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Review Of: Lewis' Dictionary Of Toxicology (Robert A. Lewis, Ed.; Lewis Publishers 1998), Dana E. Evans 2016 University of New Hampshire

Review Of: Lewis' Dictionary Of Toxicology (Robert A. Lewis, Ed.; Lewis Publishers 1998), Dana E. Evans

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Review of the book: Lewis' Dictionary of Toxicology (Robert A. Lewis, ed.; Lewis Publishers 1998). About the author, acknowledgments, alphabetical listing of terms defined. ISBN 1-56670-223-2; [1127 pp. $84.95. Hardbound. 2000 Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431.]


The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary 2016 University of Louisville

The Role Of Nicotine, A7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors And Extracellular Matrix Remodeling In Pulmonary Fibrosis., Glenn Ward Vicary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The median survival for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients from diagnosis is a dismal 3 years. This condition is characterized by pulmonary fibroproliferation and excess production and disordered deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins resulting in obliteration of the original tissue architecture, loss of lung function and eventual death due to respiratory failure. The main hindrance to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis is the late detection of its progression and is often of unknown cause. Tobacco smoke represents the most important environmental factor linked to the development of pulmonary fibrosis, with over 60% of IPF patients current ...


A Longitudinal Study Of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations And Semen Parameters In Young Men: The Russian Children's Study, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Oleg Sergeyev, Jane S. Burns, Paige L. Williams, Mary M. Lee, Susan A. Korrick, Luidmila Smigulina, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser 2016 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

A Longitudinal Study Of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations And Semen Parameters In Young Men: The Russian Children's Study, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Oleg Sergeyev, Jane S. Burns, Paige L. Williams, Mary M. Lee, Susan A. Korrick, Luidmila Smigulina, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Pediatric Publications and Presentations

BACKGROUND: Exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters.

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men.

METHODS: From 2003 to 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8-9 years and followed for up to ten years. Serum OCs were measured in the enrollment samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry. At age 18-19 years, 133 young men provided one or two semen samples (256 samples) collected ...


Book Reviews, Thomas G. Field Jr. 2016 Professor Emeritus, University of New Hampshire School of Law

Book Reviews, Thomas G. Field Jr.

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Reviews of the following two books: VALUING HEALTH RiskS. COSTS, AND BENEFITS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING (P. Brett Hammond and Rob Coppock, eds.) THE LIABILITY MAZE: THE IMPACT OF LIABILITY LAW ON SAFETY AND INNOVATION (Peter W. Huber And Robert E. Litan, eds.)


Fertile Women May Now Apply: Fetal Protection Policies After Johnson Controls, Barbara Ruhe Grumet 2016 University of New Hampshire

Fertile Women May Now Apply: Fetal Protection Policies After Johnson Controls, Barbara Ruhe Grumet

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

In its recent interpretation of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the U.S. Supreme Court leaves little room for permissible occupational sex discrimination. However, its decision has wider implications. Here, Professor Grumet takes a look at some of them from both a legal and a social perspective, including matters such as employees' reproductive freedom and employers' potential liability for a variety of possible injuries to employees' offspring.


Risk Assessment For Developmental Toxicity: Airborne Occupational Exposure To Ethanol And Iodine, Donald R. Mattison 2016 University of New Hampshire

Risk Assessment For Developmental Toxicity: Airborne Occupational Exposure To Ethanol And Iodine, Donald R. Mattison

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

Dean Mattison explains hazard identification, hazard characterization and exposure characterization as furnishing a foundation for Risk assessment generally. He then illustrates their application in assessing the fetal Risk posed by two common substances. Ultimately, he argues that only after Risks have been so examined can women of child bearing age (or anyone) decide what if any measures are appropriate to avoid them.


Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle III, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja van de Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett 2016 Humane Society International

Lessons From Toxicology: Developing A 21st‑Century Paradigm For Medical Research, Gill Langley, Christopher P. Austin, Anil K. Balapure, Linda S. Birnbaum, John R. Bucher, Julia Fentem, Suzanne C. Fitzpatrick, John R. Fowle Iii, Robert J. Kavlock, Hiroaki Kitano, Brett A. Lidbury, Alysson R. Muotri, Shuang-Qing Peng, Dmitry Sakharov, Troy Seidle, Thales Trez, Alexander Tonevitsky, Anja Van De Stolpe, Maurice Whelan, Catherine Willett

Gill Langley, Ph.D.

Biomedical developments in the 21st century provide an unprecedented opportunity to gain a dynamic systems-level and human-specific understanding of the causes and pathophysiologies of disease. This understanding is a vital need, in view of continuing failures in health research, drug discovery, and clinical translation. The full potential of advanced approaches may not be achieved within a 20th-century conceptual framework dominated by animal models. Novel technologies are being integrated into environmental health research and are also applicable to disease research, but these advances need a new medical research and drug discovery paradigm to gain maximal benefits. We suggest a new conceptual ...


Developing A More Clinically-Relevant Mouse Model Of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity., Cierra N. Sharp 2016 University of Louisville

Developing A More Clinically-Relevant Mouse Model Of Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity., Cierra N. Sharp

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cisplatin is a nephrotoxic chemotherapeutic that causes acute kidney injury (AKI) in 30% of patients. Although recovery can occur after one episode of cisplatin-induced AKI, studies have indicated multiple episodes may lead to the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD), an irreversible disease with no current treatments. The standard mouse model of cisplatin-induced AKI consists of one, high dose of cisplatin (> 20 mg/kg) that is lethal to the animal three days later. This model doesn’t accurately reflect the repeated dosing regimen patients receive, and doesn’t allow for long-term outcome studies of pathologies associated with CKD. We have ...


The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird 2016 Sapporo Medical University

The Effect Of Parathion On Red Blood Cell Acetylcholinesterase In The Wistar Rat, Naofumi Bunya, Keigo Sawamoto, Hanif Benoit, Steven B. Bird

Open Access Articles

Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide poisoning is a significant problem worldwide. Research into new antidotes for these acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, and even optimal doses for current therapies, is hindered by a lack of standardized animal models. In this study, we sought to characterize the effects of the OP pesticide parathion on acetylcholinesterase in a Wistar rat model that included comprehensive medical care. Methods. Male Wistar rats were intubated and mechanically ventilated and then poisoned with between 20 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg of intravenous parathion. Upon developing signs of poisoning, the rats were treated with standard critical care, including atropine, pralidoxime chloride ...


Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Long-Lasting Effects Of Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant On Male Reproductive Outcomes In Rat Model, Ahmed Khalil, Daneal Portman, Jake Jensen, Michael Panchenko, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Meta-analysis of 101 studies published between 1934 and 1996 indicates that mean sperm concentration decreased around 50% during this period. More recent studies have found alarmingly poor semen quality in the general population of Northern Europe. Additional adverse trends include increased incidence of testicular cancer, and congenital malformations such as cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Testicular germ cell cancers increased by about 400% over the period of 50 years in industrialized countries. Decreased quality of male reproductive health has been linked to environmental endocrine disruptors exposure. However, the ability of xenobiotics to produce long-lasting effects and mechanisms of perturbation of the male ...


Predisposed Health Conditions Of Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero, Seth Peters 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Predisposed Health Conditions Of Children Exposed To Methamphetamine In Utero, Seth Peters

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Methamphetamine (MA) use and abuse is a growing problem worldwide [United Nations World Drug Report]. It is common knowledge that MA use affects not only the user, but also friends, family, and the communities close to them [NIDA]. One area of impact that is lacking sufficient study is the effects of MA use by expectant mothers on her child later in life. That is to say, a child who was exposed to MA in utero may be more likely than an unexposed fetus to have predispositions to a variety of health conditions. After an extensive PubMed database search, it is ...


Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reprogramming Of Mtor Signaling By Perinatal Exposure To Brominated Flame Retardant, Cassandra Thorburn, Benjamin Kim, Michael Panchenko, Aser Abrha, Ahmed Khalil, Alexander Suvorov

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin, is a known metabolic master-switch. In conditions of starvation, mTOR suppresses biosynthetic programs and increases the recycling of proteins and organelles. Upon stimulation by nutrients and growth factors, however, mTOR causes activation of biosynthesis and suppression of autophagy. The mTOR-centered molecular pathway is a major pathway of growth regulation and metabolism, linked to aging and the development of cancer, obesity, type 2 diabetes, neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases. Currently, the role of environmental factors in the modulation of the mTOR pathway remains largely unknown. The present study suggests that ...


Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980- 2016 University of Louisville

Acrolein Is A Critical Mediator Of Alcohol-Induced Liver And Intestinal Injury In Alcoholic Liver Disease., Wei-Yang (Jeremy) Chen 1980-

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol consumption can cause alcoholic liver disease (ALD), which remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Chronic alcohol consumption causes a pro-oxidant environment in the liver and increases hepatic lipid peroxidation. Acrolein is the most reactive and toxic aldehyde generated through lipid peroxidation. Acrolein forms protein adducts and triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and hepatocyte apoptosis, which are recognized etiologic factors in ALD. Several studies have established the critical role of the gut-liver axis in ALD pathogenesis, wherein alcohol-induced gut barrier dysfunction contributes to liver injury. This study investigates, in vitro and in vivo, the ...


Role Of Phosphodiesterase-4 In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Diana Veronica Avila 2016 University of Louisville

Role Of Phosphodiesterase-4 In Alcohol-Induced Organ Injury., Diana Veronica Avila

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remains a leading cause of death from liver disease in the U.S., and there is still no FDA-approved therapy. Alcohol metabolism leads to generation of free radicals and oxidative stress with a resultant formation of lipid peroxidation products, which, in turn, contribute to the development of ALD. Alcohol induced hepatic steatosis is the earliest and most frequent manifestation of ALD and a significant risk factor for progressive liver disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling has been shown to significantly regulate lipid metabolism. Moreover, agents that increase cAMP have been shown to effectively mitigate oxidative stress ...


The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe 2016 University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne

The Future Of Teratology Research Is In Vitro, Jarrod Bailey, Andrew Knight, Jonathan Balcombe

Andrew Knight, BSc (Vet Biol), BVMS, MANZCVS, DipECAWBM (AWSEL), DACAW, PhD, MRCVS, SFHEA

Birth defects induced by maternal exposure to exogenous agents during pregnancy are preventable, if the agents themselves can be identified and avoided. Billions of dollars and manhours have been dedicated to animal-based discovery and characterisation methods over decades. We show here, via a comprehensive systematic review and analysis of this data, that these methods constitute questionable science and pose a hazard to humans. Mean positive and negative predictivities barely exceed 50%; discordance among the species used is substantial; reliable extrapolation from animal data to humans is impossible, and virtually all known human teratogens have so far been identified in spite ...


Continuous Safety Monitoring Of Excess Toxicity In Single Arm Early Phase Biomarker Driven Trials, Racky Daffe 2016 Oregon Health & Science University

Continuous Safety Monitoring Of Excess Toxicity In Single Arm Early Phase Biomarker Driven Trials, Racky Daffe

Scholar Archive

No abstract provided.


Structure-Activity Relationships Governing The Interaction Of Nanoparticles With Mammalian Cells- Predictive Models For Toxicology And Medical Appliances, Marcus A. Maher 2016 Dublin Institute of Technology

Structure-Activity Relationships Governing The Interaction Of Nanoparticles With Mammalian Cells- Predictive Models For Toxicology And Medical Appliances, Marcus A. Maher

Doctoral

Nanoscience is seen as one of the key enabling technologies of the 20th century and as its range of applications increases it is important to look at how nanomaterials interact with biological environments. Some of these interactions have given rise to toxic effects and thus, the creation of the field of nanotoxicology, it has also been noted that current methods of evaluating toxicity may not be sufficient to keep up with the rapidly emerging range of nanomaterials becoming available. It is clear that alternatives are necessary. In this thesis, a phenomenological rate equation model is constructed to simulate nanoparticle uptake ...


Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Studies In Ex Vivo Tissue Slices, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi 2016 University of Kentucky

Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Studies In Ex Vivo Tissue Slices, Teresa W-M Fan, Andrew N. Lane, Richard M. Higashi

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

An important component of this methodology is to assess the role of the tumor microenvironment on tumor growth and survival. To tackle this problem, we have adapted the original approach of Warburg (Warburg, 1923), by combining thin tissue slices with Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) to determine detailed metabolic activity of human tissues. SIRM enables the tracing of metabolic transformations of source molecules such as glucose or glutamine over defined time periods, and is a requirement for detailed pathway tracing and flux analysis. In our approach, we maintain freshly resected tissue slices (both cancerous and non- cancerous from the same ...


Utilizing An Ingestible Biosensor To Assess Real-Time Medication Adherence, Peter Chai, Jose Castillo-Mancilla, Eric Buffkin, Chad Darling, Rochelle Rosen, Keith Horvath, Edwin Boudreaux, Gregory Robbins, Patricia Hibberd, Edward Boyer 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Utilizing An Ingestible Biosensor To Assess Real-Time Medication Adherence, Peter Chai, Jose Castillo-Mancilla, Eric Buffkin, Chad Darling, Rochelle Rosen, Keith Horvath, Edwin Boudreaux, Gregory Robbins, Patricia Hibberd, Edward Boyer

Edwin D. Boudreaux

Medication adherence monitoring has relied largely on indirect measures of pill ingestion including patient self-report, pharmacy refills, electronically triggered pill bottles, and pill counts. Our objective is to describe an ingestible biosensor system comprising a radio-frequency identification (RFID)-tagged gelatin capsule. Once the capsule dissolves in the stomach, the RFID tag activates to transmit a unique signal to a relay device which transmits a time-stamped message to a cloud-based server that functions as a direct measure of medication adherence. We describe a constellation of mobile technologies that provide real-time direct measures of medication adherence. Optimizing connectivity, relay design, and interactivity ...


Metabolomics Workbench: An International Repository For Metabolomics Data And Metadata, Metabolite Standards, Protocols, Tutorials And Training, And Analysis Tools, Manish Sud, Eoin Fahy, Dawn Cotter, Kenan Azam, Ilango Vadivelu, Charles Burant, Arthur Edison, Oliver Fiehn, Richard M. Higashi, K. Sreekumaran Nair, Susan Sumner, Shankar Subramaniam 2016 University of California - San Diego

Metabolomics Workbench: An International Repository For Metabolomics Data And Metadata, Metabolite Standards, Protocols, Tutorials And Training, And Analysis Tools, Manish Sud, Eoin Fahy, Dawn Cotter, Kenan Azam, Ilango Vadivelu, Charles Burant, Arthur Edison, Oliver Fiehn, Richard M. Higashi, K. Sreekumaran Nair, Susan Sumner, Shankar Subramaniam

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

The Metabolomics Workbench, available at www.metabolomicsworkbench.org, is a public repository for metabolomics metadata and experimental data spanning various species and experimental platforms, metabolite standards, metabolite structures, protocols, tutorials, and training material and other educational resources. It provides a computational platform to integrate, analyze, track, deposit and disseminate large volumes of heterogeneous data from a wide variety of metabolomics studies including mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR) data spanning over 20 different species covering all the major taxonomic categories including humans and other mammals, plants, insects, invertebrates and microorganisms. Additionally, a number of protocols are provided ...


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