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Metabolic Regulation Of Myocardial Adaptation To Exercise., Andrew Alan Gibb 2017 University of Louisville

Metabolic Regulation Of Myocardial Adaptation To Exercise., Andrew Alan Gibb

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While the benefits of exercise affect several organs, a significant adaptive response occurs within the heart. Exercise promotes cardiac growth, increases angiogenesis, and enhances cardiac function and these adaptations are associated with a cardioprotective phenotype. Additionally, extensive evidence shows that exercise dynamically regulates myocardial metabolism. This can be attributed to both changes in hormonal stimulation, increases in bioenergetic demand, and the bioavailability of circulating substrates. However, it is unclear whether these changes in metabolism contribute to physiologic cardiac growth. We reason that exercise-induced changes in metabolism are required to balance the catabolic and anabolic reactions needed for growth. Specifically, we ...


Influence Of Longitudinal Position On The Evolution Of Steady-State Signal In Cardiac Cine Balanced Steady-State Free Precession Imaging, Tyler J. Spear, Tori A. Stromp, Steve W. Leung, Moriel H. Vandsburger 2017 University of Kentucky

Influence Of Longitudinal Position On The Evolution Of Steady-State Signal In Cardiac Cine Balanced Steady-State Free Precession Imaging, Tyler J. Spear, Tori A. Stromp, Steve W. Leung, Moriel H. Vandsburger

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Background: Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time.

Purpose: To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions.

Material and Methods: Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D ...


Problems In Embalming: Cyanide Poisoning, Rebecca Majus 2017 Southern Illinois University Carbondale

Problems In Embalming: Cyanide Poisoning, Rebecca Majus

ASA Multidisciplinary Research Symposium

To inform funeral professionals, or anyone interested, what cyanide poisoning is, how death from it occurs, how to detect it in postmortem remains, how it poses a problem for embalmers, and what embalming techniques can be used to treat it.


Effect Of Intranasally Delivered Rh-Vegf165 On Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia In The Cerebral Cortex Of Newborn Piglets., Amit Jain, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amishi Jain, Amulya Buddhavarapu, Jahan Ara 2017 George Washington University

Effect Of Intranasally Delivered Rh-Vegf165 On Angiogenesis Following Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia In The Cerebral Cortex Of Newborn Piglets., Amit Jain, Panagiotis Kratimenos, Ioannis Koutroulis, Amishi Jain, Amulya Buddhavarapu, Jahan Ara

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) stimulates vascular genesis and angiogenesis. Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia (HI) leads to the reduction of vasculature in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets.

Objective: The present study tests the hypothesis that post-hypoxia intranasal administration of recombinant human VEGF165 (rh-VEGF165) for 3 days increases the vascular density in the cerebral cortex of newborn piglets without promoting neovascularization.

Design/Methods: Ventilated newborn piglets were divided into three groups (n = 5/group): normoxic (Nx), hypoxic-ischemic (HI), and HI treated with intranasal rh-VEGF165rh-VEGF165 (HI-VEGF). HI piglets were exposed to HI (0.05 FiO2) for 30 min. Recombinant h-VEGF165 (100 ...


Relative Associations Of Age, Height, And Weight On Sinus Of Valsalva And Mid-Ascending Aorta: An Imaging And Epidemiology Study, Mirza Nubair Ahmad, Syed Haris Pir, Mirza Mujadil Ahmad, Sharmeen Hussaini, Bijoy K. Khandheria, A. Jamil Tajik, Khawaja Afzal Ammar 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Relative Associations Of Age, Height, And Weight On Sinus Of Valsalva And Mid-Ascending Aorta: An Imaging And Epidemiology Study, Mirza Nubair Ahmad, Syed Haris Pir, Mirza Mujadil Ahmad, Sharmeen Hussaini, Bijoy K. Khandheria, A. Jamil Tajik, Khawaja Afzal Ammar

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Prior studies show ascending aorta diameter varies with age, height and weight, but they did not evaluate relative influence of these variables on aortic diameter. Since height is genetically determined, and genetic disorders like Marfan syndrome are predominantly associated with sinus of Valsalva (SOV) dilation, we hypothesized height may have stronger association with SOV.

Purpose: Based on anecdotal observation, since age, weight and obesity are acquired attributes, we hypothesized age, weight and body mass index may have greater association with mid-ascending aorta (MAA) diameter, even in normal patients.

Methods: We evaluated echocardiographic studies of patients ≥ 15 years old that ...


Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer 2017 Department of Internal Medicine, Aurora Sinai Medical Center

Variations In Practice Of Apnea Test For Brain Death: Review From A Multihospital Health Care System, Jeffrey Stein, Marvi V. Rijhwani, Ernesto Brauer

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Background: Ventilation encompasses both active and passive processes. Air is initially drawn into the lungs due to a negative intrathoracic pressure created using the respiratory muscles, most importantly the diaphragm. In contrast, expiration is the passive relaxation of the respiratory muscles. Oxygenation occurs when oxygen diffuses across the alveolar-capillary membrane. The ability to oxygenate without ventilation has been termed apneic diffusion oxygenation or apneic oxygenation. We believe it is crucial to keep alveoli open in order for adequate oxygenation to occur. This can be achieved with the aid of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). We investigated this concept in patients who ...


Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose McGlauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel 2017 University of Iowa

Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species In Lipotoxic Hearts Induces Post-Translational Modifications Of Akap121, Drp1 And Opa1 That Promote Mitochondrial Fission, Kensuke Tsushima, Heiko Bugger, Adam R. Wende, Jamie Soto, Gregory A. Jenson, Austin R. Tor, Rose Mcglauflin, Helena C. Kenny, Yuan Zhang, Rhonda Souvenir, Xiao X. Hu, Crystal L. Sloan, Renata O. Pereira, Vitor A. Lira, Kenneth W. Spitzer, Terry L. Sharp, Kooresh I. Shoghi, Genevieve C. Sparagna, Eva A. Rog-Zielinska, Peter Kohl, Oleh Khalimonchuk, Jean E. Schaffer, E. Dale Abel

Biochemistry -- Faculty Publications

Rationale: Cardiac lipotoxicity, characterized by increased uptake, oxidation and accumulation of lipid intermediates, contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. However, mechanisms linking lipid overload and mitochondrial dysfunction are incompletely understood.

Objective: To elucidate the mechanisms for mitochondrial adaptations to lipid overload in postnatal hearts in vivo.

Methods and Results: Using a transgenic mouse model of cardiac lipotoxicity overexpressing long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 in cardiomyocytes, we show that modestly increased myocardial fatty acid uptake leads to mitochondrial structural remodeling with significant reduction in minimum diameter. This is associated with increased palmitoyl-carnitine oxidation and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation ...


Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation And Fibrosis In Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Latha Muniappan, Aida Javidan, Weihua Jiang, Shayan Mohammadmoradi, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Wendy S. Katz, Anju Balakrishnan, Deborah A. Howatt, Venkateswaran Subramanian 2017 University of Kentucky

Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation And Fibrosis In Diet-Induced Obese Mice, Latha Muniappan, Aida Javidan, Weihua Jiang, Shayan Mohammadmoradi, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Wendy S. Katz, Anju Balakrishnan, Deborah A. Howatt, Venkateswaran Subramanian

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Adipose tissue macrophages have been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not completely defined. Calpains are calcium-dependent neutral cysteine proteases that modulate cellular function and have been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. To define whether activated calpains influence diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, mice that were either wild type (WT) or overexpressing calpastatin (CAST Tg), the endogenous inhibitor of calpains were fed with high (60% kcal) fat diet for 16 weeks. CAST overexpression did not influence high fat diet-induced body weight and fat mass gain throughout the study ...


Therapeutic Challenges In A Case Of Psoriasis With Nail Onset, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Maria I. Sârbu, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa, Simona R. Georgescu 2017 Carol Davila University, Department of Microbiology, Victor Babes Hospital for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Bucharest, Romania

Therapeutic Challenges In A Case Of Psoriasis With Nail Onset, Mădălina I. Mitran, Cristina I. Mitran, Maria I. Sârbu, Vasile Benea, Mircea Tampa, Simona R. Georgescu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Nail psoriasis affects a large number of patients with psoriasis and has a major psychosocial impact. Furthermore, it may be regarded as a predictor of more severe forms of psoriasis and early sign of psoriatic arthritis. The clinical presentations vary depending on the structure affected (nail matrix or nail bed), the nail lesions may range from minor to severe, but they are not specific. Treatment is a challenge, in most cases the lesions being resistant to therapy. We present a rare case of psoriasis with nail onset in a 59-year-old woman. The nail involvement confined to the fingernails was severe ...


Is There A Utility For Qrs Dispersion In Clinical Practice?, Ionuț Donoiu, Georgică Costinel Târtea, Elibet Chávez-González 2017 University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, Department of Cardiology, Craiova, Romania

Is There A Utility For Qrs Dispersion In Clinical Practice?, Ionuț Donoiu, Georgică Costinel Târtea, Elibet Chávez-González

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Prognostic markers derived from standard ECG have always been seductive. Increased dispersion of durations of the P wave, of the QRS complex, or of the QT interval has been associated with the risk of atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death, as well as with a general negative prognosis in various settings. However, these markers have intrinsic and methodological issues that question their utility. This paper presents data supporting the utility of QRS dispersion in clinical practice. Our investigation shows that QRS dispersion is a simple electrocardiographic marker with potential value in the assessment of patients in a variety of ...


Targeting Hepatic Heparin-Binding Egf-Like Growth Factor (Hb-Egf) Induces Anti-Hyperlipidemia Leading To Reduction Of Angiotensin Ii-Induced Aneurysm Development, Seonwook Kim, Lihua Yang, Seongu Kim, Richard G. Lee, Mark J. Graham, Judith A. Berliner, Aldons J. Lusis, Lei Cai, Ryan E. Temel, Debra L. Rateri, Sangderk Lee 2017 University of Kentucky

Targeting Hepatic Heparin-Binding Egf-Like Growth Factor (Hb-Egf) Induces Anti-Hyperlipidemia Leading To Reduction Of Angiotensin Ii-Induced Aneurysm Development, Seonwook Kim, Lihua Yang, Seongu Kim, Richard G. Lee, Mark J. Graham, Judith A. Berliner, Aldons J. Lusis, Lei Cai, Ryan E. Temel, Debra L. Rateri, Sangderk Lee

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Objective

The upregulated expression of heparin binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) in the vessel and circulation is associated with risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we tested the effects of HB-EGF targeting using HB-EGF-specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) on the development of aortic aneurysm in a mouse aneurysm model.

Approach and results

Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice (male, 16 weeks of age) were injected with control and HB-EGF ASOs for 10 weeks. To induce aneurysm, the mice were fed a high fat diet (22% fat, 0.2% cholesterol; w/w) at 5 week point of ASO administration and infused ...


Cardiovascular And Temperature Actions Of Cathinones, Hadeel A. Alsufyani 2017 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Cardiovascular And Temperature Actions Of Cathinones, Hadeel A. Alsufyani

PhD theses

The main aims of these studies were to investigate cardiovascular and temperature actions of the main constituent of khat, cathinone, and to study possible gender differences. Also, since caffeine is often taken together with cathinone, the interaction between caffeine and cathinone was examined. Cathinone had cardiovascular effects in the anaesthetised rat similar to those of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and like MDMA, cathinone acts predominantly as an indirect sympathomimetic acting at the noradrenaline transporter. The indirect actions of cathinone and MDMA were confirmed by the effects of sympathectomy on cardiovascular responses, and by the lack of contractile responses in rat aorta and ...


Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke 2017 Houston Methodist Hospital

Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke

Andres Schanzer

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the long-term outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas treated with vonapanitase (recombinant human elastase) at the time of surgical creation.

METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 151 patients undergoing radiocephalic or brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula creation who were randomized equally to placebo, vonapanitase 10 mug, or vonapanitase 30 mug. The results after 1 year of follow-up were previously reported. The current analysis occurred when the last patient treated was observed for 3 years. For the current analysis, the primary end point was primary patency; the secondary end points included secondary patency, use of the fistula for ...


Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez 2017 James Madison University

Diagnostic Effectiveness Of High-Sensitivity Troponins, Sean R. Bodin, Jacqueline Ramirez

Physician Assistant Capstones

Background: Acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) are a leading cause of death in the United States. The key to increasing survivability is early recognition to expedite the proper treatment modalities. In conjunction with the clinical presentation and electrocardiograms, the use of cardiac biomarkers is exponentially important in not only recognizing a cardiac event but also determining the extent of injury. Advancement in laboratory technology has led to the development of high-sensitive troponin (hs-troponin) assays which can detect smaller cardiac troponin serum levels compared to conventional troponin assays. This implies that the use of hs-troponin assays is more effective in the early ...


Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh 2017 University of Louisville

Trunk And Respiratory Motor Control In Typically Developing Children And Its Implications In Children With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury., Goutam Singh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Independent sitting is a major milestone and is also a prerequisite for optimal performance of activities of daily living (ADLs). Development of sitting posture control is a dynamic process involving control of degrees of freedom of head and trunk. Traditionally, trunk has been modeled as a single unit (segment). However, recent studies have suggested that it is made up multiple spinal units, controlled by a combination of trunk muscles. During typical development, posture control of trunk is different for different trunk segments. This motor development of trunk control is a complex process due to constant interaction between the nervous system ...


Plasma Cross-Gestational Sphingolipidomic Analyses Reveal Potential First Trimester Biomarkers Of Preeclampsia, Aneta Dobierzewska, Sony Soman, Sebastian E Illanes, Andrew J. Morris 2017 Universidad de los Andes, Chile

Plasma Cross-Gestational Sphingolipidomic Analyses Reveal Potential First Trimester Biomarkers Of Preeclampsia, Aneta Dobierzewska, Sony Soman, Sebastian E Illanes, Andrew J. Morris

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Introduction

Preeclampsia (PE) is a gestational disorder, manifested in the second half of pregnancy by maternal hypertension, proteinuria and generalized edema. PE is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly 40% of all premature births worldwide. Bioactive sphingolipids are emerging as key molecules involved in etiopathogenesis of PE, characterized by maternal angiogenic imbalance and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare the cross-gestational profile of circulating bioactive sphingolipids in maternal plasma from preeclamptic (PE) versus normotensive control (CTL) subjects with the goal of identifying sphingolipids as candidate first trimester ...


Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke 2017 Houston Methodist Hospital

Arteriovenous Fistula Patency In The 3 Years Following Vonapanitase And Placebo Treatment, Eric K. Peden, Timothy P. O'Connor, Barry J. Browne, Bradley S. Dixon, Andres Schanzer, Stephen C. Jensik, Albert D. Sam 2nd, Steven K. Burke

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVE: This study explored the long-term outcomes of arteriovenous fistulas treated with vonapanitase (recombinant human elastase) at the time of surgical creation.

METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 151 patients undergoing radiocephalic or brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistula creation who were randomized equally to placebo, vonapanitase 10 mug, or vonapanitase 30 mug. The results after 1 year of follow-up were previously reported. The current analysis occurred when the last patient treated was observed for 3 years. For the current analysis, the primary end point was primary patency; the secondary end points included secondary patency, use of the fistula for ...


Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin 2017 University of Kentucky

Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation For Cardiogenic Shock: A Retrospective Analysis Based On The Etiology Of Shock, Andrew Burchett, Thomas Tribble, Richard Charnigo, Susan Smyth, Maya Guglin

The VAD Journal

Abstract:

Background: We performed a retrospective analysis to evaluate the efficacy of VA-ECMO support in cardiogenic shock based on various etiologies.

Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 99 patients supported with VA-ECMO from January 1, 2012 to January 1, 2015. Outcomes included survival to discontinuation of VA-ECMO support and survival to hospital discharge. The etiologies of cardiogenic shock included cardiac arrest (CPR), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF), pulmonary embolism (PE), right ventricular failure (RVF) not secondary to an acute pulmonary embolism, and post-cardiotomy syndrome (PCS). The PCS group was used as a reference group; odds ratios were estimated ...


The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee 2017 University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (Iugr) On The Pulmonary Surfactant And Lung Injury, Reza Khazaee

Western Research Forum

The Effects of Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) on the Pulmonary Surfactant and Lung Injury

Khazaee R1, McCaig LA2, Hardy D1, Yamashita CM2, Veldhuizen, RAW2

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology1, Western University, London, ON, Canada. Lawson Health Research Institute2, London, ON, Canada

Background: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is defined as severe lung dysfunction that occurs after an insult to the lung such as an infection. The lung dysfunction in ARDS is due to alterations to surfactant, a lipid-protein mixture coats the inside of the lung and maintains the lungs’ ability to expand easily ...


A Comparison Of Changes In Women's Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition After Performance In Zumba, Tabata, And Cycling, Kristi N. Kester 2017 The University of Akron

A Comparison Of Changes In Women's Cardiovascular Fitness And Body Composition After Performance In Zumba, Tabata, And Cycling, Kristi N. Kester

Honors Research Projects

Aerobic group exercise is important to prevent against cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases. Regular exercise can help to reduce the risk of these diseases and premature death. Group exercise classes have shown to be effective in reducing weight, blood pressure, and body composition Further research is necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these aerobic group exercise classes to one another. PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the potential health benefits that may occur for women who participate in regular group exercise classes at the Kohl Family YMCA. METHODS: A surrey and body measurements were taken of females enrolled an eight-week aerobic ...


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