Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medical Toxicology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

438 Full-Text Articles 1,436 Authors 121,075 Downloads 60 Institutions

All Articles in Medical Toxicology

Faceted Search

438 full-text articles. Page 1 of 17.

Therapeutic Plasma Exchange To Alleviate Ventricular Tachycardia After Diphenhydramine Ingestion, Kaushal Dosani, Lejla Music Aplenc, Stephen Pfeiffer 2023 Children's Mercy Kansas City

Therapeutic Plasma Exchange To Alleviate Ventricular Tachycardia After Diphenhydramine Ingestion, Kaushal Dosani, Lejla Music Aplenc, Stephen Pfeiffer

Research Days

Background: The Covid-19 pandemic has adversely affected the mental health of children causing an increased incidence of suicide attempts. Diphenhydramine is a common household medication and is frequently ingested by children. Toxic doses of diphenhydramine can affect the cardiovascular and central nervous system. In the heart, diphenhydramine blocks fast sodium channels and potassium channels which can result in conduction abnormalities including sinus tachycardia, widening of QRS duration, ventricular tachycardia and torsades de pointes. Massive ingestion can cause severe cardiovascular collapse which may require ECMO support

Objectives/Goal: To describe a novel method of clearing highly protein-bound diphenhydramine molecules from circulation after …


Study Of The Potential Toxicity Of Adrenaline To Neurons, Using The Sh-Sy5y Human Cellular Model, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Fernando Remião, Kurt James Varner, José Alberto Duarte, Félix Carvalho 2023 Universidade do Porto

Study Of The Potential Toxicity Of Adrenaline To Neurons, Using The Sh-Sy5y Human Cellular Model, Vera Marisa Costa, João Paulo Capela, Maria Lourdes Bastos, Fernando Remião, Kurt James Varner, José Alberto Duarte, Félix Carvalho

School of Graduate Studies Faculty Publications

Prolonged overexposure to catecholamines causes toxicity, usually credited to continuous adrenoceptor stimulation, autoxidation, and the formation of reactive pro-oxidant species. Non-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were used to study the possible contribution of oxidative stress in adrenaline (ADR)-induced neurotoxicity, as a model to predict the toxicity of this catecholamine to peripheral nerves. Cells were exposed to several concentrations of ADR (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mM) and two cytotoxicity assays [lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction] were performed at several time-points (24, 48, and 96h). The cytotoxicity of ADR was concentration-and time-dependent in both assays, since the lowest concentration …


The Intersection Of Herbicide Policy, Exposure, And Health At The University Of Connecticut, Katherine Hayward 2023 University of Connecticut

The Intersection Of Herbicide Policy, Exposure, And Health At The University Of Connecticut, Katherine Hayward

Honors Scholar Theses

Pesticides play an extremely complicated role in our everyday lives. From the water you use to make your coffee, to the breastmilk your neighbor provides for their child, to the lake your dog swims in, chemical pesticides or their byproducts have been found in nearly every corner of our lives. The chemicals used in synthetic herbicides, a subcategory of pesticides, have far reaching negative impacts on human health, biodiversity, and water quality. Despite there being numerous published studies on the relationships between pesticide exposures and health, there is still ongoing discord and controversy surrounding their role in our lives. After …


Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Mechanisms Of Cigarette Smoke-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction In Striated Muscle And Aorta, Stephen T. Decker

Doctoral Dissertations

Cigarette Smoke is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, accounting for over 480,000 annual deaths. Of these deaths, the most common cause of mortality in chronic smokers is cardiometabolic diseases. Likewise, a significant portion of smokers experience some form of cardiac, vascular, or metabolic dysfunction throughout their lifetime. More specifically, smoking is shown to induce mitochondrial dysfunction in these tissues, causing an increase in oxidative damage and poor overall health. However, despite the advances in the health outcomes related to cigarette smoke exposure, the mechanisms underlying mitochondrial dysfunction in striated muscle and the vasculature remain …


High Body Mass Index Changes Peri-Tumor Adipose Tissue Which In Turn Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Cora Elizabeth Miracle 2023 Marshall University

High Body Mass Index Changes Peri-Tumor Adipose Tissue Which In Turn Promotes Triple Negative Breast Cancer, Cora Elizabeth Miracle

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, responsible for over half a million deaths each year. There are multiple risk factors associated with the development of cancer. Some of these risks include genetics, smoking, and most recently, obesity (Lewandowska et al., 2019) (De Pergola & Silvestris, 2013). Research has shown that obesity is linked to the promotion of fourteen different cancers, including aggressive triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Patients that are obese are more likely to develop cancer (Park et al., 2014). In addition, if the patient is obese at the time of a cancer diagnosis, they …


Prenatal Buprenorphine Exposure Reduces Expression Of Myelin Proteins In Neonatal Longs-Evans Rat, Christopher James Grahe 2023 Marshall University

Prenatal Buprenorphine Exposure Reduces Expression Of Myelin Proteins In Neonatal Longs-Evans Rat, Christopher James Grahe

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

In the USA and especially in WV, there has been a surge in the rise of opioid use disorder (OUD), and with it a rise in neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). What makes this rise in NAS so unfortunate is that the Medications for OUD (MOUD) do not prevent the development of NAS. Although the relationship between MOUD and NAS is still unclear, it is thought that buprenorphine, one of the main substances used to treat OUD in pregnant women, may feed into the development of NAS, which may affect mental and physiological development and cause other health problems. Via understanding …


El Papel De La Actividad Colinérgica En El Sistema Visual, María Camila Bernal Herrera, Karla Andrea Hernández Martínez 2023 Universidad de La Salle - Colombia

El Papel De La Actividad Colinérgica En El Sistema Visual, María Camila Bernal Herrera, Karla Andrea Hernández Martínez

Optometría

Introducción: Los agroquímicos son sustancias utilizadas con el propósito de prevenir y controlar cualquier tipo de plaga que pueda afectar el sector agrícola. Muchos de estos generan un alto grado de toxicidad, causando daños en la salud de los trabajadores expuestos a pesticidas. Sin embargo, se conoce hasta hace poco que a nivel del sistema visual se puede tener cierta actividad a nivel colinérgico. Por lo cual, se cuestiona como la regulación o cambio en la actividad colinérgica, podría generar cambios a nivel de la superficie ocular. Objetivo general: Determinar el papel de la acetilcolinesterasa y la actividad colinérgica en …


Epc-Exs Improve Astrocyte Survival And Oxidative Stress Through Different Uptaking Pathways In Diabetic Hypoxia Condition, Manasi Suchit Halurkar, Jinju Wang, Shuzhen Chen, Ji Chen Bihl 2022 Wright State University - Main Campus

Epc-Exs Improve Astrocyte Survival And Oxidative Stress Through Different Uptaking Pathways In Diabetic Hypoxia Condition, Manasi Suchit Halurkar, Jinju Wang, Shuzhen Chen, Ji Chen Bihl

Pharmacology and Toxicology Faculty Publications

Background: Hyperglycemia contributes to cardiovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes. We confirmed that high glucose (HG) induces endothelial dysfunction and cerebral ischemic injury is enlarged in diabetic mice. Stem cell-released exosomes have been shown to protect the brain from ischemic stroke. We have previously shown that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)-released exosomes (EPC-EXs) can protect endothelial cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) and HG-induced injury. Here, we aim to investigate the effects of EPC-EXs on astrocytes under H/R and HG-induced injury and whether miR-126 enriched EPC-EXs (miR126-EPC-EXs) have enhanced efficacy. Methods: EPC-EX uptake and co-localization were measured by fluorescent microscopy using …


Investigating The Role Of The Hedgehog Pathway In Connection To Atrazine Endocrine Disruption, Anusha KV Lakshmi Dharmavathi 2022 Purdue University

Investigating The Role Of The Hedgehog Pathway In Connection To Atrazine Endocrine Disruption, Anusha Kv Lakshmi Dharmavathi

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Developmental Behavioral Alterations Following Lead (Pb) Exposure In The Zebrafish Model System, Jenny Chen 2022 Purdue University

Developmental Behavioral Alterations Following Lead (Pb) Exposure In The Zebrafish Model System, Jenny Chen

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Psychological And Psychiatric Characterization Of Various Groups Of Drugs Users, Daniela-Madalina Ciucă Anghel, Elena-Elisabeta Anghel, Miriana Stan, Gheorghe Tudor, Anca Silvia Dumitriu, Stana Paunica, Daniela Luiza Baconi 2022 CAROL DAVILA UNIVERSITY OF MEDICINE AND PHARMACY, DEPARTMENT OF TOXICOLOGY, BUCHAREST, ROMANIA

Psychological And Psychiatric Characterization Of Various Groups Of Drugs Users, Daniela-Madalina Ciucă Anghel, Elena-Elisabeta Anghel, Miriana Stan, Gheorghe Tudor, Anca Silvia Dumitriu, Stana Paunica, Daniela Luiza Baconi

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Aim. We aimed to assess the differences among various groups of drugs users, especially in the psychiatric and psychological domains. Materials and Methods. A retrospective study was carried out in collaboration with C.E.T.T.T `St. Stelian` Institute from Bucharest. There were analyzed the medical records of 604 hospitalized patients with heroin or polydrug addiction. Results. Significant differences in diagnosis at submission among groups were outlined (personality and behavior disorders, p-value = .04298, psychotic disorders, p-value = .004274, schizophrenia, p-value = .000141) as well as significant differences among psychiatric parameters: perception (legal highs, opiates), attention (cannabis), consciousness (legal highs), thinking (legal highs), …


The Intersection Between Toxicology And Aging Research: A Toxic Aging Coin Perspective., John P. Wise Jr. 2022 University of Louisville

The Intersection Between Toxicology And Aging Research: A Toxic Aging Coin Perspective., John P. Wise Jr.

Faculty Scholarship

We are imminently faced with the challenges of an increasingly aging population and longer lifespans due to improved health care. Concomitantly, we are faced with ubiquitous environmental pollution linked with various health effects and age-related diseases which contribute to increased morbidity with age. Geriatric populations are rarely considered in the development of environmental regulations or in toxicology research. Today, life expectancy is often into one’s 80s or beyond, which means multiple decades living as a geriatric individual. Hence, adverse health effects and late-onset diseases might be due to environmental exposures as a geriatric, and we currently have no way of …


Epigenetic Dysregulations In Arsenic-Induced Carcinogenesis, Ranakul Islam, Lei Zhao, Yifang Wang, Grace Lu-Yao, Ling-Zhi Liu 2022 Thomas Jefferson University

Epigenetic Dysregulations In Arsenic-Induced Carcinogenesis, Ranakul Islam, Lei Zhao, Yifang Wang, Grace Lu-Yao, Ling-Zhi Liu

Department of Medical Oncology Faculty Papers

Arsenic is a crucial environmental metalloid whose high toxicity levels negatively impact human health. It poses significant health concerns to millions of people in developed and developing countries such as the USA, Canada, Bangladesh, India, China, and Mexico by enhancing sensitivity to various types of diseases, including cancers. However, how arsenic causes changes in gene expression that results in heinous conditions remains elusive. One of the proposed essential mechanisms that still has seen limited research with regard to causing disease upon arsenic exposure is the dysregulation of epigenetic components. In this review, we have extensively summarized current discoveries in arsenic-induced …


Human Hepatocyte 4-Acetoxy- N, N-Diisopropyltryptamine Metabolite Profiling By Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled With High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Sara Malaca, Marilyn A Huestis, Leonardo Lattanzio, Luigi T Marsella, Adriano Tagliabracci, Jeremy Carlier, Francesco P Busardò 2022 Marche Polytechnic University

Human Hepatocyte 4-Acetoxy- N, N-Diisopropyltryptamine Metabolite Profiling By Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography Coupled With High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry, Sara Malaca, Marilyn A Huestis, Leonardo Lattanzio, Luigi T Marsella, Adriano Tagliabracci, Jeremy Carlier, Francesco P Busardò

College of Health Professions Faculty Papers

Tryptamine intoxications and fatalities are increasing, although these novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are not controlled in most countries. There are few data on the metabolic pathways and enzymes involved in tryptamine biotransformation. 4-acetoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-AcO-DiPT) is a synthetic tryptamine related to 4-hydroxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine (4-OH-DiPT), 4-acetyloxy-N,N-dipropyltryptamine (4-AcO-DPT), and 4-acetoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (4-AcO-DMT). The aim of this study was to determine the best 4-AcO-DiPT metabolites to identify 4-AcO-DiPT consumption through human hepatocyte metabolism and high-resolution mass spectrometry. 4-AcO-DiPT metabolites were predicted in silico with GLORYx freeware to assist in metabolite identification. 4-AcO-DiPT was incubated with 10-donor-pooled human hepatocytes and sample analysis was performed with reversed-phase liquid …


Reports Of Adverse Events Associated With Use Of Novel Psychoactive Substances, 2017-2020: A Review, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan, Melissa F Fogarty, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Marilyn A Huestis, Jeri D Ropero-Miller 2022 Center for Forensic Science Research and Education at the Fredric Rieders Family Foundation

Reports Of Adverse Events Associated With Use Of Novel Psychoactive Substances, 2017-2020: A Review, Amanda L A Mohr, Barry K Logan, Melissa F Fogarty, Alex J Krotulski, Donna M Papsun, Sherri L Kacinko, Marilyn A Huestis, Jeri D Ropero-Miller

Institute of Emerging Health Professions Faculty Papers

An important role of modern forensic and clinical toxicologists is to monitor the adverse events of novel psychoactive substances (NPS). Following a prior review from 2013 to 2016, this critical literature review analyzes and evaluates published case reports for NPS from January 2017 through December 2020. The primary objective of this study is to assist in the assessment and interpretation of these cases as well as provide references for confirmation methods. Chemistry, pharmacology, adverse events and user profiles (e.g., polypharmacy) for NPS are provided including case history, clinical symptoms, autopsy findings and analytical results. Literature reviews were performed in PubMed …


Micro-Rna Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted By Alveolar Macrophages And Epithelial Cells In Response To Cadmium, Anisha Bhakta 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Micro-Rna Analysis Of Extracellular Vesicles Secreted By Alveolar Macrophages And Epithelial Cells In Response To Cadmium, Anisha Bhakta

Biotechnology Theses

Inhalation of cadmium (Cd) has been an environmental health concern with the increase in industrial activities and smoking. Cd exposure is known to affect several organs such as lungs, kidneys, and liver. In this study, we wanted to understand if Cd inhalation exposure can affect the lungs and other organs in the body. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles secreted by all living cells and are known to carry toxicants between organs. We investigated whether Cd exposure could affect exosome biogenesis and their composition. Cd exposure did not affect the viability of A549, a lung epithelial cell line and macrophages derived from …


Evaluation Of Biochemical And Pathological Parameters At Different Doses Of Cisplatin In Experimental Animal Model: Toxicological Study On An Antineoplastic Drug, Farhana Sultana, Muhammed Mohibul Islam, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Nusrat Jahan, Asma Kabir, Talha Bin Emran, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Sujan Banik 2022 Department of Pharmacy, Atish Dipankar University of Science and Technology, Dhaka 1229, Bangladesh

Evaluation Of Biochemical And Pathological Parameters At Different Doses Of Cisplatin In Experimental Animal Model: Toxicological Study On An Antineoplastic Drug, Farhana Sultana, Muhammed Mohibul Islam, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Nusrat Jahan, Asma Kabir, Talha Bin Emran, Bibek Chandra Sutradhar, Sujan Banik

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to assess the effect of cisplatin-induced toxicities on biochemical and pathological parameters such as body, liver, and kidney weights, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) in white Swiss albino mice.

Methods: Cisplatin’s potential toxic effects on body, liver, and kidney weights were evaluated using standard laboratory methods. Blood biochemical levels such as BUN, creatinine, and ALT levels were determined by an auto-hemolyzer using commercial diagnostic kits. Blood cells (RBCs and WBCs) were counted under a microscope by a hemocytometer.

Results: Cisplatin’s potential toxic effects on …


The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez 2022 University of Southern Maine

The Effects Of Paclitaxel On Cellular Migration And The Cytoskeleton, Ashley Salguero-Gonzalez

Thinking Matters Symposium

In a clinical setting, some patients are exposed to an anti-cancer chemotherapy agent, paclitaxel. Cancerous cells undergo rapid, continuous cell division without control. Chemotherapy treatments try to slow and stop the uncontrollable cell division cycles and eliminate cancerous cells in the process. Paclitaxel serves as a treatment for some types of cancers, including lung, melanoma, bladder, and esophageal. Because it targets the cytoskeleton, paclitaxel can also influence cell migration. This project utilizes a cellular migration assay and an immunohistochemistry assay to analyze the effects of paclitaxel on the movement of cells and on the cytoskeleton of neuroglia rat cells with …


Acetaminophen, A Therapeutic Or An Extremely Toxic Remedy – A Review, Genica Caragea, Oana Avram, Andreea Pauna, Andreea Cristina Costea, Miruna Tudosie 2022 Military Medical Research Center Bucharest

Acetaminophen, A Therapeutic Or An Extremely Toxic Remedy – A Review, Genica Caragea, Oana Avram, Andreea Pauna, Andreea Cristina Costea, Miruna Tudosie

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

When a new coronavirus appeared in the late 2019, identified as the cause of several cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, Paracetamol was initially reported to be the preferable antipyretic medication, choice which was detrimental to the use of other drugs. People have resorted to buying large stocks of Paracetamol and some have used it in large doses, regardless of the consequences. However, the Paracetamol (Acetaminophen) overdose remains the leading cause of death or transplantation due to acute liver failure in many parts of the world. This review aims at presenting the pharmacokinetics, the clinical signs, and the risk factors for …


Attenuating Effect Of Vitamin E Against Silver Nano Particles Toxicity In Submandibular Salivary Glands, Mahmoud Bakr, Mahmoud Al Ankily, Sara M. Shogaa, Mohamed Shamel 2021 Griffith University - Australia

Attenuating Effect Of Vitamin E Against Silver Nano Particles Toxicity In Submandibular Salivary Glands, Mahmoud Bakr, Mahmoud Al Ankily, Sara M. Shogaa, Mohamed Shamel

Dentistry

Open AccessArticle

Attenuating Effect of Vitamin E against Silver Nano Particles Toxicity in Submandibular Salivary Glands

by Mahmoud M. Bakr 1,*, Mahmoud M. Al-Ankily 2, Sara M. Shogaa 2 and Mohamed Shamel 2 1 School of Medicine and Dentistry, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4215, Australia 2 Faculty of Dentistry, The British University in Egypt, Cairo 11837, Egypt * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Academic Editors: Ilaria Fratoddi and Frank Alexis Bioengineering 2021, 8(12), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering8120219 Received: 3 November 2021 / Revised: 29 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 16 December 2021 …


Digital Commons powered by bepress