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Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology Commons

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The Effects Of A 12-Week Jump Rope Exercise Program On Abdominal Adiposity, Vasoactive Substances, Inflammation & Vascular Function In Prehypertensive Adolescent Girls, Ronald Headid 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effects Of A 12-Week Jump Rope Exercise Program On Abdominal Adiposity, Vasoactive Substances, Inflammation & Vascular Function In Prehypertensive Adolescent Girls, Ronald Headid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Childhood obesity is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. It is necessary to combat unfavorable outcomes of obesity at a young age by utilizing effective interventions, such as exercise. Purpose: We sought to examine the effects of a jump rope exercise program on CVD risk factors, including body composition, vasoactive substances, inflammation, and vascular function in prehypertensive adolescent girls. Methods: Forty girls (age 14-16) were recruited and randomly assigned to a jump rope exercise group (EX, n=20) or control group (CON, n=20). Body composition, nitrate and nitrite levels, endothelin-1 (ET-1), c-reactive protein (CRP), systolic blood pressure and ...


Impacts Of Dietary Nitrate On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Systemic Vascular Pressure In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Steven D. Scott, Ronald J. Headid III, Michael D. Shukis, Jeonghwa Shin, Jiwon Song, Song-Young Park 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Impacts Of Dietary Nitrate On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Systemic Vascular Pressure In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Steven D. Scott, Ronald J. Headid Iii, Michael D. Shukis, Jeonghwa Shin, Jiwon Song, Song-Young Park

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the manifestation of atherosclerotic plaque in the larger arteries of the legs, which results in impaired blood flow to the lower extremities. Markers of vascular health, including endothelial function and arterial stiffness, have been shown to be attenuated in PAD.

Purpose: We sought to examine the effects of a nitrate supplement (body mass-normalized dosage of beetroot juice) on vascular function measurements such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and central and peripheral blood pressure in patients with PAD. We hypothesized that acute intake of a nitrate supplement would improve vascular function.

Methods: PAD patients (stage II-III ...


The Purification Of Human Adult Progenitor Cell Types To Promote Angiogenesis, Stephen E. Sherman 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Purification Of Human Adult Progenitor Cell Types To Promote Angiogenesis, Stephen E. Sherman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular transplantation strategies have aimed to combat critical limb ischemia (CLI) by inducing endogenous blood vessel regeneration. Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for CLI has proven safe and well-tolerated but demonstrated only modestly improved clinical outcomes explained in part by a lack of MSC survival and/or potency in ischemic tissues. This thesis focuses on the development of improved transplantation strategies for patients with CLI utilizing purified pro-angiogenic subsets of MSC and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) seeded within decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) bioscaffolds. First, I investigated whether purification of bone marrow-derived MSC based on a conserved stem cell ...


New Faculty Mentoring In Respiratory Care Programs, Kristen L. McHenry, Jim Lampley, Randy L. Byington, Donald W. Good, Stephanie R. Tweed 2018 East Tennessee State University

New Faculty Mentoring In Respiratory Care Programs, Kristen L. Mchenry, Jim Lampley, Randy L. Byington, Donald W. Good, Stephanie R. Tweed

ETSU Faculty Works

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify mentoring practices of new faculty members in Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care (CoARC) accredited respiratory care programs in the U.S. and to identify the perceptions of program directors regarding the observed impact of program mentoring practices. Methods: The method for the study was quantitative non-experimental survey research. The survey instrument was an electronic questionnaire titled Respiratory Care Faculty (RCF) Mentoring Survey. The 25-item survey was divided into three dimensions: mentoring practices, mentor/mentee relationship, and perceptions of the impact of new faculty mentoring. Of the 410 possible program director ...


In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a condition that involves the occlusion of a blood vessel within the brain, effectively preventing the passage of oxygen and nutrients. AIS is highly prevalent in the United States, where nearly 795,000 strokes happen per year and 87% of those are ischemic. From a medical standpoint, the obstructing clot can be removed with the use of a stroke retrieval device. However, a need arises for testing the aforementioned devices on a patient’s specific vascular geometries in order to increase the likelihood of a successful procedure. Outlined is a process for developing a physical ...


Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome In An Infant With A C-Terminal Frame Shift In Abca3: A Case Report, Nour Akil, Anthony J. Fischer 2018 University of Iowa

Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome In An Infant With A C-Terminal Frame Shift In Abca3: A Case Report, Nour Akil, Anthony J. Fischer

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Deficiency in ATP binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) causes neonatal respiratory distress, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 transports phospholipids into the lamellar bodies of type II alveolar cells, a critical step in alveolar surfactant production. We report a term infant with ABCA3 surfactant deficiency syndrome with the E292V (c.875A>T; p.Glu292Val) mutation in trans with a novel C-terminal frame shift mutation (c.4938delC; p.Met1647fs). This mutation removes the final 58 amino acids and substitutes 33 incorrect amino acids. The frame shift spares membrane spanning and nucleotide binding domains, but disrupts a highly conserved C-terminal domain ...


Differences In Self-Reported Weekend Catch Up Sleep Between Children And Adolescents With And Without Primary Hypertension, Neena Gupta, Louise Maranda, Rakesh Gupta 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Differences In Self-Reported Weekend Catch Up Sleep Between Children And Adolescents With And Without Primary Hypertension, Neena Gupta, Louise Maranda, Rakesh Gupta

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Background: The data on the association of sleep duration and blood pressure in the pediatric age group have been mixed and most studies have focused on weekday sleep duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the weekday and weekend sleep patterns between children and adolescents with newly diagnosed primary hypertension and a normotensive control group.

Methods: Children and adolescents from a pediatric nephrology clinic, aged 6-18 years with newly diagnosed primary hypertension were compared to an age and sex matched normotensive control group from a general pediatric clinic. The questions about bed time and getting out of bed ...


Effect Of Study Design On Sample Size In Studies Intended To Evaluate Bioequivalence Of Inhaled Short-Acting Β-Agonist Formulations, Yaohui Zeng, Sachinkumar Singh, Kai Wang, Richard C. Ahrens 2018 University of Iowa

Effect Of Study Design On Sample Size In Studies Intended To Evaluate Bioequivalence Of Inhaled Short-Acting Β-Agonist Formulations, Yaohui Zeng, Sachinkumar Singh, Kai Wang, Richard C. Ahrens

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Pharmacodynamic studies that use methacholine challenge to assess bioequivalence of generic and innovator albuterol formulations are generally designed per published Food and Drug Administration guidance, with 3 reference doses and 1 test dose (3-by-1 design). These studies are challenging and expensive to conduct, typically requiring large sample sizes. We proposed 14 modified study designs as alternatives to the Food and Drug Administration-recommended 3-by-1 design, hypothesizing that adding reference and/or test doses would reduce sample size and cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate sample size. Simulation inputs were selected based on published studies and our own experience with ...


Using Support Vector Machines On Photoplethysmographic Signals To Discriminate Between Hypovolemia And Euvolemia, Natasa Reljin, Gary Zimmer, Yelena Malyuta, Kirk Shelley, Yitzhak Mendelson, David J. Blehar, Chad E. Darling, Ki H. Chon 2018 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Using Support Vector Machines On Photoplethysmographic Signals To Discriminate Between Hypovolemia And Euvolemia, Natasa Reljin, Gary Zimmer, Yelena Malyuta, Kirk Shelley, Yitzhak Mendelson, David J. Blehar, Chad E. Darling, Ki H. Chon

Open Access Articles

Identifying trauma patients at risk of imminent hemorrhagic shock is a challenging task in intraoperative and battlefield settings given the variability of traditional vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure, and their inability to detect blood loss at an early stage. To this end, we acquired N = 58 photoplethysmographic (PPG) recordings from both trauma patients with suspected hemorrhage admitted to the hospital, and healthy volunteers subjected to blood withdrawal of 0.9 L. We propose four features to characterize each recording: goodness of fit (r2), the slope of the trend line, percentage change, and the absolute change between ...


Social Support Predicts Self-Care Confidence In Patients With Heart Failure, Hayley C. Fivecoat, Steven L. Sayers, Barbara Riegel 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Social Support Predicts Self-Care Confidence In Patients With Heart Failure, Hayley C. Fivecoat, Steven L. Sayers, Barbara Riegel

School of Nursing Departmental Papers

Background:

Self-care for patients with heart failure includes engaging in behaviours that maintain medical stability and manage problematic symptoms, as well as the confidence in one’s ability to carry out such behaviours. Given the social context of self-care behaviours in heart failure, there has been increasing interest in social support as a predictor of self-care.

Aim:

The goal of the present study was to examine the role of social support in self-care across time for persons with heart failure.

Methods:

Using data from an observational study of patients with chronic heart failure (n = 280), we examined the role of ...


Airway Surface Liquid From Smokers Promotes Bacterial Growth And Biofilm Formation Via Iron-Lactoferrin Imbalance, Luis G. Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A. Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J. Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G. Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E. Noriega, Elizabeth A. Stone, Alicia K. Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P. Comellas 2018 University of Iowa

Airway Surface Liquid From Smokers Promotes Bacterial Growth And Biofilm Formation Via Iron-Lactoferrin Imbalance, Luis G. Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A. Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J. Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G. Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E. Noriega, Elizabeth A. Stone, Alicia K. Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P. Comellas

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of respiratory infections worldwide. Tobacco particulate matter disrupts iron homeostasis in the lungs and increases the iron content in the airways of smokers. The airway epithelia secrete lactoferrin to quench iron required for bacteria to proliferate and cause lung infections. We hypothesized that smokers would have increased bacterial growth and biofilm formation via iron lactoferrin imbalance.

METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from non-smokers and smokers. We challenged these samples using a standard inoculum of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and quantified bacterial growth and biofilm formation. We measured both iron and lactoferrin ...


Acute Pressor Response To Psychosocial Stress Is Dependent On Endothelium‐Derived Endothelin‐1, Brandon M. Fox, Bryan K. Becker, Analia S. Loria, Kelly A. Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M. Pollock, Jennifer S. Pollock 2018 University of Alabama - Birmingham

Acute Pressor Response To Psychosocial Stress Is Dependent On Endothelium‐Derived Endothelin‐1, Brandon M. Fox, Bryan K. Becker, Analia S. Loria, Kelly A. Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M. Pollock, Jennifer S. Pollock

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Acute psychosocial stress provokes increases in circulating endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) levels in humans and animal models. However, key questions about the physiological function and cellular source of stress‐induced ET‐1 remain unanswered. We hypothesized that endothelium‐derived ET‐1 contributes to the acute pressor response to stress via activation of the endothelin A receptor.

Methods and Results

Adult male vascular endothelium‐specific ET‐1 knockout mice and control mice that were homozygous for the floxed allele were exposed to acute psychosocial stress in the form of cage switch stress (CSS), with blood pressure measured by telemetry. An ...


Recombinant Factor Viii Fc Fusion Protein For Immune Tolerance Induction In Patients With Severe Haemophilia A With Inhibitors-A Retrospective Analysis, M Carcao, A Shapiro, J M. Staber, N Hwang, C Druzgal, K Lieuw, M Belletrutti, C D. Thornburg, S P. Ahuja, J Morales-Arias, J Dumont, G Miyasato, E Tsao, N Jain, S W. Pipe 2018 University of Iowa

Recombinant Factor Viii Fc Fusion Protein For Immune Tolerance Induction In Patients With Severe Haemophilia A With Inhibitors-A Retrospective Analysis, M Carcao, A Shapiro, J M. Staber, N Hwang, C Druzgal, K Lieuw, M Belletrutti, C D. Thornburg, S P. Ahuja, J Morales-Arias, J Dumont, G Miyasato, E Tsao, N Jain, S W. Pipe

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

INTRODUCTION: Immune tolerance induction (ITI) is the gold standard for eradication of factor VIII inhibitors in severe haemophilia A; however, it usually requires treatment for extended periods with associated high burden on patients and healthcare resources.

AIM: Review outcomes of ITI with recombinant factor VIII Fc fusion protein (rFVIIIFc) in patients with severe haemophilia A and high-titre inhibitors.

METHODS: Multicentre retrospective chart review of severe haemophilia A patients treated with rFVIIIFc for ITI.

RESULTS: Of 19 patients, 7 were first-time ITI and 12 were rescue ITI. Of 7 first-time patients, 6 had at least 1 high-risk feature for ITI failure ...


Biology Of Platelet Purinergic Receptors And Implications For Platelet Heterogeneity, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Katya Ravid 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Biology Of Platelet Purinergic Receptors And Implications For Platelet Heterogeneity, Milka Koupenova-Zamor, Katya Ravid

Open Access Articles

Platelets are small anucleated cells present only in mammals. Platelets mediate intravascular hemostatic balance, prevent interstitial bleeding, and have a major role in thrombosis. Activation of platelet purinergic receptors is instrumental in initiation of hemostasis and formation of the hemostatic plug, although this activation process becomes problematic in pathological settings of thrombosis. This review briefly outlines the roles and function of currently known platelet purinergic receptors (P1 and P2) in the setting of hemostasis and thrombosis. Additionally, we discuss recent novel studies on purinergic receptor distribution according to heterogeneous platelet size, and the possible implication of this distribution on hemostatic ...


Workplace Standing Desks And Arterial Stiffness, Ian Greenlund 2018 Michigan Technological University

Workplace Standing Desks And Arterial Stiffness, Ian Greenlund

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Many jobs in today’s society require sitting at a desk with little physical activity. Individuals who engage in ten hours of sedentary behavior per day double their CVD risk. Standing desks are thought to decrease sedentary time and improve cardiovascular health. Acute use of standing desks is shown to lower PWV. However, chronic effects remain unknown. Forty eight participants qualified as seated (19 females, 5 males: age 41 ± 2 years, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) or standing (21 females, 3 males: age 45 ± 2 years, BMI 25 ± 1 kg/m2) groups based on habitual workplace use. Arterial ...


Sedentary Time And The Cumulative Risk Of Preserved And Reduced Ejection Fraction Heart Failure: From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Brandi Scot Rariden 2018 University of North Florida

Sedentary Time And The Cumulative Risk Of Preserved And Reduced Ejection Fraction Heart Failure: From The Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Brandi Scot Rariden

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sedentary time (ST) and the cumulative risk of preserved ejection fraction heart failure (HFpEF) and reduced ejection fraction heart failure (HFrEF) using a diverse cohort of U.S. adults 45-84 years of age.

Methods: Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), we identified 6,814 subjects (52.9% female). All were free of baseline cardiovascular disease. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) associated with baseline ST and risk of overall heart failure (HF), HFpEF, and HFrEF. Weekly self-reported ST was ...


Age-Dependent Changes In Oxygen Supply And Demand Of Rat Spinotrapezius Muscle, Sami C. Dodhy 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Age-Dependent Changes In Oxygen Supply And Demand Of Rat Spinotrapezius Muscle, Sami C. Dodhy

Theses and Dissertations

Because of the aerobic nature of cellular metabolism in mammalian organisms, a continuous supply of oxygen is necessary to maintain normal physiological function. As organisms age, their metabolic rates generally decline and there are accompanying alterations in the structure and function of the microcirculation, as this part of the cardiovascular system is especially important for oxygen exchange. The overall Oxygen Transport System can be considered as being composed of two complementary components: one for Oxygen Demand and one for Oxygen Supply. The purpose of the current work is to describe the age-dependent changes in both oxygen demand and oxygen supply ...


Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Via Electronic Medical Record Classification, Shannon L. Carpenter, Laura Miller-Smith, Brittney Hunter, Ashley Duty, Justin Sheets, Yuri Tupa, Kate Gibbs 2018 Children's Mercy Hospital

Venous Thromboembolism Risk Stratification Via Electronic Medical Record Classification, Shannon L. Carpenter, Laura Miller-Smith, Brittney Hunter, Ashley Duty, Justin Sheets, Yuri Tupa, Kate Gibbs

Posters

No abstract provided.


Impaired Cardiorespiratory Fitness Following Thoracic Radiotherapy, Justin M. Canada 2018 Virginia Commonwealth University

Impaired Cardiorespiratory Fitness Following Thoracic Radiotherapy, Justin M. Canada

Theses and Dissertations

Cancer (CA) is the second leading cause of death in the United States preceded only by cardiovascular disease (CVD). Over the past 30 years, the 5-year survival rate for all cancers combined has increased by more than 20%. This improved survival rate is due to early diagnosis and advances in treatment involving a multimodality treatment approach that includes radiotherapy [RT] with about half of all CA patients receiving some type of RT sometime during the course of their treatment. Cardiotoxicity is one of the most important adverse reactions of RT and leads to a meaningful risk of CVD-related morbidity and ...


Metabolic Regulation Of Myocardial Adaptation To Exercise., Andrew Alan Gibb 2017 University of Louisville

Metabolic Regulation Of Myocardial Adaptation To Exercise., Andrew Alan Gibb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While the benefits of exercise affect several organs, a significant adaptive response occurs within the heart. Exercise promotes cardiac growth, increases angiogenesis, and enhances cardiac function and these adaptations are associated with a cardioprotective phenotype. Additionally, extensive evidence shows that exercise dynamically regulates myocardial metabolism. This can be attributed to both changes in hormonal stimulation, increases in bioenergetic demand, and the bioavailability of circulating substrates. However, it is unclear whether these changes in metabolism contribute to physiologic cardiac growth. We reason that exercise-induced changes in metabolism are required to balance the catabolic and anabolic reactions needed for growth. Specifically, we ...


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