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Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology Commons

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A Perfusion Decellularization Heart Model - An Interesting Tool For Cell-Matrix Interaction Studies, Mihai Meșină, Ion Mîndrilă, Cristian Mesina, Cosmin Vasile Obleagă, Octavian Istrătoaie 2019 Fundeni Clinical Institute of Bucharest, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Bucharest, Romania

A Perfusion Decellularization Heart Model - An Interesting Tool For Cell-Matrix Interaction Studies, Mihai Meșină, Ion Mîndrilă, Cristian Mesina, Cosmin Vasile Obleagă, Octavian Istrătoaie

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Objective. In this paper, we present a technique for whole human, pig, or rat heart decellularization in order to obtain a tool for cell-matrix interaction studies and to obtain the extracellular matrix scaffold with applications to the study of cardiac connective tissue architecture for tissue bioengineering.

Material and methods. In order to achieve tissue decellularization we present two separate protocols, the first for large animal hearts (e.g., pig hearts) and human hearts, the second for smaller hearts (e.g., rat hearts). We have performed the cardiac decellularization technique on 20 pig hearts, 5 human hearts, and 20 rat hearts ...


Physical Exercise – The Friend Or The Enemy Of The Patient With Pulmonary Tuberculosis?, Victoria Maria Ruta, Teodora Gabriela Alexescu, Simina Tarmure, Vasile Negrean, Monica Carmen Pop, Nicoleta Motoc, Iulia Olimpia Pfingstgraf, Mirela Georgiana Perne, Lorena Ciumarnean, Simona Valeria Clichici, Adina Milena Man 2019 Cluj Napoca University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania

Physical Exercise – The Friend Or The Enemy Of The Patient With Pulmonary Tuberculosis?, Victoria Maria Ruta, Teodora Gabriela Alexescu, Simina Tarmure, Vasile Negrean, Monica Carmen Pop, Nicoleta Motoc, Iulia Olimpia Pfingstgraf, Mirela Georgiana Perne, Lorena Ciumarnean, Simona Valeria Clichici, Adina Milena Man

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. Tuberculosis, a major cause of morbidity and mortality, is the second cause of death from an infectious disease, after HIV/AIDS. Each second, a new infection occurs around the globe. Pulmonary tuberculosis can equally affect a performance athlete as well as an aspiring athlete. Physical exercise must be individualized and customized. Pulmonary rehabilitation guides 3 recommend types of exercises for patients with obstructive pathology: stretching, cardiovascular exercise or aerobics. Exercises must be started under medical supervision and must be interrupted if: the ventricular altitude increases above the maximum estimated level for the age, oxygen saturation (SaO2). Aim. The current ...


The Efficacy Of Mechanical Compression Devices In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Emma A. French 2019 Murray State University

The Efficacy Of Mechanical Compression Devices In Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Emma A. French

Scholars Week

This project examines the ability of mechanical compression devices, such as the popular LUCAS device, to produce the desired outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when compared to manual chest compression performed by a CPR certified individual. For the purpose of this project, desired outcomes include correct compression rate and depth according to American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines, return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in the patient, long term survival of patients who achieve ROSC, and prevention of serious physical damage related to chest compressions. Data from multiple research studies comparing outcomes of mechanical compression devices and manual chest compression was reviewed ...


Adults’ Knowledge And Beliefs Surrounding Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Mazen Homoud 2019 Seton Hall University

Adults’ Knowledge And Beliefs Surrounding Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Mazen Homoud

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Undiagnosed individuals with signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at higher risk of severe health complications than healthy individuals, and they pose a huge economic burden on society as well. Some scholars reported the lack of public knowledge of OSA as a major contributor to this phenomenon. However, there is a lack of information about assessing public knowledge and health belief of OSA and its nature across the risk level of having OSA.

Two self-reporting questioners were used in this mixed method study, a PI developed survey, the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Knowledge and Belief (OSA-KAB) © was used ...


The Effects Of A 12-Week Jump Rope Exercise Program On Abdominal Adiposity, Vasoactive Substances, Inflammation & Vascular Function In Prehypertensive Adolescent Girls, Ronald Headid 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Effects Of A 12-Week Jump Rope Exercise Program On Abdominal Adiposity, Vasoactive Substances, Inflammation & Vascular Function In Prehypertensive Adolescent Girls, Ronald Headid

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Childhood obesity is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) development. It is necessary to combat unfavorable outcomes of obesity at a young age by utilizing effective interventions, such as exercise. Purpose: We sought to examine the effects of a jump rope exercise program on CVD risk factors, including body composition, vasoactive substances, inflammation, and vascular function in prehypertensive adolescent girls. Methods: Forty girls (age 14-16) were recruited and randomly assigned to a jump rope exercise group (EX, n=20) or control group (CON, n=20). Body composition, nitrate and nitrite levels, endothelin-1 (ET-1), c-reactive protein (CRP), systolic blood pressure and ...


Impacts Of Dietary Nitrate On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Systemic Vascular Pressure In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Steven D. Scott, Ronald J. Headid III, Michael D. Shukis, Jeonghwa Shin, Jiwon Song, Song-Young Park 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Impacts Of Dietary Nitrate On Endothelial Function, Arterial Stiffness, And Systemic Vascular Pressure In Peripheral Arterial Disease, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Steven D. Scott, Ronald J. Headid Iii, Michael D. Shukis, Jeonghwa Shin, Jiwon Song, Song-Young Park

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is the manifestation of atherosclerotic plaque in the larger arteries of the legs, which results in impaired blood flow to the lower extremities. Markers of vascular health, including endothelial function and arterial stiffness, have been shown to be attenuated in PAD.

Purpose: We sought to examine the effects of a nitrate supplement (body mass-normalized dosage of beetroot juice) on vascular function measurements such as endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and central and peripheral blood pressure in patients with PAD. We hypothesized that acute intake of a nitrate supplement would improve vascular function.

Methods: PAD patients (stage II-III ...


The Purification Of Human Adult Progenitor Cell Types To Promote Angiogenesis, Stephen E. Sherman 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Purification Of Human Adult Progenitor Cell Types To Promote Angiogenesis, Stephen E. Sherman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular transplantation strategies have aimed to combat critical limb ischemia (CLI) by inducing endogenous blood vessel regeneration. Transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for CLI has proven safe and well-tolerated but demonstrated only modestly improved clinical outcomes explained in part by a lack of MSC survival and/or potency in ischemic tissues. This thesis focuses on the development of improved transplantation strategies for patients with CLI utilizing purified pro-angiogenic subsets of MSC and endothelial colony forming cells (ECFC) seeded within decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) bioscaffolds. First, I investigated whether purification of bone marrow-derived MSC based on a conserved stem cell ...


4-D Computational Modeling Of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics Over Looping Developmental Stages In Chicken Embryos, Katherine Courchaine, Mackenzie J. Gray, Kaitlin Beel, Kent L. Thornburg, Sandra Rugonyi 2019 Oregon Health & Science University

4-D Computational Modeling Of Cardiac Outflow Tract Hemodynamics Over Looping Developmental Stages In Chicken Embryos, Katherine Courchaine, Mackenzie J. Gray, Kaitlin Beel, Kent L. Thornburg, Sandra Rugonyi

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Cardiogenesis is interdependent with blood flow within the embryonic system. Recently, a number of studies have begun to elucidate the effects of hemodynamic forces acting upon and within cells as the cardiovascular system begins to develop. Changes in flow are picked up by mechanosensors in endocardial cells exposed to wall shear stress (the tangential force exerted by blood flow) and by myocardial and mesenchymal cells exposed to cyclic strain (deformation). Mechanosensors stimulate a variety of mechanotransduction pathways which elicit functional cellular responses in order to coordinate the structural development of the heart and cardiovascular system. The looping stages of heart ...


Female Sex And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Rural Uganda: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study, Itai M. Magodoro, Maggie Feng, Crystal North, Dagmar Vořechovská, John D. Kraemer, Bernard Kakuhikire, David Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai, Mark J. Siedner 2019 Harvard Medical School,

Female Sex And Cardiovascular Disease Risk In Rural Uganda: A Cross-Sectional, Population-Based Study, Itai M. Magodoro, Maggie Feng, Crystal North, Dagmar Vořechovská, John D. Kraemer, Bernard Kakuhikire, David Bangsberg, Alexander C. Tsai, Mark J. Siedner

OHSU-PSU School of Public Health Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background:

Sex-based differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden are widely acknowledged, with male sex considered a risk factor in high-income settings. However, these relationships have not been examined in sub- Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to apply the American Heart Association (AHA) ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) tool modified by the addition of C-reactive protein (CRP) to examine potential sex-based differences in the prevalence of CVD risk in rural Uganda.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study nested within a population-wide census, 857 community-living adults completed physical and laboratory-based assessments to calculate individual ideal CVH metrics including an eight category for CRP levels ...


Platelet Cd36 Signaling Through Erk5 Promotes Caspase-Dependent Procoagulant Activity And Fibrin Deposition In Vivo, Moua Yang, Andaleb Kholmukhamedov, Marie L. Schulte, Brian C. Cooley, Na'il O. Scoggins, Jeremy P. Wood, Scott J. Cameron, Craig N. Morrell, Shawn M. Jobe, Roy L. Silverstein 2018 Medical College of Wisconsin

Platelet Cd36 Signaling Through Erk5 Promotes Caspase-Dependent Procoagulant Activity And Fibrin Deposition In Vivo, Moua Yang, Andaleb Kholmukhamedov, Marie L. Schulte, Brian C. Cooley, Na'il O. Scoggins, Jeremy P. Wood, Scott J. Cameron, Craig N. Morrell, Shawn M. Jobe, Roy L. Silverstein

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for clinically significant thrombotic events. In this condition, scavenger receptor CD36 potentiates platelet reactivity through recognition of circulating oxidized lipids. CD36 promotes thrombosis by activating redox-sensitive signaling molecules, such as the MAPK extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5). However, the events downstream of platelet ERK5 are not clear. In this study, we report that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes exposure of procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PSer) on platelet surfaces. Studies using pharmacologic inhibitors indicate that oxLDL-CD36 interaction–induced PSer exposure requires apoptotic caspases in addition to the downstream CD36-signaling molecules Src kinases, hydrogen peroxide, and ERK5. Caspases promote ...


New Faculty Mentoring In Respiratory Care Programs, Kristen L. McHenry, Jim Lampley, Randy L. Byington, Donald W. Good, Stephanie R. Tweed 2018 East Tennessee State University

New Faculty Mentoring In Respiratory Care Programs, Kristen L. Mchenry, Jim Lampley, Randy L. Byington, Donald W. Good, Stephanie R. Tweed

ETSU Faculty Works

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to identify mentoring practices of new faculty members in Commission on Accreditation for Respiratory Care (CoARC) accredited respiratory care programs in the U.S. and to identify the perceptions of program directors regarding the observed impact of program mentoring practices. Methods: The method for the study was quantitative non-experimental survey research. The survey instrument was an electronic questionnaire titled Respiratory Care Faculty (RCF) Mentoring Survey. The 25-item survey was divided into three dimensions: mentoring practices, mentor/mentee relationship, and perceptions of the impact of new faculty mentoring. Of the 410 possible program director ...


Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome In An Infant With A C-Terminal Frame Shift In Abca3: A Case Report, Nour Akil, Anthony J Fischer 2018 University of Iowa

Surfactant Deficiency Syndrome In An Infant With A C-Terminal Frame Shift In Abca3: A Case Report, Nour Akil, Anthony J Fischer

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Deficiency in ATP binding cassette A3 (ABCA3) causes neonatal respiratory distress, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and interstitial lung disease. ABCA3 transports phospholipids into the lamellar bodies of type II alveolar cells, a critical step in alveolar surfactant production. We report a term infant with ABCA3 surfactant deficiency syndrome with the E292V (c.875A>T; p.Glu292Val) mutation in trans with a novel C-terminal frame shift mutation (c.4938delC; p.Met1647fs). This mutation removes the final 58 amino acids and substitutes 33 incorrect amino acids. The frame shift spares membrane spanning and nucleotide binding domains, but disrupts a highly conserved C-terminal domain ...


In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Paolo Garcia

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a condition that involves the occlusion of a blood vessel within the brain, effectively preventing the passage of oxygen and nutrients. AIS is highly prevalent in the United States, where nearly 795,000 strokes happen per year and 87% of those are ischemic. From a medical standpoint, the obstructing clot can be removed with the use of a stroke retrieval device. However, a need arises for testing the aforementioned devices on a patient’s specific vascular geometries in order to increase the likelihood of a successful procedure. Outlined is a process for developing a physical ...


Differences In Self-Reported Weekend Catch Up Sleep Between Children And Adolescents With And Without Primary Hypertension, Neena Gupta, Louise Maranda, Rakesh Gupta 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Differences In Self-Reported Weekend Catch Up Sleep Between Children And Adolescents With And Without Primary Hypertension, Neena Gupta, Louise Maranda, Rakesh Gupta

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

Background: The data on the association of sleep duration and blood pressure in the pediatric age group have been mixed and most studies have focused on weekday sleep duration. The purpose of this study was to compare the weekday and weekend sleep patterns between children and adolescents with newly diagnosed primary hypertension and a normotensive control group.

Methods: Children and adolescents from a pediatric nephrology clinic, aged 6-18 years with newly diagnosed primary hypertension were compared to an age and sex matched normotensive control group from a general pediatric clinic. The questions about bed time and getting out of bed ...


Effect Of Study Design On Sample Size In Studies Intended To Evaluate Bioequivalence Of Inhaled Short-Acting Β-Agonist Formulations, Yaohui Zeng, Sachinkumar Singh, Kai Wang, Richard C Ahrens 2018 University of Iowa

Effect Of Study Design On Sample Size In Studies Intended To Evaluate Bioequivalence Of Inhaled Short-Acting Β-Agonist Formulations, Yaohui Zeng, Sachinkumar Singh, Kai Wang, Richard C Ahrens

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

Pharmacodynamic studies that use methacholine challenge to assess bioequivalence of generic and innovator albuterol formulations are generally designed per published Food and Drug Administration guidance, with 3 reference doses and 1 test dose (3-by-1 design). These studies are challenging and expensive to conduct, typically requiring large sample sizes. We proposed 14 modified study designs as alternatives to the Food and Drug Administration-recommended 3-by-1 design, hypothesizing that adding reference and/or test doses would reduce sample size and cost. We used Monte Carlo simulation to estimate sample size. Simulation inputs were selected based on published studies and our own experience with ...


Using Support Vector Machines On Photoplethysmographic Signals To Discriminate Between Hypovolemia And Euvolemia, Natasa Reljin, Gary Zimmer, Yelena Malyuta, Kirk Shelley, Yitzhak Mendelson, David J. Blehar, Chad E. Darling, Ki H. Chon 2018 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Using Support Vector Machines On Photoplethysmographic Signals To Discriminate Between Hypovolemia And Euvolemia, Natasa Reljin, Gary Zimmer, Yelena Malyuta, Kirk Shelley, Yitzhak Mendelson, David J. Blehar, Chad E. Darling, Ki H. Chon

Open Access Articles

Identifying trauma patients at risk of imminent hemorrhagic shock is a challenging task in intraoperative and battlefield settings given the variability of traditional vital signs, such as heart rate and blood pressure, and their inability to detect blood loss at an early stage. To this end, we acquired N = 58 photoplethysmographic (PPG) recordings from both trauma patients with suspected hemorrhage admitted to the hospital, and healthy volunteers subjected to blood withdrawal of 0.9 L. We propose four features to characterize each recording: goodness of fit (r2), the slope of the trend line, percentage change, and the absolute change between ...


A Systematic Review Of Biological Mechanisms Of Fatigue In Chronic Illness, Lea Ann Matura, Susan K. Malone, Rosario Jaime-Lara, Barbara Riegel 2018 University of Pennsylvania

A Systematic Review Of Biological Mechanisms Of Fatigue In Chronic Illness, Lea Ann Matura, Susan K. Malone, Rosario Jaime-Lara, Barbara Riegel

School of Nursing Departmental Papers

Fatigue, a commonly reported symptom, is defined as an overwhelming, debilitating, and sustained sense of exhaustion that decreases the ability to function and carry out daily activities. To date, cancer researchers have been in the forefront in investigating the possible biological mechanisms of fatigue, identifying inflammation, dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, and activation of the autonomic nervous system. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe fatigue and what is known about the biological mechanisms described in cancer in five chronic, noninfectious illnesses: heart failure, multiple sclerosis, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...


Social Support Predicts Self-Care Confidence In Patients With Heart Failure, Hayley C. Fivecoat, Steven L. Sayers, Barbara Riegel 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Social Support Predicts Self-Care Confidence In Patients With Heart Failure, Hayley C. Fivecoat, Steven L. Sayers, Barbara Riegel

School of Nursing Departmental Papers

Background:

Self-care for patients with heart failure includes engaging in behaviours that maintain medical stability and manage problematic symptoms, as well as the confidence in one’s ability to carry out such behaviours. Given the social context of self-care behaviours in heart failure, there has been increasing interest in social support as a predictor of self-care.

Aim:

The goal of the present study was to examine the role of social support in self-care across time for persons with heart failure.

Methods:

Using data from an observational study of patients with chronic heart failure (n = 280), we examined the role of ...


Airway Surface Liquid From Smokers Promotes Bacterial Growth And Biofilm Formation Via Iron-Lactoferrin Imbalance, Luis G. Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E Noriega, Elizabeth A Stone, Alicia K. Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P. Comellas 2018 University of Iowa

Airway Surface Liquid From Smokers Promotes Bacterial Growth And Biofilm Formation Via Iron-Lactoferrin Imbalance, Luis G. Vargas Buonfiglio, Jennifer A Borcherding, Mark Frommelt, Gavin J Parker, Bryce Duchman, Oriana G Vanegas Calderón, Ruth Fernandez-Ruiz, Julio E Noriega, Elizabeth A Stone, Alicia K. Gerke, Joseph Zabner, Alejandro P. Comellas

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Publications

BACKGROUND: Smoking is a leading cause of respiratory infections worldwide. Tobacco particulate matter disrupts iron homeostasis in the lungs and increases the iron content in the airways of smokers. The airway epithelia secrete lactoferrin to quench iron required for bacteria to proliferate and cause lung infections. We hypothesized that smokers would have increased bacterial growth and biofilm formation via iron lactoferrin imbalance.

METHODS: We collected bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from non-smokers and smokers. We challenged these samples using a standard inoculum of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and quantified bacterial growth and biofilm formation. We measured both iron and lactoferrin ...


Acute Pressor Response To Psychosocial Stress Is Dependent On Endothelium‐Derived Endothelin‐1, Brandon M. Fox, Bryan K. Becker, Analia S. Loria, Kelly A. Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M. Pollock, Jennifer S. Pollock 2018 University of Alabama - Birmingham

Acute Pressor Response To Psychosocial Stress Is Dependent On Endothelium‐Derived Endothelin‐1, Brandon M. Fox, Bryan K. Becker, Analia S. Loria, Kelly A. Hyndman, Chunhua Jin, Hannah Clark, Robin Johns, Masashi Yanagisawa, David M. Pollock, Jennifer S. Pollock

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Background

Acute psychosocial stress provokes increases in circulating endothelin‐1 (ET‐1) levels in humans and animal models. However, key questions about the physiological function and cellular source of stress‐induced ET‐1 remain unanswered. We hypothesized that endothelium‐derived ET‐1 contributes to the acute pressor response to stress via activation of the endothelin A receptor.

Methods and Results

Adult male vascular endothelium‐specific ET‐1 knockout mice and control mice that were homozygous for the floxed allele were exposed to acute psychosocial stress in the form of cage switch stress (CSS), with blood pressure measured by telemetry. An ...


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