Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

190 Full-Text Articles 647 Authors 26003 Downloads 39 Institutions

All Articles in Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology

Faceted Search

190 full-text articles. Page 1 of 8.

Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin 2017 University of Kentucky

Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin

The VAD Journal

Abstract:

Background: We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy of VA-ECMO support in cardiogenic shock based on various etiologies.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 99 patients supported with VA-ECMO from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015. Outcomes included survival to discontinuation of VA-ECMO support and survival to hospital discharge. The etiologies of cardiogenic shock included cardiac arrest (CPR), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism (PE), right ventricular failure (RVF) not secondary to an acute pulmonary embolism, and post-cardiotomy syndrome (PCS). The PCS group was used as a reference group; odds ratios were estimated ...


The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee 2017 University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee

Western Research Forum

The Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) on the Pulmonary Surfactant and Lung Injury

Khazaee R1, McCaig LA2, Hardy D1, Yamashita CM2, Veldhuizen, RAW2

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology1, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Lawson Health Research Institute2, London, ON, Canada

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as severe lung dysfunction that occurs after an insult to the lung such as an infection. The lung dysfunction in ARDS is due to alterations to surfactant, a lipid-protein mixture coats the inside of the lung and maintains the lungs’ ability to expand easily ...


Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman 2016 University of Louisville

Evaluating Cardiovascular Dysfunction During Increased Activity And Exercise Rehabilitation Following Incomplete Thoracic Spinal Cord Injury In The Adult Rat., Kathryn A. Harman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in whole-body dysfunction. While the majority of SCI research is focused on improving locomotor function after injury, cardiovascular (CV) disease continues to be the leading cause of morbidity in the chronic SCI patient population. The combination of injury-induced destruction of autonomic pathways, maladaptive plasticity within lumbosacral circuits, and the progressive decline in physical fitness contribute to the poor CV status of SCI individuals. Currently, there is little emphasis on implementing appropriately-timed acute rehabilitation techniques aimed to curtail maladaptive remodeling and improve CV outcomes. Furthermore, no pre-clinical or clinical studies have investigated the most appropriate time-course ...


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir 2016 Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani Center for Integrative Research on Cardiovascular Aging, Aurora Research Institute

Seniors Welcome! Avoiding The Trap Of Age Limits In Health Research, Arshad Jahangir

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

The guest editor introduces this specialty issue of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, which focuses on cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. The reality of an aging population has increased the need for better evidence-based medicine in older patients. However, randomized controlled trials frequently exclude such patients, especially those with comorbidities, from study. This practice ignores the fact that physiologic changes to the cardiovascular system caused by the aging process and aging-associated diseases create clinical dilemmas distinct from those in younger patients. Considering the rising costs of health care and growing incidence of cardiovascular disease, research efforts and resources ...


The Biophysical Alterations To Pulmonary Surfactant During Lung Injury, Scott D. Milos 2016 The University of Western Ontario

The Biophysical Alterations To Pulmonary Surfactant During Lung Injury, Scott D. Milos

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein mixture responsible for reducing surface tension of the lung. In this thesis, we investigate the impact of lung injury on surfactant composition and function, with a specific focus on cholesterol content. First, the impact of a high cholesterol diet on surfactant function was assessed in three models of lung injury. It was hypothesized that serum hypercholesterolemia would increase host susceptibility to surfactant functional impairments. Secondly, the impact of injurious ventilation on intracellular surfactant within the lung was investigated. It was hypothesized injurious ventilation would produce alterations to lamellar body surfactant. Overall, the data suggest that ...


The Role Of O-Glcnacase During Heart Failure., Sujith Dassanayaka 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of O-Glcnacase During Heart Failure., Sujith Dassanayaka

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global augmentation of protein O-GlcNAcylation occurs in response to a myriad of stressors and confers a survival advantage at the cellular level. This protective phenomenon has been demonstrated to mediate cardioprotection through various in vitro and in vivo studies during ischemia-reperfusion, myocardial infarction, and oxidative stress; however, relatively little is known of the regulation of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Protein O-GlcNAcylation is regulated by two antagonistic enzymes, namely, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Ablation of cardiomyocyte OGT, the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of O-GlcNAc to proteins, exacerbates cardiac dysfunction during infarct-induced heart failure (HF). However, little is known of the ...


Nanofabrication And Spectroscopy Of Magnetic Nanostructures Using A Focused Ion Beam, Ali Hadjikhani 2016 FIU

Nanofabrication And Spectroscopy Of Magnetic Nanostructures Using A Focused Ion Beam, Ali Hadjikhani

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This research used a focused ion beam in order to fabricate record small nano-magnetic structures, investigate the properties of magnetic materials in the rarely studied range of nanometer size, and exploit their extraordinary characteristics in medicine and nano-electronics. This study consists of two parts: (i) Fabrication and study of record small magnetic tunnel junctions (ii) Introduction of a novel method for detection of magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) in the tissue.

A key challenge in further scaling of CMOS devices is being able to perform non-volatile logic with near zero power consumption. Sub-10-nm nanomagnetic spin transfer torque (STT) magnetic tunneling junctions (MTJs ...


Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Prenatal Exposure To Bisphenol A On Fetal Lung Development, Ayten Hijazi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Prenatal exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), one of the most prevalent endocrine disrupting chemicals, is associated with lung dysfunction and diseases in later life. However, it is unknown if this association has a fetal origin. In this thesis, a series of in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the effects of prenatal exposure to BPA on fetal lung development, and define the underlying molecular mechanisms. Environmentally relevant doses of BPA were administered to pregnant mice via diet from embryonic day (E) 7.5 to 18.5. Fetal lungs were analyzed at E18.5 for changes in structure ...


Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Airway Smooth Muscle Pathology In Pompe Disease, Lang Xiong, Allison M. Keeler, Donghai Lui, Kaitlyn Desrochers, Ronghua Zhuge, Mai K. Elmallah

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Pompe disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease which results from a deficiency of acid α-glucosidase (GAA) - an enzyme that degrades lysosomal glycogen. Patients with Pompe disease develop intra-lysosomal accumulation of glycogen in multiple tissues including skeletal muscle, CNS and smooth muscle.

Pulmonary dysfunction is a hallmark of Pompe disease and has classically been attributed to muscle weakness and CNS neuropathology. However, the potential role of respiratory smooth muscles in the respiratory pathology is unknown. Therefore we postulated that GAA deficiency results in airway smooth muscle glycogen accumulation that leads to airway smooth muscle dysfunction.

Using the Pompe mouse model ...


Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long 2016 College Scholars Program

Inside Exploration, Reagan E. Long

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Resistance Training On Vascular Function In Middle-Aged Women., Benjamin A. Kantura II, Yu LunTai, Curtis Fennel, J. Derek Kingsley Ph.D. 2016 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Effects Of Resistance Training On Vascular Function In Middle-Aged Women., Benjamin A. Kantura Ii, Yu Luntai, Curtis Fennel, J. Derek Kingsley Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Effects of resistance training on vascular function in middle-aged women.

Ben Kantura, Yu Lun Tai, Curtis Fennell, & J. Derek Kingsley

PROBLEM: Aging is associated with increases in peripheral and central aortic blood pressure (BP) due to declines in vascular health. Researchers have suggested that resistance training (RT) may improve vascular function in older adults, but the data in middle-aged women are lacking. METHODS: Sixteen young (mean±SD; Age: 21±2 yrs; BMI: 24.1±3.8kg/m2) and thirty-two middle-aged (Age: 50±11 yrs; BMI: 30.1±5.9kg/m2) women volunteered for the study. The middle-aged women underwent 12-weeks of RT using 9 different exercises, 2 times per week, using 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions beginning at 50-60% 1 repetition maximum. Pulse wave reflection characteristics were evaluated using applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Before RT the young women had lower brachial diastolic blood pressure (BP) (YW: 72±8mmHg; MW ...


Novel Bone-Targeting Agent For Enhanced Delivery Of Vancomycin To Bone, Zaineb A. F. Albayati, Manjula Sunkara, Suzannah M. Schmidt-Malan, Melissa J. Karau, Andrew J. Morris, James M. Steckelberg, Robin Patel, Philip J. Breen, Mark S. Smeltzer, K. Grant Taylor, Kevyn E. Merten, William M. Pierce, Peter A. Crooks 2016 University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Novel Bone-Targeting Agent For Enhanced Delivery Of Vancomycin To Bone, Zaineb A. F. Albayati, Manjula Sunkara, Suzannah M. Schmidt-Malan, Melissa J. Karau, Andrew J. Morris, James M. Steckelberg, Robin Patel, Philip J. Breen, Mark S. Smeltzer, K. Grant Taylor, Kevyn E. Merten, William M. Pierce, Peter A. Crooks

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

We examined the pharmacokinetic properties of vancomycin conjugated to a bone-targeting agent (BT) with high affinity for hydroxyapatite after systemic intravenous administration. The results confirm enhanced persistence of BT-vancomycin in plasma and enhanced accumulation in bone relative to vancomycin. This suggests that BT-vancomycin may be a potential carrier for the systemic targeted delivery of vancomycin in the treatment of bone infections, potentially reducing the reliance on surgical debridement to achieve the desired therapeutic outcome.


Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore 2015 University of Dayton

Field Testing Adolescent Females For Cardiovascular Disease Risk, C. Brahler, Wesley Stephens, Betsy Donahoe Fillmore

C. Jayne Brahler

Over-fatness and poor cardiovascular (CV) fitness are well-documented risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults, but less is known about their association with disease risk in adolescents. This study aimed to determine the relationship between anthropometrics, fitness, and CVD risk.

Six anthropometric indicators of body fatness, seven measures of fitness, and seven metabolic and hemodynamic CVD risk factors were measured in a convenience sample of 28 female high school students (15-18 years of age). A tally was made of the number of factors for which each subject was outside the normal reference range (CVD risk).

Correlation analyses were completed ...


Interaction Of Alu Polymorphisms And Novel Measures Of Discrimination In Association With Blood Pressure In African Americans Living In Tallahassee, Alexis C. Boulter, Jackyn Quinlan, Aida T. Miró-Herrans, Laurel N. Pearson, Nubiana L. Todd, Clarence C. Gravlee, Connie J. Mulligan 2015 University of Florida

Interaction Of Alu Polymorphisms And Novel Measures Of Discrimination In Association With Blood Pressure In African Americans Living In Tallahassee, Alexis C. Boulter, Jackyn Quinlan, Aida T. Miró-Herrans, Laurel N. Pearson, Nubiana L. Todd, Clarence C. Gravlee, Connie J. Mulligan

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

African Americans are 40% more likely to be afflicted with hypertension in comparison to non-Hispanic, white Americans, resulting in a 30% higher instance of mortality due to cardiovascular disease. There is debate about the relative contributions of genetic and sociocultural risk factors to the racial disparity in hypertension.

We assayed three Alu insertion polymorphisms located in the angiotensin-1-converting enzyme (ACE), tissue plasminogen activator (PLAT), and with no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) genes. We also estimated West African genetic ancestry and developed novel measures of perceived discrimination to create a biocultural model of blood pressure among African- American adults in Tallahassee, FL ...


Cardiovascular Regulation And Effects Of Respiratory Motor Training In Patients With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Bonnie Legg Ditterline 2015 University of Louisville

Cardiovascular Regulation And Effects Of Respiratory Motor Training In Patients With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Bonnie Legg Ditterline

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation attempts to discover the mechanisms between cardiovascular and respiratory motor control post spinal cord injury (SCI): in normal, non-injured (NI) persons, cardiovascular regulation is dependent upon respiration, but there is nothing that suggests the mechanism for this relationship post-SCI. Thus we hoped to evaluate various aspects of cardiovascular regulation to further illustrate how this relationship is changed or unchanged by SCI. Chapter I describes the anatomy and physiology of the spine, respiratory system, and cardiovascular system in a NI person, and then describes how the function of these systems is changed by SCI. In addition, we describe therapies ...


Gadolinium Free Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance With 2-Point Cine Balanced Steady State Free Precession, Tori A. Stromp, Steve W. Leung, Kristin N Andres, Linyuan Jing, Brandon K. Fornwalt, Richard Charnigo, Vincent L. Sorrell, Moriel H. Vandsburger 2015 University of Kentucky

Gadolinium Free Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance With 2-Point Cine Balanced Steady State Free Precession, Tori A. Stromp, Steve W. Leung, Kristin N Andres, Linyuan Jing, Brandon K. Fornwalt, Richard Charnigo, Vincent L. Sorrell, Moriel H. Vandsburger

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) of ventricular structure and function is widely performed using cine balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) MRI. The bSSFP signal of myocardium is weighted by magnetization transfer (MT) and T1/T2-relaxation times. In edematous and fibrotic tissues, increased T2 and reduced MT lead to increased signal intensity on images acquired with high excitation flip angles. We hypothesized that acquisition of two differentially MT-weighted bSSFP images (termed 2-point bSSFP) can identify tissue that would enhance with gadolinium similar to standard of care late gadolinium enhancement (LGE).

METHODS: Cine bSSFP images (flip angles of 5° and 45 ...


Hyperpolarized 129xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury, Ozkan Doganay 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Hyperpolarized 129xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging Of Radiation-Induced Lung Injury, Ozkan Doganay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lung cancer is the largest contributor to cancer-related mortality worldwide. Only 20% of stage III non-small cell lung cancer patients survive after 5-years post radiation therapy (RT). Although RT is an important treatment modality for lung cancer, it is limited by Radiation-Induced Lung Injury (RILI). RILI develops in two phases: (i) the early phase (days-weeks) referred to radiation pneumonitis (RP), and (ii) the late phase (months). There is a strong interest in early detection of RP using imaging to improve outcomes of RT for lung cancer. This thesis describes a promising approach based on 129Xe gas as a contrast ...


Effects Of Adipocyte Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency On Pcb-Induced Disruption Of Glucose Homeostasis In Lean And Obese Mice, Nicki A. Baker, Robin Shoemaker, Victoria English, Nika Larian, Manjula Sunkara, Andrew J. Morris, Mary Walker, Frederique Yiannikouris, Lisa A. Cassis 2015 University of Kentucky

Effects Of Adipocyte Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Deficiency On Pcb-Induced Disruption Of Glucose Homeostasis In Lean And Obese Mice, Nicki A. Baker, Robin Shoemaker, Victoria English, Nika Larian, Manjula Sunkara, Andrew J. Morris, Mary Walker, Frederique Yiannikouris, Lisa A. Cassis

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: Coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) promote adipocyte inflammation and impair glucose homeostasis in lean mice. The diabetes-promoting effects of lipophilic PCBs have been observed only during weight loss in obese mice. The molecular mechanisms linking PCB exposures to impaired glucose metabolism are unclear.

OBJECTIVES: In this study we tested the hypothesis that coplanar PCBs act at adipocyte aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AhRs) to promote adipose inflammation and impair glucose homeostasis in lean mice and in obese mice during weight loss.

METHODS AND RESULTS: PCB-77 administration impaired glucose and insulin tolerance in LF (low fat diet)-fed control (AhRfl/fl) mice ...


Lipin1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Differentiation Through Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (Erk) Activation And Cyclin D Complex-Regulated Cell Cycle Withdrawal, Weihua Jiang, Jing Zhu, Xun Zhuang, Xiping Zhang, Tao Luo, Karyn Esser, Hongmei Ren 2015 University of Kentucky

Lipin1 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Differentiation Through Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase (Erk) Activation And Cyclin D Complex-Regulated Cell Cycle Withdrawal, Weihua Jiang, Jing Zhu, Xun Zhuang, Xiping Zhang, Tao Luo, Karyn Esser, Hongmei Ren

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Lipin1, an intracellular protein, plays critical roles in controlling lipid synthesis and energy metabolism through its enzymatic activity and nuclear transcriptional functions. Several mouse models of skeletal muscle wasting are associated with lipin1 mutation or altered expression. Recent human studies have suggested that children with homozygous null mutations in the LPIN1 gene suffer from rhabdomyolysis. However, the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism is still poorly understood. In the present study we examined whether lipin1 contributes to regulating muscle regeneration. We characterized the time course of skeletal muscle regeneration in lipin1-deficient fld mice after injury. We found that fld mice exhibited smaller regenerated ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress