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Apneic Oxygenation: An Adjunctive Therapy For Laryngoscopy During Anesthesia Induction, Yaro Hoffman 2020 The University of Southern Mississippi

Apneic Oxygenation: An Adjunctive Therapy For Laryngoscopy During Anesthesia Induction, Yaro Hoffman

Doctoral Projects

Endotracheal intubation is an essential component within the skill set of anesthesia providers. Rapid arterial desaturation remains a primary risk factor during laryngoscopy and intubation. The risk for hypoxemia exists because during endotracheal intubation, patients are apneic or hypo-ventilating (Wong et al., 2017). Apneic oxygenation (AO) has been advocated to attenuate hypoxemia during endotracheal intubation (Pavlov et al., 2017).

The aim of this project was to assess for any knowledge deficits regarding AO among anesthesia providers and assess the willingness of these providers to include AO into their current practice. The project investigator conducted an education session involving the evidence-based ...


Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Alternative Polyadenylation Modulates Expression Of Pro-Fibrotic Proteins And Contributes To Lung Fibrosis, Junsuk Ko

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disease which affects about 5 to 8 million individuals in the world. Despite the high prevalence, there is currently no cure for IPF, and the cause of this disease is still unclear. Our laboratory and collaborators have shown that nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21, which is also known as cleavage factor 25, CFIm25) is a key regulator of alternative polyadenylation (APA). NUDT21 depletion causes 3’UTR shortening via APA leading to enhanced mRNA stability and protein translation. This NUDT21 reduction promotes tumor growth in glioblastoma by enhancing expression of oncogenes. Cancer and IPF ...


Myocardial Work Index: A Novel Method For Assessment Of Myocardial Function In South Asian Recreational Athletes, Shantanu Sengupta, Renuka Jain, Nitin Burkule, Susan Olet, Bijoy K. Khandheria 2020 Sengupta Hospital and Research Institute

Myocardial Work Index: A Novel Method For Assessment Of Myocardial Function In South Asian Recreational Athletes, Shantanu Sengupta, Renuka Jain, Nitin Burkule, Susan Olet, Bijoy K. Khandheria

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: We used a novel noninvasive method based on speckle-tracking echocardiography to evaluate myocardial performance in South Asian recreational athletes who completed a half marathon.

Methods: Transthoracic echocardiography was performed on 24 recreational athletes 48 hours before they took part in a half marathon (premarathon), within 2 hours of half marathon completion (postmarathon), and 72 hours after completion. Clinical, laboratory, and echocardiographic variables were collected. Speckle-tracking echocardiography was performed in all subjects to characterize myocardial mechanics.

Results: Mean age of participants was 41.8 ± 7.4 years, and 23 (95.8%) were male. No subject had a prior history of ...


Modulator Therapy For Cystic Fibrosis: An Exploration Of Current Research, Jessalyn Rombocos 2020 Liberty University

Modulator Therapy For Cystic Fibrosis: An Exploration Of Current Research, Jessalyn Rombocos

Senior Honors Theses

Developing a drug therapy that addresses the root cause of cystic fibrosis (CF) by increasing CFTR protein levels has long been a research challenge. After genetic therapy failed because a suitable delivery system could not be found, researchers began searching for small organic molecules that could act as chaperones for CFTR. These molecules, known as modulators, allowed CFTR to be assembled correctly and function similarly to wild type CFTR. Since 2012, four modulator drugs have been developed, tested, and approved by the FDA. In October 2019, Trikafta was approved as the first triple-combination modulator drug and has completely revolutionized CF ...


Regenerative Medicine Therapy: Adipose Derived Extracellular Vesicles In Viral Myocarditis, David Gorelov, Damian N. Di Florio, Gary R. Salomon, Angita Jain, Nick E. Saikaili, Danielle J. Beetler, Swikriti Shrestha, Ming Tian, Joy Wolfram PhD, DeLisa Fairweather PhD 2020 University of North Florida

Regenerative Medicine Therapy: Adipose Derived Extracellular Vesicles In Viral Myocarditis, David Gorelov, Damian N. Di Florio, Gary R. Salomon, Angita Jain, Nick E. Saikaili, Danielle J. Beetler, Swikriti Shrestha, Ming Tian, Joy Wolfram Phd, Delisa Fairweather Phd

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Objective: Myocarditis, inflammation of the heart muscle, is an autoimmune heart disease that can be caused by viruses, bacteria and toxins. Myocarditis can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and heart failure. Currently there are no disease-specific therapies for treating myocarditis or preventing progression to DCM. Adipose Extracellular Vesicles (AEVs) are lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are released into the outside environment of adipocytes and provide promising regenerative potential for inflammatory diseases like myocarditis.

Methods: Lipoaspirate was obtained from women and men and AEVs isolated from the lipoaspirate using tangential flow filtration. We injected wild type male BALB/c mice with 250uL ...


Potential Role Of The Large Protein Titin In The Development Of Heart Failure, Mary M. Prickett 2020 University of South Carolina

Potential Role Of The Large Protein Titin In The Development Of Heart Failure, Mary M. Prickett

Senior Theses

I will be exploring the impact of the large protein Titin on heart failure with a preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). It was hypothesized that myocardial Titin plays a significant role in the progression of HFpEF through isoform, N2BA and N2B, changes. It was hypothesized that an increase in the quantity of N2B Titin, less compliant, and a decrease in N2BA Titin, more compliant, will be observed as HF progresses, contributing to an increase in passive stiffness involved in heart contraction. I will cover a detailed report on the role of Titin in HFpEF and propose research methods to explore further.


Cuffless Single-Site Photoplethysmography For Blood Pressure Monitoring, Manish Hosanee, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi 2020 University of British Columbia

Cuffless Single-Site Photoplethysmography For Blood Pressure Monitoring, Manish Hosanee, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi

Open Access Articles

One in three adults worldwide has hypertension, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Consequently, there is a global demand for continuous and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) measurements that are convenient, easy to use, and more accurate than the currently available methods for detecting hypertension. This could easily be achieved through the integration of single-site photoplethysmography (PPG) readings into wearable devices, although improved reliability and an understanding of BP estimation accuracy are essential. This review paper focuses on understanding the features of PPG associated with BP and examines the development of this technology over the 2010-2019 period in terms ...


Effect Of Sleep Deprivation And Sleep Recovery On Heart Rate And Heart Rate Variability In Males Versus Females, Abrianna Lochner SPT, Elena Crooks PT, DPT, Phd, Myles Gordon Finlay BA, Julie A. Erwin MS, Kimberly Honn PhD 2020 Eastern Washington University, Department of Physical Therapy

Effect Of Sleep Deprivation And Sleep Recovery On Heart Rate And Heart Rate Variability In Males Versus Females, Abrianna Lochner Spt, Elena Crooks Pt, Dpt, Phd, Myles Gordon Finlay Ba, Julie A. Erwin Ms, Kimberly Honn Phd

2020 Symposium Posters

Introduction

Elevated heart rate (HR) and low HR variability (HRV) are indicators of increased sympathetic tone and cardiovascular risk. Here, we assess the effect of one night of sleep deprivation and a subsequent night of recovery sleep on HR and HRV in healthy males versus females.

Methods

Fifty-nine subjects (29.5±8.5y, n=35 female) completed a 4-day/3-night laboratory study. Subjects had a baseline sleep opportunity (22:00–08:00), followed by 38h of sleep deprivation, and a recovery sleep opportunity (22:00–08:00). EKG was monitored via Holter monitors to measure HR and the pNN50 and ...


Biomarkers Of Inflammation In Heart Failure Patients With Reduced And Preserved Ejection Fractions: Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Michelle Lynne Stone 2020 University of North Florida

Biomarkers Of Inflammation In Heart Failure Patients With Reduced And Preserved Ejection Fractions: Multi-Ethnic Study Of Atherosclerosis, Michelle Lynne Stone

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Purpose Examine the relationships between high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor-1 (sTNF-R1) and the cumulative risk of heart failure with reduced (HFrEF) and preserved (HFpEF) ejection fractions in a diverse, population-based sample. Methods Study sample included 6,814 adult (45-84 years of age) men and women who participated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. Cox regression was used to calculate the hazard ratios (HR) associated with elevated baseline hs-CRP (> 3-10 mg/L), IL-6 (> 75th percentile) and sTNF-R1 (> 75th percentile) and risk of overall HF ...


Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity In Women Following Preeclamptic Pregnancies, Nina Stachenfeld, Charlotte Usseleman, Cheryl Leone, Michael Paidas 2019 Yale School of Medicine

Sympathetic Nervous System Reactivity In Women Following Preeclamptic Pregnancies, Nina Stachenfeld, Charlotte Usseleman, Cheryl Leone, Michael Paidas

Yale Day of Data

Women who have had preeclamptic pregnancies are at risk for life-long cardiovascular disease. However, the factors contributing to this risk have yet to be established. Sympathetic nervous system dysregulation has been proposed to contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction during preeclamptic pregnancies. Therefore, we examined muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at baseline and during a chemoreflex stimulus in women 6-24 months postpartum following a preeclamptic pregnancy (PE; n=6, age 28±2 y, BMI 27±3 kg/m2, 17±4 months postpartum). We hypothesized that MSNA responses to apnea would be greater in PE relative to control subjects, that is, women 6-24 ...


Blood Flow Restriction Exercise: A Systematic Review Of The Literature, James M. McKivigan 2019 Touro University Nevada

Blood Flow Restriction Exercise: A Systematic Review Of The Literature, James M. Mckivigan

College of Health & Human Services (TUN) Publications and Research

Blood flow restriction training is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. However, it is not without controversy. While there are many reported health benefits, there are equally as many risks. Most concerning is the lack of industry standardizations regarding cuff size and pressure. There is no required training to implement blood flow restriction training, which can be problematic when people with little knowledge practice this type of exercise. When blood flow is restricted, there is an impact on the cardiovascular system, nervous system, and muscular system. Damage can be done when blood flow is restricted with too much pressure ...


Enhancing Cpr Training: Development And Assessment Of An Affordable, Open-Source Real-Time Feedback Manikin, Anish Sangari, Nitish Sood, Joseph Andrew Hauger 2019 Augusta University

Enhancing Cpr Training: Development And Assessment Of An Affordable, Open-Source Real-Time Feedback Manikin, Anish Sangari, Nitish Sood, Joseph Andrew Hauger

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique used in cases of cardiac arrest. Immediate CPR can increase survival rates two to three-fold. While many CPR training courses use non-electronic CPR manikins, recent literature has shown that training on a real-time feedback CPR manikin improves functional outcomes such as chest compression rate and mean tidal volume. However, current commercially available real-time feedback manikins only measure metrics on chest compressions or can be prohibitively expensive ( >$200). Accordingly, we have designed, constructed, and tested a low-cost Arduino microcontroller-based CPR manikin that provides real-time feedback to trainees on eight critical metrics including force of ...


Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Technology For Blood Pressure Assessment: Challenges And Recommendations, Gabriel Chan, Rachel Cooper, Manish Hosanee, Kaylie Welykholowa, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou, Dingchang Zheng, John Allen, Derek Abbott, Nigel H. Lovell, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi 2019 University of British Columbia

Multi-Site Photoplethysmography Technology For Blood Pressure Assessment: Challenges And Recommendations, Gabriel Chan, Rachel Cooper, Manish Hosanee, Kaylie Welykholowa, Panayiotis A. Kyriacou, Dingchang Zheng, John Allen, Derek Abbott, Nigel H. Lovell, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi

Open Access Articles

Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases and is often called the "silent killer" because there are usually no early symptoms. Hypertension is also associated with multiple morbidities, including chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease. Early detection and intervention are therefore important. The current routine method for diagnosing hypertension is done using a sphygmomanometer, which can only provide intermittent blood pressure readings and can be confounded by various factors, such as white coat hypertension, time of day, exercise, or stress. Consequently, there is an increasing need for a non-invasive, cuff-less, and continuous blood pressure monitoring device. Multi-site photoplethysmography (PPG ...


Piezo1: Proteins For Mechanotransduction And Integration Of Endothelial Shear Stress & Intravascular Pressure, Juan Garcia Robledo M.D. 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Piezo1: Proteins For Mechanotransduction And Integration Of Endothelial Shear Stress & Intravascular Pressure, Juan Garcia Robledo M.D.

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Piezo proteins are transmembrane ion channels, specialized in detecting mechanosensitive stimuli and transduce mechanical forces into biochemical signals. Piezo proteins research has helped understand physiological mechanisms, but the integrative role that Piezo1 plays in the regulation of the microvasculature has remained unstudied. Our main objective was to characterize ex vivo microvascular responses to the blockade of Piezo1 mechanotransduction in male (n=29) and female (n=24) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Gracilis arterioles (GA) and middle cerebral arterioles (MCA) were harvested for ex-vivo vessel preparations. After vessel viability confirmation, every vessel was submitted to myogenic and flow challenges under control conditions and ...


Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry For Prediction Of Mouse Lung Deposition Of Nanoaerosol Particles, Mohammed Ali 2019 The University of Texas at Tyler

Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry For Prediction Of Mouse Lung Deposition Of Nanoaerosol Particles, Mohammed Ali

Mohammed Ali

Nanoaerosolized particle (dia.<200 >nm) antibiotic inhalation therapy was tested to treat pneumonic tularemia in mice caused by Francisella novicida infection. Very limited experimental techniques are available to properly estimate inhaled doses and distribution of the drug inside the mouse lungs. To overcome this problem, computational simulation of particle deposition based on the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model was employed to simulate in vivo experimental conditions which included nasal breathing with whole body exposure to the antibiotic in the form of nano-aerosolized medicine. The deposition results were compared with several in vivo experimental data reported in literature; and satisfactory agreements ...


Assessing The Structure-Function Relationships Of The Apolipoprotein(A) Kringle Iv Sub-Type 10 Domain, Matthew J. Borrelli 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Assessing The Structure-Function Relationships Of The Apolipoprotein(A) Kringle Iv Sub-Type 10 Domain, Matthew J. Borrelli

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is the most prevalent heritable risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease. The apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) component of Lp(a) is strongly implicated in the pathogenicity of Lp(a). It is hypothesized that the inflammatory potential of Lp(a)/apo(a) is mediated by the lysine binding ability of the apo(a) kringle IV10 (KIV10) domain, along with its covalently bound oxidized phospholipid (oxPL). Using targeted mutagenesis, two novel null alleles for the LPA gene that generate non-secretable apo(a) species have been identified, resulting from amino acid substitutions in the KIV10 ...


Influence Of Heating And Biological Sex On Vascular Dysfunction Associated With Long-Duration Sitting And Standing, Aaron Richard Caldwell 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Heating And Biological Sex On Vascular Dysfunction Associated With Long-Duration Sitting And Standing, Aaron Richard Caldwell

Theses and Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of these studies was to determine if arterial angulations (through sitting or standing), shear stress (through local heating), or a combination of these factors affected vascular function. Moreover, this studied estimated the magnitude of the effect that biological sex has on these vascular responses. Methods: Twenty-six healthy, young (18-40 years old) males (n=13) and females (n=13) completed two experimental trials (2-h sitting and 2-h standing). In a randomized fashion, one leg was passively heated in order to increase shear rate. Following a 48-h washout, participants returned to the laboratory to complete the other trial. Flow-mediated ...


Hdl Subclass Proteomic Analysis And Functional Implication Of Protein Dynamic Change During Hdl Maturation, Yuling Zhang, Scott M. Gordon, Hang Xi, Seungbum Choi, Merlin Abner Paz, Runlu Sun, William Yang, Jason Saredy, Mohsin Khan, Alan Thomas Remaley, Jing-Feng Wang, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang 2019 Sun Yat-sen University, China

Hdl Subclass Proteomic Analysis And Functional Implication Of Protein Dynamic Change During Hdl Maturation, Yuling Zhang, Scott M. Gordon, Hang Xi, Seungbum Choi, Merlin Abner Paz, Runlu Sun, William Yang, Jason Saredy, Mohsin Khan, Alan Thomas Remaley, Jing-Feng Wang, Xiaofeng Yang, Hong Wang

Saha Cardiovascular Research Center Faculty Publications

Recent clinical trials reported that increasing high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels does not improve cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesize that HDL proteome dynamics determine HDL cardioprotective functions. In this study, we characterized proteome profiles in HDL subclasses and established their functional connection. Mouse plasma was fractionized by fast protein liquid chromatography, examined for protein, cholesterial, phospholipid and trigliceride content. Small, medium and large (S/M/L)-HDL subclasseses were collected for proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. Fifty-one HDL proteins (39 in S-HDL, 27 in M-HDL and 29 in L-HDL) were identified and grouped into 4 functional categories (lipid metabolism, immune response, coagulation ...


Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo 2019 The Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University

Dysfunction In Serotonergic And Noradrenergic Systems And Somatic Symptoms In Psychiatric Disorders, Yi Liu, Jingping Zhao, Xiaoduo Fan, Wenbin Guo

Open Access Articles

Somatic symptoms include a range of physical experiences, such as pain, muscle tension, body shaking, difficulty in breathing, heart palpitation, blushing, fatigue, and sweating. Somatic symptoms are common in major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and some other psychiatric disorders. However, the etiology of somatic symptoms remains unclear. Somatic symptoms could be a response to emotional distress in patients with those psychiatric conditions. Increasing evidence supports the role of aberrant serotoninergic and noradrenergic neurotransmission in somatic symptoms. The physiological alterations underlying diminished serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) signaling may contribute to impaired signal transduction, reduced 5-HT, or NE release from ...


Early Identification And Intervention In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Using An Implantable Cardiac Monitor To Significantly Improve Guideline-Based Anticoagulation Therapy In An Outpatient Cardiology Clinic, Lisa Alvarez 2019 University of San Diego

Early Identification And Intervention In Patients With Atrial Fibrillation Using An Implantable Cardiac Monitor To Significantly Improve Guideline-Based Anticoagulation Therapy In An Outpatient Cardiology Clinic, Lisa Alvarez

Dissertations

The purpose of this research was to (a) examine the demographics of patients receiving care in an outpatient cardiology clinic, (b) describe the relationship between the atrial fibrillation (AF) and other variables (e.g., BMI), (c) examine the frequency and the length of time to AF diagnosis in patients implanted with an implantable cardiac monitoring (ICM) device, (d) observe provider patterns of treatment with oral anticoagulants (OACs), and (e) investigate documented considerations to either diagnose or rule out OSA in a group of outpatient AF patients in a cardiology clinic.

Background: AF is largely undiagnosed but can cause major morbidity ...


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