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The Trait Repertoire Enabling Cyanobacteria To Bloom Assessed Through Comparative Genomic Complexity And Metatranscriptomics, Huansheng Cao, Yohei Shimura, Morgan M. Steffen, Zhou Yang, Jingrang Lu, Allen Joel, Landon Jenkins, Masanobu Kawachi, Yanbin Yin, Ferran Garcia-Pichel 2020 Northern Illinois University

The Trait Repertoire Enabling Cyanobacteria To Bloom Assessed Through Comparative Genomic Complexity And Metatranscriptomics, Huansheng Cao, Yohei Shimura, Morgan M. Steffen, Zhou Yang, Jingrang Lu, Allen Joel, Landon Jenkins, Masanobu Kawachi, Yanbin Yin, Ferran Garcia-Pichel

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Water bloom development due to eutrophication constitutes a case of niche specialization among planktonic cyanobacteria, but the genomic repertoire allowing bloom formation in only some species has not been fully characterized. We posited that the habitat relevance of a trait begets its underlying genomic complexity, so that traits within the repertoire would be differentially more complex in species successfully thriving in that habitat than in close species that cannot. To test this for the case of bloom-forming cyanobacteria, we curated 17 potentially relevant query metabolic pathways and five core pathways selected according to existing ecophysiological literature. The available 113 genomes …


The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo 2020 University of Rhode Island

The Impact Of Stress On Diet, Sleep, And Exercise Amongst College Students, Jessica Rizzo

Senior Honors Projects

Stress is something that everyone faces in their lifetime and has an everlasting impact on their health. College students face high levels of stress throughout the semester, but how is that impacting their behavior? I conducted a survey alongside Dr. Melanson, a professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, to see just how college students are reacting to stress. The survey was circulated to different departments and classes to achieve a widespread collection of data. The survey remained completely anonymous and posed questions about eating, exercise, and sleep habits, along with questions on demographics and stress levels. Our …


The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton 2020 HCA

The Role Of Nutrition In Promoting Gut Health And Treating Chronic Illness Through The Attenuation Of Inflammation, Allison Dalton

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Over the millennia, the human body and microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, archaea, protozoa and parasites have coevolved together forming an intimate relationship. These microorganisms are found on the skin, in the mouth, genitourinary tract and most abundantly in the large intestine of the digestive tract. States of microbial dysbiosis contribute to chronic inflammation, which can lead to the pathogenesis and progression of numerous diseases. Micro- and macro-nutrients as well as dietary patterns like the Mediterranean diet can help improve health outcomes.


What Should I Eat? A Literary Analysis On Food, Its Biological Mechanisms, And Diets, Terese Foster 2020 University of Portland

What Should I Eat? A Literary Analysis On Food, Its Biological Mechanisms, And Diets, Terese Foster

Honors Projects

“I’m on a diet.” How many times have you heard that phrase, or thought it to yourself? Society has often emphasized diets as a positive practice to be “healthier”, especially if one is deemed “overweight” or “obese”. Yet, current literature provides evidence that weight does not need to be scrutinized so critically. Extra weight is not the cause of health problems, and dwelling on the “fat” itself only holds to increase stigma and shame around something of which one should not be shameful. The falsity and lack of scientific evidence behind diets can be helpful for those selling diets, but …


How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi k. Kamepalli MD,FIDSA,CWSP 2020 Regional Infectious diseases and infusion ctr,Inc

How Immune T-Cell Augmentation Can Help Prevent Covid-19: A Possible Nutritional Solution Using Ketogenic Lifestyle, Ravi K. Kamepalli Md,Fidsa,Cwsp

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Increasing Patient Adherence To Gestational Weight Gain Goals In Pregnancy, Annie Vining 2020 University of Missouri-St. Louis

Increasing Patient Adherence To Gestational Weight Gain Goals In Pregnancy, Annie Vining

Dissertations

Abstract

Problem: The inability to maintain healthy weight gain during pregnancy may contribute to multiple pregnancy-related complications. Nutritional education and support may improve nutrition and vitamin consumption, and recommendations for healthy gestational weight gains have been published. However, pregnant women have reported minimal advice regarding healthy weight gain during pregnancy. A personalized, nutritional counseling program was initiated in a Midwestern, suburban OB-GYN private practice.

Methods: A quality improvement descriptive, correlational design was used. A cohort of pregnant women first trimester through six-weeks postpartum received individual counseling and face-to-face interaction at an office visit each trimester.

Results: Twenty ( …


Apple Cider Vinegar Weight Loss Drinks On Pinterest, Sydney Chamberlain, Jana Mitchell, Davis Major, Lena Elimam, Cassandra Cleland 2020 University of North Florida

Apple Cider Vinegar Weight Loss Drinks On Pinterest, Sydney Chamberlain, Jana Mitchell, Davis Major, Lena Elimam, Cassandra Cleland

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Background: More than a third of adults in the U.S. are currently trying to lose weight. Social media, specifically Pinterest with more than 322 million users, has changed the way people seek health information specifically weight loss. Apple cider vinegar has shown great promise for weight loss in controlled lab settings, yet these claims are widely shared on social media and may not yield the same benefits.

Purpose: This study used directed content analysis to examine how apple cider vinegar weight loss drinks were portrayed on Pinterest, a social media website used to bookmark online content. Methods: Using the search …


Compassion And Suppression In Caregivers: Twin Masks Of Tragedy And Joy Of Caring, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Sean M. McNabney, Fabio Frisone, Federica Sicari, Mihai Paunica, Catalina Motofei, Salvatore Settineri 2020 DEPARTMENT OF COGNITIVE SCIENCES, PSYCHOLOGY, EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL STUDIES (COSPECS), UNIVERSITY OF MESSINA, ITALY

Compassion And Suppression In Caregivers: Twin Masks Of Tragedy And Joy Of Caring, Emanuele Maria Merlo, Sean M. Mcnabney, Fabio Frisone, Federica Sicari, Mihai Paunica, Catalina Motofei, Salvatore Settineri

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Background: Compassionate caregiving is a critical skill for workers among the helping professions, but the degree of empathy required by caregivers can place high demands on their mental and emotional resources. While many professionals employ successful coping strategies to mitigate these stressors, others experience compassion fatigue or burnout from emotional exhaustion. The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationships between caregivers’ demographic/career variables, compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and psychodynamic defense mechanisms such as suppression, repressive function, regression in the service of the Ego, and rationalization. Methods: Participants were 250 caregivers with 178 (71,2%) women and 72 men (28,8%) …


Optimisation Of Vitamin D Status For Enhanced Immuno-Protection Against Covid-19, Daniel McCartney, Declan G. Byrne 2020 Technological University Dublin

Optimisation Of Vitamin D Status For Enhanced Immuno-Protection Against Covid-19, Daniel Mccartney, Declan G. Byrne

Articles

Abstract

Background

Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50nmol/l) is common in Ireland, particularly amongst older adults, hospital inpatients and nursing home residents. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of acute viral respiratory infection and community acquired pneumonia, with several molecular mechanisms proposed to explain this association. Vitamin D supplementation has also been shown to reduce the risk of respiratory infection.

Vitamin D and Covid-19

Correction of vitamin D deficiency is thought to suppress CD26, a putative adhesion molecule for Covid-19 host cell invasion. Vitamin D may also attenuate interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inflammatory responses, both potent predictors of poorer outcome in critically-ill ventilated patients including those with Covid-19.

Vitamin D Requirements

Irish adults require 25-30μg/d of vitamin D3, an intake not achievable by diet alone, to reliably maintain serum 25(OH)D levels >50nmol/l. Supplementation with doses up to 100μg/d has been shown to be safe for adults, and many agencies and expert …


Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Use Of A Novel Whole-Body Imaging Approach To Predict Resting Metabolic Rates In Athletes, Nicole Vencil

Public Access Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from the College of Education and Human Sciences

Prediction of energy expenditure allows for calculation of appropriate energy requirements, which is especially important for athletes. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) is the greatest contributor to total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) and is typically measured via indirect calorimetry. Indirect calorimetry is not always available, which results in the need for predictive equations. Most predictive equations have been developed with participants resembling the general population and have not been found to be appropriate for athletes, as they may incorrectly predict RMR due to the unique differences of body composition between athletes and the general population. The purpose of the present study …


Planting The Seeds Of Health And Resilience, Shawna Beese, Teresa Bigand, Marian L. Wilson 2020 Providence

Planting The Seeds Of Health And Resilience, Shawna Beese, Teresa Bigand, Marian L. Wilson

Articles, Abstracts, and Reports

Purpose/Aims:

Our primary aim was to investigate whether gardens were a source of nutrition for the food bank users we sampled, and whether food bank recipients would be interested in using gardens as a nutritional resource.

Rationale/Background:

Food bank users represent an important population to explore the benefits of garden access for because they are at risk for insufficient access to fresh nutrient dense foods, may benefit from a low cost alternative sources of food, and they experience higher incidence of food insecurity. The activity of gardening also provides a myriad of secondary health benefits such as elevating mood, easing …


Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik 2020 Children's Mercy Hospital

Adverse Maternal Environment And Western Diet Impairs Cognitive Function And Alters Hippocampal Glucocorticoid Receptor Promoter Methylation In Male Mice., Xingrao Ke, Qi Fu, Jennifer Sterrett, Cecilia J. Hillard, Robert H. Lane, Amber Majnik

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Adverse maternal environment (AME) and high-fat diet in early childhood increase the risk of cognitive impairment and depression later in life. Cognitive impairment associates with hippocampal dysfunction. A key regulator of hippocampal function is the glucocorticoid receptor. Increased hippocampal GR expression associates with cognitive impairment and depression. Transcriptional control of GR relies in part upon the DNA methylation status at multiple alternative initiation sites that are tissue specific, with exon 1.7 being hippocampal specific. Increased exon 1.7 expression associates with upregulated hippocampal GR expression in early life stress animal models. However, the effects of AME combined with postweaning western diet …


Management Of Childhood Migraine By Headache Specialist Versus Non-Headache Specialists, Kelly Valentini, Radhika Gutta, Gunjanpreet Kaur, Ahmad Farooqi, Lalitha Sivaswamy 2020 Wayne State University

Management Of Childhood Migraine By Headache Specialist Versus Non-Headache Specialists, Kelly Valentini, Radhika Gutta, Gunjanpreet Kaur, Ahmad Farooqi, Lalitha Sivaswamy

Medical Student Research Symposium

This study aims to compare the management practices of a headache specialist with non-headache specialists in the treatment of pediatric migraine. The use of appropriate rescue medications and prophylactic agents, application of neuro-imaging, and short-term outcomes are compared in children treated by the two groups of physicians. A retrospective cohort study was conducted utilizing the electronic medical records of children 3-18 years of age with migraine, who were evaluated at a tertiary care children’s hospital from 2016-2018. Of the 849 patients that met the study criteria, 469 were classified as having chronic migraine or high-frequency episodic migraine and were followed …


Potential Use Of Biotherapeutic Bacteria To Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa, Gareth Lawrence, Maire Begley, Paul D. Cotter, Caitríona M. Guinane 2020 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork T12 P928, Ireland

Potential Use Of Biotherapeutic Bacteria To Target Colorectal Cancer-Associated Taxa, Gareth Lawrence, Maire Begley, Paul D. Cotter, Caitríona M. Guinane

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

The role of the gut microbiome in human health and disease is the focus of much attention. It has been widely agreed upon that our gut bacteria play a role in host immunity, nutrient absorption, digestion, metabolism, and other key drivers of health. Furthermore, certain microbial signatures and specific taxa have also been associated with the development of diseases, such as obesity; inflammatory bowel disease; and, indeed, colorectal cancer (CRC), which is the focus of this review. By extension, such taxa represent potential therapeutic targets. In particular, the emerging human pathogen Fusobacterium nucleatum represents an important agent in CRC development …


Biogeographic Study Of Human Gut-Associated Crassphage Suggests Impacts From Industrialization And Recent Expansion, Tanvi P/ Honap, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Andrew T. Ozga, Christina Warinner, Cecil M. Lewis Jr. 2020 University of Oklahoma

Biogeographic Study Of Human Gut-Associated Crassphage Suggests Impacts From Industrialization And Recent Expansion, Tanvi P/ Honap, Krithivasan Sankaranarayanan, Stephanie L. Schnorr, Andrew T. Ozga, Christina Warinner, Cecil M. Lewis Jr.

Anthropology Faculty Publications

CrAssphage (cross-assembly phage) is a bacteriophage that was first discovered in human gut metagenomic data. CrAssphage belongs to a diverse family of crAss-like bacteriophages thought to infect gut commensal bacteria belonging to Bacteroides species. However, not much is known about the biogeography of crAssphage and whether certain strains are associated with specific human populations. In this study, we screened publicly available human gut metagenomic data from 3,341 samples for the presence of crAssphage sensu stricto (NC_024711.1). We found that crAssphage prevalence is low in traditional, hunter-gatherer populations, such as the Hadza from Tanzania and Matses from Peru, as compared to …


Hypercholesterolemia Accelerates Both The Initiation And Progression Of Angiotensin Ii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Jing Liu, Hisashi Sawada, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Olga A. Vsevolozhskaya, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu 2020 University of Kentucky

Hypercholesterolemia Accelerates Both The Initiation And Progression Of Angiotensin Ii-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Jing Liu, Hisashi Sawada, Deborah A. Howatt, Jessica J. Moorleghen, Olga A. Vsevolozhskaya, Alan Daugherty, Hong S. Lu

Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences Faculty Publications

Objective: This study determined whether hypercholesterolemia would contribute to both the initiation and progression of angiotensin (Ang)II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) in mice.

Methods and Results: To determine whether hypercholesterolemia accelerates the initiation of AAAs, male low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor -/- mice were either fed one week of Western diet prior to starting AngII infusion or initiated Western diet one week after starting AngII infusion. During the first week of AngII infusion, mice fed normal diet had less luminal expansion of the suprarenal aorta compared to those initiated Western diet after the first week of AngII infusion. The two groups …


Alteration Of The Gut Microbiome In Normal And Overweight School Children From Selangor With Lactobacillus Fermented Milk Administration, Narcisse Joseph, Jonathan B. Clayton, Susan L. Hoops, Carter A. Linhardt, Amalia Mohd Hashim, Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof, Suresh Kumar, Syafinaz Amin Nordin 2020 Universiti Putra Malaysia

Alteration Of The Gut Microbiome In Normal And Overweight School Children From Selangor With Lactobacillus Fermented Milk Administration, Narcisse Joseph, Jonathan B. Clayton, Susan L. Hoops, Carter A. Linhardt, Amalia Mohd Hashim, Barakatun Nisak Mohd Yusof, Suresh Kumar, Syafinaz Amin Nordin

Food for Health Papers & Publications

Childhood obesity is a serious public health problem worldwide. Perturbations in the gut microbiota composition have been associated with the development of obesity in both children and adults. Probiotics, on the other hand, are proven to restore the composition of the gut microbiome which helps reduce the development of obesity. However, data on the effect of probiotics on gut microbiota and its association with childhood obesity is limited. This study aims to determine the effect of probiotics supplement intervention on gut microbiota profiles in obese and normal-weight children. A total of 37 children, 17 normal weight, and 20 overweight school …


Stool Microbiome, Ph And Short/Branched Chain Fatty Acids In Infants Receiving Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula, Amino Acid Formula, Or Human Milk Through Two Months Of Age, Car Reen Kok, Bradford Brabec, Maciej Chichlowski, Cheryl L. Harris, Nancy Moore, Jennifer L. Wampler, Jon Vanderhoof, Devin Rose, Robert Hutkins 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stool Microbiome, Ph And Short/Branched Chain Fatty Acids In Infants Receiving Extensively Hydrolyzed Formula, Amino Acid Formula, Or Human Milk Through Two Months Of Age, Car Reen Kok, Bradford Brabec, Maciej Chichlowski, Cheryl L. Harris, Nancy Moore, Jennifer L. Wampler, Jon Vanderhoof, Devin Rose, Robert Hutkins

Food for Health Papers & Publications

CRISPR–Cas is an anti-viral mechanism of prokaryotes that has been widely adopted for genome editing. To make CRISPR–Cas genome editing more controllable and safer to use, anti-CRISPR proteins have been recently exploited to prevent excessive/prolonged Cas nuclease cleavage. Anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins are encoded by (pro)phages/(pro)viruses, and have the ability to inhibit their host’s CRISPR–Cas systems. We have built an online database AcrDB (http://bcb.unl.edu/AcrDB) by scanning ∼19 000 genomes of prokaryotes and viruses with AcrFinder, a recently developed AcrAca (Acr-associated regulator) operon prediction program. Proteins in Acr-Aca operons were further processed by two machine learning-based programs (AcRanker and PaCRISPR) to obtain …


The Self-Perceived Impact Of A Food Recovery-Meal Delivery Program On Homebound Seniors’ Food Security, Nutrition Health, And Well-Being, Alice Marie Sanchez 2020 University of North Florida

The Self-Perceived Impact Of A Food Recovery-Meal Delivery Program On Homebound Seniors’ Food Security, Nutrition Health, And Well-Being, Alice Marie Sanchez

UNF Graduate Theses and Dissertations

For many senior citizens, meeting nutritional needs is essential to good health and daily function. Studies indicate that many American older adults are not meeting their nutrition needs and often suffer from food insecurity. Meals on Wings (MOW) is a food recovery-meal delivery program that attempts to decrease the influence of food insecurity among older adults. This study aims to explore the self-perceived impact of a food recovery-meal delivery program on homebound seniors’ nutrition health, food security, and well-being.

Semi-structured interviews were administered to adults age 55 and older on the waitlist for Meals on Wheels America in Duval County …


I Was Determined To Breastfeed, And I Always Found A Solution: Successful Experiences Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Chinese Mothers In Ireland, John Kearney, Qianling Zhou, Haoyue Chen, Katherine Younger, Tanya M. Cassidy 2020 Technological University Dublin

I Was Determined To Breastfeed, And I Always Found A Solution: Successful Experiences Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Chinese Mothers In Ireland, John Kearney, Qianling Zhou, Haoyue Chen, Katherine Younger, Tanya M. Cassidy

Articles

Background: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months was previously found to be very low among Chinese immigrants in Ireland, at 5.8% (Zhou et al., Front Public Health 6:351, 2018). This study investigates the successful experiences of Chinese mothers living in Ireland who exclusively breastfeed for between four and 6 months.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the sample of the Ireland Chinese Mother Survey. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen participants in their homes or public places.

Results: A content analysis revealed that various factors contributed to a successful experience of exclusive breastfeeding among the group …


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