the lungs due to a negative intrathoracic pressure created using the respiratory muscles, most importantly the diaphragm. In contrast, expiration is the passive relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane. The ability to oxygenate without ventilation has been termed apneic diffusion oxygenation or apneic oxygenation. We believe it is crucial to keep alveoli open in order for adequate oxygenation to occur. This can be achieved with the aid of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated this concept in patients who ...


Relative Associations Of Age, Height, And Weight On Sinus Of Valsalva And Mid-Ascending Aorta: An Imaging And Epidemiology Study, Mirza Nubair Ahmad, Syed Haris Pir, Mirza Mujadil Ahmad, Sharmeen Hussaini, Bijoy K. Khandheria, A. Jamil Tajik, Khawaja Afzal Ammar 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Relative Associations Of Age, Height, And Weight On Sinus Of Valsalva And Mid-Ascending Aorta: An Imaging And Epidemiology Study, Mirza Nubair Ahmad, Syed Haris Pir, Mirza Mujadil Ahmad, Sharmeen Hussaini, Bijoy K. Khandheria, A. Jamil Tajik, Khawaja Afzal Ammar

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Prior studies show ascending aorta diameter varies with age, height and weight, but they did not evaluate relative influence of these variables on aortic diameter. Since height is genetically determined, and genetic disorders like Marfan syndrome are predominantly associated with sinus of Valsalva (SOV) dilation, we hypothesized height may have stronger association with SOV.

Purpose: Based on anecdotal observation, since age, weight and obesity are acquired attributes, we hypothesized age, weight and body mass index may have greater association with mid-ascending aorta (MAA) diameter, even in normal patients.

Methods: We evaluated echocardiographic studies of patients ≥ 15 years old that ...


Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel 2017 University of Iowa

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Therapeutic Challenges In A Case Of Psoriasis With Nail Onset, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Maria I. Sârbu, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa, Simona R. Georgescu 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Microbiology, Victor Babes Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania

Therapeutic Challenges In A Case Of Psoriasis With Nail Onset, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Maria I. Sârbu, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa, Simona R. Georgescu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Nail psoriasis affects a large number of patients with psoriasis and has a major psychosocial impact. Furthermore, it may be regarded as a predictor of more severe forms of psoriasis and early sign of psoriatic arthritis. The clinical presentations vary depending on the structure affected (nail matrix or nail bed), the nail lesions may range from minor to severe, but they are not specific. Treatment is a challenge, in most cases the lesions being resistant to therapy. We present a rare case of psoriasis with nail onset in a 59-year-old woman. The nail involvement confined to the fingernails was severe ...


Is There A Utility For Qrs Dispersion In Clinical Practice?, Ionuț Donoiu, Georgică Costinel Târtea, Elibet Chávez-González 2017 University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Department of Cardiology, Craiova, Romania

Is There A Utility For Qrs Dispersion In Clinical Practice?, Ionuț Donoiu, Georgică Costinel Târtea, Elibet Chávez-González

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Prognostic markers derived from standard ECG have always been seductive. Increased dispersion of durations of the P wave, of the QRS complex, or of the QT interval has been associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, as well as with a general negative prognosis in various settings. However, these markers have intrinsic and methodological issues that question their utility. This paper presents data supporting the utility of QRS dispersion in clinical practice. Our investigation shows that QRS dispersion is a simple electrocardiographic marker with potential value in the assessment of patients in a variety of ...


Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke 2017 Houston Methodist Hospital

Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke

Andres Schanzer

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the long-term outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas treated with vonapanitase (recombinant human elastase) at the time of surgical creation.

METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 151 patients undergoing radiocephalic or brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula creation who were randomized equally to placebo, vonapanitase 10 mug, or vonapanitase 30 mug. The results after 1 year of follow-up were previously reported. The current analysis occurred when the last patient treated was observed for 3 years. For the current analysis, the primary end point was primary patency; the secondary end points included secondary patency, use of the fistula for ...


Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez 2017 James Madison University

Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) are a leading cause of death in the United States. The key to increasing survivability is early recognition to expedite the proper treatment modalities. In conjunction with the clinical presentation and electrocardiograms, the use of cardiac biomarkers is exponentially important in not only recognizing a cardiac event but also determining the extent of injury. Advancement in laboratory technology has led to the development of high-sensitive troponin (hs-troponin) assays which can detect smaller cardiac troponin serum levels compared to conventional troponin assays. This implies that the use of hs-troponin assays is more effective in the early ...


Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh 2017 University of Louisville

Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Independent sitting is a major milestone and is also a prerequisite for optimal performance of activities of daily living (ADLs). Development of sitting posture control is a dynamic process involving control of degrees of freedom of head and trunk. Traditionally, trunk has been modeled as a single unit (segment). However, recent studies have suggested that it is made up multiple spinal units, controlled by a combination of trunk muscles. During typical development, posture control of trunk is different for different trunk segments. This motor development of trunk control is a complex process due to constant interaction between the nervous system ...


Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke 2017 Houston Methodist Hospital

Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the long-term outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas treated with vonapanitase (recombinant human elastase) at the time of surgical creation.

METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 151 patients undergoing radiocephalic or brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula creation who were randomized equally to placebo, vonapanitase 10 mug, or vonapanitase 30 mug. The results after 1 year of follow-up were previously reported. The current analysis occurred when the last patient treated was observed for 3 years. For the current analysis, the primary end point was primary patency; the secondary end points included secondary patency, use of the fistula for ...


Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin 2017 University of Kentucky

Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin

The VAD Journal

Abstract:

Background: We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy of VA-ECMO support in cardiogenic shock based on various etiologies.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 99 patients supported with VA-ECMO from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015. Outcomes included survival to discontinuation of VA-ECMO support and survival to hospital discharge. The etiologies of cardiogenic shock included cardiac arrest (CPR), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism (PE), right ventricular failure (RVF) not secondary to an acute pulmonary embolism, and post-cardiotomy syndrome (PCS). The PCS group was used as a reference group; odds ratios were estimated ...


The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee 2017 University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee

Western Research Forum 2018 "Controversy: Challenging The Boundaries in Research"

The Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) on the Pulmonary Surfactant and Lung Injury

Khazaee R1, McCaig LA2, Hardy D1, Yamashita CM2, Veldhuizen, RAW2

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology1, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Lawson Health Research Institute2, London, ON, Canada

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as severe lung dysfunction that occurs after an insult to the lung such as an infection. The lung dysfunction in ARDS is due to alterations to surfactant, a lipid-protein mixture coats the inside of the lung and maintains the lungs’ ability to expand easily ...


A Comparison Of Changes In Women's Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition After Performance In Zumba, Tabata, And Cycling, Kristi N. Kester 2017 The University of Akron

A Comparison Of Changes In Women's Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition After Performance In Zumba, Tabata, And Cycling, Kristi N. Kester

Honors Research Projects

Aerobic group exercise is important to prevent against cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases. Regular exercise can help to reduce the risk of these diseases and premature death. Group exercise classes have shown to be effective in reducing weight, blood pressure, and body composition Further research is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these aerobic group exercise classes to one another. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the potential health benefits that may occur for women who participate in regular group exercise classes at the Kohl Family YMCA. METHODS: A surrey and body measurements were taken of females enrolled an eight-week aerobic ...


Tissue Factor Expression, Regulation, And Signaling In Human Airway Cells, Michael D. Davis 2017 Virginia Commonwealth University

Tissue Factor Expression, Regulation, And Signaling In Human Airway Cells, Michael D. Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Rationale: Tissue Factor (TF) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that canonically functions as the initiator of the coagulation cascade. Increased levels of TF have been associated with inflammatory airway diseases. Since lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to elicit and inflammatory response in airway epithelium, we hypothesized that airway epithelial cells release TF when exposed to LPS. Since TF aids in local wound healing, we also hypothesized that inhibition of TF would decrease NHBE growth. The specific aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of LPS exposure on TF production and release from airway epithelia and determine the signaling pathways involved ...


Evaluation Of Oral Nutritional Supplement Use In Elderly Patients Admitted With Heart Failure, Geri L. Sipe 2017 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Of Oral Nutritional Supplement Use In Elderly Patients Admitted With Heart Failure, Geri L. Sipe

DNP Projects

Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of enhanced ordering privileges among registered dieticians (RD) on oral nutritional supplement (ONS) ordering frequency and prevalence of oral nutritional supplement use among elderly patients admitted with heart failure (HF).

METHODS: This study was a single facility, retrospective pre-post implementation evaluation of the impact of expanded ONS ordering privileges among elderly patients (age ≥ 65 years old) hospitalized with heart failure at Frankfort Regional Medical Center (FRMC). The sample consisted of 105 patients for the pre-evaluation period and 259 for the post-evaluation period.

RESULTS: There were no differences among ...


Effects Of Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen And High Fat Diet On Weight Gain, Ventricular Hypertrophy And Contractility, Shreya Chandrasekar, Melissa L. Bates, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Michael J. Hoover, Madison E. Sturgeon, Austin Murphy 2017 University of Iowa

Effects Of Neonatal Supplemental Oxygen And High Fat Diet On Weight Gain, Ventricular Hypertrophy And Contractility, Shreya Chandrasekar, Melissa L. Bates, Shilpa Vellookunnel, Michael J. Hoover, Madison E. Sturgeon, Austin Murphy

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Premature birth represents about 13% of live births each year. Since lungs of these infants are underdeveloped, they receive supplemental oxygen right after birth, but little is known about its effects on the development of normal physiological responses and whether it impacts long-term cardio-metabolic function. Based on previous studies from our lab that showed increased pulse wave velocity in 12 month old rats exposed to neonatal supplemental oxygen, we hypothesized that neonatal exposure to supplemental oxygen causes cardiac hypertrophy and decreased left ventricular contractility. We also hypothesized that these effects to supplemental oxygen would be enhanced by 10 weeks on ...


Vascular Dysfunction In A Rat Model Of Prematurity After O2 Supplementation, Amanda Owens 2017 University of Iowa

Vascular Dysfunction In A Rat Model Of Prematurity After O2 Supplementation, Amanda Owens

University of Iowa Honors Theses

Infants born prematurely are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases as they age. Oxygen supplementation during this critical window is necessary to sustain life because the lungs are under-developed, however, it is thought that high oxygen exposure may generate excessive superoxide contributing to oxidative stress. Using a rat model of prematurity, we tested the hypothesis that perinatal oxygen supplementation would increase aortic stiffness due to oxidative stress within the arterial wall. Immediately upon birth, 20 Sprague-Dawley pup rats were placed into environmental chambers with either 21% (control) or 80% oxygen (experimental) for eight days. All rats were aged until ...


Assessment Of Achieved Systolic Blood Pressure In Newly Treated Hypertensive Patients Aged 60-79 Years Before And After Eighth Joint National Committee Recommendations, Michael S. Kelly, Joseph J. Saseen, Joel C. Marrs 2016 Chapman University

Assessment Of Achieved Systolic Blood Pressure In Newly Treated Hypertensive Patients Aged 60-79 Years Before And After Eighth Joint National Committee Recommendations, Michael S. Kelly, Joseph J. Saseen, Joel C. Marrs

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Objective:

To determine whether patients who were newly prescribed antihypertensive therapy after the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) update were treated to a relaxed systolic blood pressure (SBP) goal compared with patients treated before the update.

Methods:

A retrospective cohort study approved by the Colorado Multiple Institutional Review Board. Patients aged 60–79 years, without diabetes or chronic kidney disease (CKD), newly treated for hypertension at a University of Colorado primary care clinics were included. The mean first-achieved and last-stable SBPs of patients newly prescribed antihypertensive medications from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 31 2013 (before cohort) were ...


Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman 2016 University of Louisville

Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in whole-body dysfunction. While the majority of SCI research is focused on improving locomotor function after injury, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity in the chronic SCI patient population. The combination of injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways, maladaptive plasticity within lumbosacral circuits, and the progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Currently, there is little emphasis on implementing appropriately-timed acute rehabilitation techniques aimed to curtail maladaptive remodeling and improve CV outcomes. Furthermore, no pre-clinical or clinical studies have investigated the most appropriate time-course ...


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