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Comparative Cytotoxicity Study Of Nicotine And Cotinine On Mrc-5 Cell Line, Ana-Maria Vlasceanu, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau 2018 Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Toxicology

Comparative Cytotoxicity Study Of Nicotine And Cotinine On Mrc-5 Cell Line, Ana-Maria Vlasceanu, Daniela Luiza Baconi, Bianca Galateanu, Miriana Stan, Cristian Balalau

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Nicotine has several health hazards regarding carcinogenic potential. It also imparts increased risk for respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal disorders. Several mechanisms have been proposed for the carcinogenic potential, including effects on cell proliferation, inducing oxidative stress, DNA mutation, or inhibition of apoptosis. The cotinine metabolite is generally thought to have effects similar to nicotine in some experimental systems. The purpose of this study was to assess the nicotine and cotinine cytotoxicity on MRC-5 lung fibroblasts. The pulmonary fibroblasts were treated with various concentrations of nicotine or cotinine (in the range 1 µM – 2 mM) for 24 or 48 h and ...


Low-Energy Bluetooth For Detecting Real-World Penetrance Of Bystander Naloxone Kits: A Pilot Study, Jeffrey T. Lai, Brittany Chapman, Katherine L. Boyle, Edward W. Boyer, Peter R. Chai 2018 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Low-Energy Bluetooth For Detecting Real-World Penetrance Of Bystander Naloxone Kits: A Pilot Study, Jeffrey T. Lai, Brittany Chapman, Katherine L. Boyle, Edward W. Boyer, Peter R. Chai

Open Access Articles

Opioid overdose is a growing public health emergency in the United States. The antidote naloxone must be administered rapidly after opioid overdose to prevent death. Bystander or "take-home" naloxone programs distribute naloxone to opioid users and other community members to increase naloxone availability at the time of overdose. However, data describing the natural history of take-home naloxone in the hands of at-risk individuals is lacking. To understand patterns of naloxone uptake in at-risk users, we developed a smart naloxone kit that uses low-energy Bluetooth (BLE) to unobtrusively detect the transit of naloxone through a hospital campus. In this paper, we ...


Wearable Biosensors To Evaluate Recurrent Opioid Toxicity After Naloxone Administration: A Hilbert Transform Approach, Keerthi Kumar. Chintha, Premananda Indic, Brittany Chapman, Edward W. Boyer, Stephanie Carreiro 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Wearable Biosensors To Evaluate Recurrent Opioid Toxicity After Naloxone Administration: A Hilbert Transform Approach, Keerthi Kumar. Chintha, Premananda Indic, Brittany Chapman, Edward W. Boyer, Stephanie Carreiro

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Supported Publications

Opioid abuse is a rapidly escalating problem in the United States. Effective opioid reversal is achieved with the antidote naloxone, but often does not last as long as the offending opioid, necessitating in-hospital observation. Continuous physiologic monitoring using wearable biosensors represents a potential option to extend monitoring capability outside the clinical setting across the spectrum of opioid abuse including post- naloxone administration. The present study aims to identify the physiologic change that marks the cessation of naloxone's effect. Eleven participants were recruited in the Emergency Department after naloxone administration for an opioid overdose and continuously monitored using a wearable ...


Childhood Lead Poisoning, Javeria Fatima 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Childhood Lead Poisoning, Javeria Fatima

Global Issues in Public Health

Childhood lead poisoning is a non-communicable disease that has a long history and fatal effects. Although the disease’s source is from a natural element, lead, human handling of lead has affected individuals negatively worldwide. Through the use of lead in everyday situations or items such as in mines, the paint in houses, and lead water pipes, lead poisoning is easily attainable and has lasting effects. The impacts on lead poisoning on children has been investigated over the years and the devastating cognitive and physical impacts of the disease have been studied. This report aims to examine the factors that ...


Parallelization Of A Three-Dimensional Full Multigrid Algorithm To Simulate Tumor Growth, Dylan Goodin, Chin F. Ng, Hermann B. Frieboes 2017 University of Louisville

Parallelization Of A Three-Dimensional Full Multigrid Algorithm To Simulate Tumor Growth, Dylan Goodin, Chin F. Ng, Hermann B. Frieboes

Commonwealth Computational Summit

We present the performance gains of an openMP implementation of a fully adaptive nonlinear full multigrid (FMG) algorithm to simulate three-dimensional multispecies desmoplastic tumor growth on computer systems of varying processing capabilities. The FMG algorithm is applied to solve a recently published thermodynamic mixture model that uses a diffuse interface approach with fourth-order reaction-advection-diffusion PDEs (Cahn-Hilliard-type equations) that are coupled, nonlinear, and numerically stiff. The model includes multiple cell species and extracellular matrix (ECM), with adhesive and elastic energy contributions in chemical potential terms, as well as including blood and lymphatic vessels represented as continuous vasculatures. Advection-reaction-diffusion PDEs are employed ...


Glycolytic Reprogramming Through Pck2 Regulates Tumor Initiation Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W.M. Fan, Steven X. Hou 2017 National Cancer Institute

Glycolytic Reprogramming Through Pck2 Regulates Tumor Initiation Of Prostate Cancer Cells, Jiangsha Zhao, Jieran Li, Teresa W.M. Fan, Steven X. Hou

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) play important roles in tumor progression and metastasis. Identifying the factors regulating TICs may open new avenues in cancer therapy. Here, we show that TIC-enriched prostate cancer cell clones use more glucose and secrete more lactate than TIC-low clones. We determined that elevated levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase isoform 2 (PCK2) are critical for the metabolic switch and the maintenance of TICs in prostate cancer. Information from prostate cancer patient databases revealed that higher PCK2 levels correlated with more aggressive tumors and lower survival rates. PCK2 knockdown resulted in low TIC numbers, increased cytosolic acetyl-CoA and cellular protein ...


Mutsβ Abundance And Msh3 Atp Hydrolysis Activity Are Important Drivers Of Ctg•Cag Repeat Expansions, Norma Keogh, Kara Y. Chan, Guo-Min Li, Robert S. Lahue 2017 National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland

Mutsβ Abundance And Msh3 Atp Hydrolysis Activity Are Important Drivers Of Ctg•Cag Repeat Expansions, Norma Keogh, Kara Y. Chan, Guo-Min Li, Robert S. Lahue

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

CTG•CAG repeat expansions cause at least twelve inherited neurological diseases. Expansions require the presence, not the absence, of the mismatch repair protein MutSβ (Msh2-Msh3 heterodimer). To evaluate properties of MutSβ that drive expansions, previous studies have tested under-expression, ATPase function or polymorphic variants of Msh2 and Msh3, but in disparate experimental systems. Additionally, some variants destabilize MutSβ, potentially masking the effects of biochemical alterations of the variations. Here, human Msh3 was mutated to selectively inactivate MutSβ. Msh3−/− cells are severely defective for CTG•CAG repeat expansions but show full activity on contractions. Msh3−/− cells provide a single, isogenic system ...


Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Injury: An Insight Into The Role Of Extracellular Vesicles-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses, Chontida Yarana, Daret K. St. Clair 2017 University of Kentucky

Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Injury: An Insight Into The Role Of Extracellular Vesicles-Mediated Oxidative Stress Responses, Chontida Yarana, Daret K. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

The short- and long-term side effects of chemotherapy limit the maximum therapeutic dose and impair quality of life of survivors. Injury to normal tissues, especially chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, is an unintended outcome that presents devastating health impacts. Approximately half of the drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cancer treatment are associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species, and Doxorubicin (Dox) is one of them. Dox undergoes redox cycling by involving its quinone structure in the production of superoxide free radicals, which are thought to be instrumental to the role it plays in cardiomyopathy. Dox-induced protein oxidation changes ...


Correlation Between Preconception Maternal Non-Occupational Exposure To Interior Decoration Or Oil Paint Odour And Average Birth Weight Of Neonates: Findings From A Nationwide Cohort Study In China's Rural Areas, Huiting Liu, Shi Chen, Huijuan Zhu, Hongbo Yang, Fengying Gong, Linjie Wang, Yu Jiang, Bill Q. Lian, Chengsheng Yan, Jianqang Li, Qing Wang, Shikun Zhang, Hui Pan 2017 Peking Union Medical College

Correlation Between Preconception Maternal Non-Occupational Exposure To Interior Decoration Or Oil Paint Odour And Average Birth Weight Of Neonates: Findings From A Nationwide Cohort Study In China's Rural Areas, Huiting Liu, Shi Chen, Huijuan Zhu, Hongbo Yang, Fengying Gong, Linjie Wang, Yu Jiang, Bill Q. Lian, Chengsheng Yan, Jianqang Li, Qing Wang, Shikun Zhang, Hui Pan

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Birth weight is a critical indicator of neonatal health and foretells people's health in adolescence and even adulthood. Some researchers have warned against the adverse effects on babies' birth weight of exposure to pollutants in interior decoration or oil paint by odour intake. This study evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to such factors before conception on the birth weights of neonates.

METHODS: Data on 213 461 cases in this study were from the database of the free National Pre-pregnancy Checkups Project. Defined as 'exposed' were those women exposed to oil paint odour or interior decoration at home ...


The Role Of Sodium Bicarbonate In The Management Of Some Toxic Ingestions, Aibek E. Mirrakhimov, Taha Ayach, Aram Barbaryan, Goutham Talari, Romil Chadha, Adam Gray 2017 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Sodium Bicarbonate In The Management Of Some Toxic Ingestions, Aibek E. Mirrakhimov, Taha Ayach, Aram Barbaryan, Goutham Talari, Romil Chadha, Adam Gray

Internal Medicine Faculty Publications

Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to ...


Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu 2017 University of Kentucky

Clinical And Experimental Studies Of A Novel P525r Fus Mutation In Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Lisha Kuang, Marisa Kamelgarn, Alexandra Arenas, Jozsef Gal, Deborah Taylor, Weiming Gong, Martin Brown, Daret St. Clair, Edward J. Kasarskis, Haining Zhu

Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Objective: To describe the clinical features of a novel fused in sarcoma (FUS) mutation in a young adult female amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient with rapid progression of weakness and to experimentally validate the consequences of the P525R mutation in cellular neuronal models.

Methods: We conducted sequencing of genomic DNA from the index patient and her family members. Immunocytochemistry was performed in various cellular models to determine whether the newly identified P525R mutant FUS protein accumulated in cytoplasmic inclusions. Clinical features of the index patient were compared with 19 other patients with ALS carrying the P525L mutation in the same ...


Therapeutic Efficacy Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Against Sepsis Induced Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome In Sprague Dawley Rats, Nandini Durga Prasanna Kumar Manne 2017 Selected Works

Therapeutic Efficacy Of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Against Sepsis Induced Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome In Sprague Dawley Rats, Nandini Durga Prasanna Kumar Manne

Nandini Manne

Sepsis is a generalized term that signifies the presence of a pathogen in the blood stream to which the body responds by eliciting a systemic inflammatory response. Although sepsis is the leading cause of death in non-coronary intensive care units in United States, there are currently no FDA approved therapeutic drugs to treat this disorder. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2) have been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties both in vitro and in vivo. Whether CeO2 nanoparticles can be used for the treatment of sepsis is currently unclear. To investigate whether CeO2 nanoparticles can be used to treat moderate ...


Unsuspected Clenbuterol Toxicity In A Patient Using Intramuscular Testosterone, Matthew K. Griswold, Eike Blohm, Roderick Cross, Edward W. Boyer, Jennifer L. Carey 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Unsuspected Clenbuterol Toxicity In A Patient Using Intramuscular Testosterone, Matthew K. Griswold, Eike Blohm, Roderick Cross, Edward W. Boyer, Jennifer L. Carey

Emergency Medicine Publications and Presentations

Clenbuterol is a beta-agonist that has been abused by fitness-oriented individuals for muscle growth and weight loss. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented tachycardic, hypokalemic, and hyperglycemic after injecting testosterone obtained from Brazil. He developed refractory hypotension and was started on an esmolol infusion for suspected beta-agonist toxicity. Laboratory analysis showed a detectable clenbuterol serum concentration. Analysis of an unopened ampule contained boldenone undecylenate, clenbuterol, and vitamin E. This case illustrates a novel exposure that caused beta-agonist toxicity and was treated successfully with rapid-onset beta blocker.


A Longitudinal Study Of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations And Semen Parameters In Young Men: The Russian Children's Study, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Oleg Sergeyev, Jane S. Burns, Paige L. Williams, Mary M. Lee, Susan A. Korrick, Luidmila Smigulina, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser 2017 Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

A Longitudinal Study Of Peripubertal Serum Organochlorine Concentrations And Semen Parameters In Young Men: The Russian Children's Study, Lidia Minguez-Alarcon, Oleg Sergeyev, Jane S. Burns, Paige L. Williams, Mary M. Lee, Susan A. Korrick, Luidmila Smigulina, Boris Revich, Russ Hauser

Mary M. Lee

BACKGROUND: Exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals during critical phases of testicular development may be related to poorer semen parameters. However, few studies have assessed the association between childhood organochlorine (OC) exposure and adult semen parameters.

OBJECTIVE: We examined whether peripubertal serum OC concentrations are associated with semen parameters among young Russian men.

METHODS: From 2003 to 2005, 516 boys were enrolled at age 8-9 years and followed for up to ten years. Serum OCs were measured in the enrollment samples using high-resolution mass spectrometry. At age 18-19 years, 133 young men provided one or two semen samples (256 samples) collected ...


Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns In Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study Using A Digital Pill, Brendan J. Innes, Peter R. Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Brittany Chapman, Matthew Griswold, Edward W. Boyer 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Oxycodone Ingestion Patterns In Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study Using A Digital Pill, Brendan J. Innes, Peter R. Chai, Stephanie Carreiro, Brittany Chapman, Matthew Griswold, Edward W. Boyer

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Background: Opioids are prescribed for acute pain as needed, but no data exists on how patients take opioids after discharge from the ED. This places the onus of dosing on the patient and contributes to variable prescribing by ED physicians. ED opioid prescriptions serve as a source for unintentional exposure and contribute to the opioid epidemic. We deployed a digital pill to measure opioid ingestion patterns in individuals discharged after acute fractures.

Methods: This pilot study involved individuals without chronic opioid use (i.e. prescribed opioids > 1 week) who were discharged from the ED following acute fracture. Participants were trained ...


Analytical Testing For Marijuana, Kavita Babu 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Analytical Testing For Marijuana, Kavita Babu

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "The Problems with Marijuana and Driving: Medical, Legal, and Public Health Perspectives," Dr. Babu describes the state of the science on measurement of marijuana in the context of driving impairment.


The Effects Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption And Inflammation On The Hepatic Matrisome And The Renal Cortex Proteome., Christine E. Dolin 2017 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Moderate Alcohol Consumption And Inflammation On The Hepatic Matrisome And The Renal Cortex Proteome., Christine E. Dolin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Background. The association of chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption with extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is well established in the context of hepatic fibrosis. However, it is becoming increasingly understood that the hepatic ECM responds dynamically to stress well before fibrosis. The term “transitional tissue remodeling” describes qualitative and quantitative ECM changes in response to injury that do not alter the overall architecture of the organ; these ECM changes may contribute to early disease initiation and/or progression. The nature and magnitude of these changes to the ECM are currently poorly understood. In contrast to the liver ...


Characterization Of A Mutant Oncolytic Adenovirus And The Role Of Jnk In Enhancing Virotherapy., Stephen L. Wechman 2017 University of Louisville

Characterization Of A Mutant Oncolytic Adenovirus And The Role Of Jnk In Enhancing Virotherapy., Stephen L. Wechman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ads) have great therapeutic potential for lung cancer treatment. Cancer selective E1b-deleted Ads are safe; however, their clinical cancer therapeutic efficacy remains limited. The limited efficacy of Ad virotherapy is due to many factors including inefficient cancer cell lysis, Ad release and spread. Progress in overcoming these barriers to Ad virotherapy are hampered by limited knowledge of the genes associated with enhanced Ad release and spread and the dearth of understanding of the mechanisms by which E1b-deleted Ads cause cancer cell lysis. The role of c-JNK n- terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in this process remains unknown ...


The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2 Modulates Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation., Aaron Mackallan Neely 2017 University of Louisville

The Interaction Of Homoserine Lactones And Paraoxonase 2 Modulates Cell Death Signaling And Cell Proliferation., Aaron Mackallan Neely

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-homoserine lactone (C12) as a quorum-sensing molecule that functions to facilitate bacteria-bacteria communication. C12 has also been reported to affect many aspects of human host cell physiology, including evoking cell death in various types of cells. However, the signaling pathway(s) leading to C12-triggerred cell death remains unclear. To clarify cell death signaling induced by C12, we examined mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in one or more caspases. Our data indicate that, unlike most apoptotic inducers, C12 evokes a novel form of apoptosis in cells, probably through the direct induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Importantly ...


Melatonin And Its Metabolites Protect Human Melanocytes Against Uvb-Induced Damage: Involvement Of Nrf2-Mediated Pathways, Zorica Janjetovic, Stuart G. Jarrett, Elizabeth F. Lee, Cory Duprey, Russel J. Reiter, Andrzej T. Slominski 2017 The University of Alabama at Birmingham

Melatonin And Its Metabolites Protect Human Melanocytes Against Uvb-Induced Damage: Involvement Of Nrf2-Mediated Pathways, Zorica Janjetovic, Stuart G. Jarrett, Elizabeth F. Lee, Cory Duprey, Russel J. Reiter, Andrzej T. Slominski

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Ultraviolet light (UV) is an inducer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as 6-4-photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) in the skin, which further cause damage to the skin cells. Irradiation of cultured human melanocytes with UVB stimulated ROS production, which was reduced in cells treated with melatonin or its metabolites: 6-hydroxymelatonin (6-OHM), N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK), N-acetylserotonin (NAS), and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT). Melatonin and its derivatives also stimulated the expression of NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 [NF-E2]-related factor 2) and its target enzymes and proteins that play an important role in cell protection from different damaging factors including UVB ...


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