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Low Dose Clenbuterol Toxicity: Case Report And Review Of Literature, Kenneth Lan, Adarsh Saheba, Paul Mathew 2020 HCA Healthcare, Las Palmas Del Sol GME

Low Dose Clenbuterol Toxicity: Case Report And Review Of Literature, Kenneth Lan, Adarsh Saheba, Paul Mathew

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Clenbuterol is a long-acting β-agonist used in oral and inhaled form for asthma treatment outside the U.S. and in veterinary medicine within the U.S. It is also used off-label for anabolic effects worldwide. Toxicity with clenbuterol is increasingly seen in U.S. hospitals, primarily in younger individuals using the drug for competitive athletics or bodybuilding. We present a case of a young patient who presented after an intentional overdose and discuss the relevant literature. Presentations do not correlate with the dosage ingested. Signs and symptoms can range from simple nausea to myocardial ischemia, rhabdomyolysis and cardiogenic shock. Treatment ...


Igf-1r Inhibition Induces Mek Phosphorylation To Promote Survival In Colon Carcinomas, Qing Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Honggang Zheng, Shuntai Chen, Li Chen, Hsin-Sheng Yang 2020 University of Kentucky

Igf-1r Inhibition Induces Mek Phosphorylation To Promote Survival In Colon Carcinomas, Qing Wang, Yan Zhang, Jiang Zhu, Honggang Zheng, Shuntai Chen, Li Chen, Hsin-Sheng Yang

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) governs several signaling pathways for cell proliferation, survival, and anti-apoptosis. Thus, targeting IGF-1R appears as a reasonable rationale for tumor treatment. However, clinical studies showed that inhibition of IGF-1R has very limited efficacy due to the development of resistance to IGF-1R blockade in tumor cells. Here, we discovered that prolonged treatment of colon cancer cells with IGF-1R inhibitors (BMS-754807 and GSK1838705A) stimulates p70 KDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (p70S6K1) activation, a well-known kinase signaling for cell survival. We also found that p70S6K1 activation by IGF-1R inhibition is independent of K-Ras and PIK3CA ...


Opioid Dependency And Its Effects On Alcohol Consumption, Emily V. Flores 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

Opioid Dependency And Its Effects On Alcohol Consumption, Emily V. Flores

Psychology and Counseling Theses

Previous research has found dualistic effects on alcohol consumption with low doses of buprenorphine increasing alcohol and higher doses of buprenorphine reducing alcohol consumption in rats (Ciccocioppo et al., 2006). Other existing research on naloxone treatment and alcohol consumption in opioid use has demonstrated that alcohol consumption decreases after naloxone treatment in rats (Hyytia & Sinclair, 1993). Yet, no research has been conducted on either rats or humans on the effects of buprenorphine and naloxone medication combined. The effects of opioid maintenance therapy are controversial and the relationship between alcohol consumption and opioid dependency treatment is mainly based on literature review ...


Hdac6 Mediates Macrophage Inos Expression And Excessive Nitric Oxide Production In The Blood During Endotoxemia, Yan Wang, Ke Wang, Jian Fu 2020 University of Kentucky

Hdac6 Mediates Macrophage Inos Expression And Excessive Nitric Oxide Production In The Blood During Endotoxemia, Yan Wang, Ke Wang, Jian Fu

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Excessive nitric oxide (NO) production and NO-mediated nitrative stress contribute to vascular dysfunction, inflammation, and tissue injury in septic shock. New therapeutic targets are urgently needed to provide better control of NO level during septic shock. In the present study, we investigated the role of HDAC6 in the regulation of NO production and nitrative stress in a mouse model of endotoxin-induced septic shock. HDAC6 deficient mice and a specific HDAC6 inhibitor were utilized in our studies. Our data clearly indicate that HDAC6 is an important mediator of NO production in macrophages. HDAC6 mediates NO production through the regulation of iNOS ...


Mobilizing Toxins For Cancer Treatment: Historical Perspectives And Current Strategies., Jessica Kopenhaver, Robert D Carlson, Adam E Snook 2020 Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, United States

Mobilizing Toxins For Cancer Treatment: Historical Perspectives And Current Strategies., Jessica Kopenhaver, Robert D Carlson, Adam E Snook

Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Faculty Papers

The level of complexity in a disease like cancer presents a number of challenges for effective treatment development, which require significant innovation to overcome [...].


Resolving Metabolic Heterogeneity In Experimental Models Of The Tumor Microenvironment From A Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Perspective, Teresa W-M Fan, Richard M. Higashi, Yelena Chernayavskaya, Andrew N. Lane 2020 University of Kentucky

Resolving Metabolic Heterogeneity In Experimental Models Of The Tumor Microenvironment From A Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics Perspective, Teresa W-M Fan, Richard M. Higashi, Yelena Chernayavskaya, Andrew N. Lane

Center for Environmental and Systems Biochemistry Faculty Publications

The tumor microenvironment (TME) comprises complex interactions of multiple cell types that determines cell behavior and metabolism such as nutrient competition and immune suppression. We discuss the various types of heterogeneity that exist in solid tumors, and the complications this invokes for studies of TME. As human subjects and in vivo model systems are complex and difficult to manipulate, simpler 3D model systems that are compatible with flexible experimental control are necessary for studying metabolic regulation in TME. Stable Isotope Resolved Metabolomics (SIRM) is a valuable tool for tracing metabolic networks in complex systems, but at present does not directly ...


Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade 2020 United States Food and Drug Administration

Considerations In The Extrapolation Drug Toxicity Between Humans And Dogs, Marilyn N. Martinez, Jonathan P. Mochel, Devendra Pade

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The dog is an important species used in preclinical studies in support of human drug product development. Likewise, because of the many active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with therapeutic relevance to both humans and dogs, extrapolation can also occur in the reverse, from human to dog. In either situation, it is important to appreciate species-specific factors influencing drug pharmacokinetics (absorption, metabolism, disposition, and elimination) and the potential impact of disease on the applicability of these extrapolations. Furthermore, tools such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models not only enable investigators to extrapolate species-specific data on systemic or organ exposure to the parent ...


Analysis Of The Soil Lead Contamination Issue Of South Chattanooga, Tesros Cherian 2020 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Analysis Of The Soil Lead Contamination Issue Of South Chattanooga, Tesros Cherian

Honors Theses

Childhood lead poisoning is an ongoing health threat despite actions taken by governmental bodies to remove lead from gasoline, paint, and other various household objects in which lead is found. In South Chattanooga specifically, lead has been found in the soil at such a level it is considered a public health threat, especially to children under the age of six. This situation has caused the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to name the South Chattanooga area as a Superfund site known as the Southside Chattanooga Lead Superfund site. This designation has resulted in multiple community meetings between EPA officials and Chattanooga ...


Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick 2020 Wayne State University

Renal Safety And Racial Disparity In Patients On Antiviral Treatment For Chronic Hepatitis B, Matthew Miller, Sindhuri Benjaram, Raya Kutaimy, Paul Naylor, Elizabeth May, Murray Ehrinpreis, Milton Mutchnick

Medical Student Research Symposium

Background:

Many African Americans (AA) are chronically infected with Hepatitis B (HBV). While antiviral therapy is highly effective, clinical trials suggest a treatment-related decline in kidney function is possible. Given that chronic HBV predominately affects Asians worldwide, most studies have contained few AA patients. We evaluated these treatment-related kidney function changes in our predominately AA patient population.

Methods:

From 225 HBV patients, we identified 42 patients who were not co-infected with HIV or HCV, had a recent visit, and at least one earlier visit (before Jan 2017). If on treatment with antivirals it must have been for at least 2 ...


A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson 2020 Tufts University School of Medicine; Maine Medical Center

A Phantom Of The Past: Withdrawal From Meprobamate Presenting With Focal Seizures., Thomas M. Zink, John E. Erickson

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction: Meprobamate (Miltown, Equinil) is a sedative-hypnotic medication that first gained popularity as an anxiolytic and later as a muscle relaxant. It is a major metabolite of the more commonly used muscle relaxant carisoprodol (Soma). In vitro and electroencephalogram studies demonstrated that meprobamate modulates gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, similar to barbiturates. Withdrawal from meprobamate manifests in symptoms ranging from mild anxiety to severe autonomic instability and death. Meprobamate is rarely prescribed, but is still given to a small subset of elderly patients.

Clinical findings: In this case of meprobamate withdrawal, the patient initially displayed altered mental status and recurrent seizures ...


The Role Of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 9 In Enhanced Aggressiveness Of Hexavalent Chromium Transformed Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Peter Van Wie 2020 University of Kentucky

The Role Of Neural Precursor Cell Expressed Developmentally Down-Regulated Protein 9 In Enhanced Aggressiveness Of Hexavalent Chromium Transformed Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Peter Van Wie

Theses and Dissertations--Toxicology and Cancer Biology

Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is classified as a confirmed human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research and Cancer (IARC) and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Chronic exposure to (Cr(VI)) causes malignant cell transformation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. These Cr(VI)-transformed cells exhibit a highly aggressive phenotype including increased migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. The Cas family protein neuronal precursor developmentally down regulated protein 9 (NEDD9/Cas-L/HEF1) was dramatically overexpressed in Cr(VI)-transformed cells compared to normal BEAS-2B cells. Knockdown of NEDD9 by its shRNA reduced migration and invasion in vitro measured ...


The Effects Of Autophagy And Senescence On Sensitivity To Cisplatin In Head And Neck Cancer, Zara H. Siddiqui 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Effects Of Autophagy And Senescence On Sensitivity To Cisplatin In Head And Neck Cancer, Zara H. Siddiqui

Theses and Dissertations

While current treatments in cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiation, can generally be effective in eliminating disease in patients, there also exists the possibility of recurrence of cancer cells over time. In patients diagnosed with locally advanced head and neck carcinoma, about 50-60% develop a loco-regional recurrence within two years, and 20-30% of patients develop metastatic disease at distant sites in the body [5]. On a cellular level, one mechanism for this survival may be that natural mechanisms such as autophagy and senescence play a role in allowing cells to survive after undergoing treatment. One standard of care chemotherapy for ...


Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters 2019 Ohio Northern University

Use Of Botulinum Toxin In Central Nervous System Disorders, Julie Puvogel, Paige Torbet, Jourdan Ujlaki, Rebecca Worden, Lindsey Peters

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin that is produced by Clostridium botulinum. At one time, this toxin was only seen as a lethal substance, but now scientists have found many medical uses for it. There are eight distinctive toxins (A-H), but only A and B currently have clinical uses. Botulinum toxin A has three different versions that are U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved: onabotulinumtoxinA (Botox®), abobotulinumtoxinA (Dysport®), incobotulinumtoxinA (Xeomin®). Botulinum toxin B is also FDA approved as rimabotulinumtoxinB (Myobloc®). The toxins work by inducing reversible, local, dose-dependent chemodenervation by inhibiting acetylcholine release from presynaptic terminals. These drugs are ...


A Pharmacist's Role In Educating On The Health Risks Of Smoking During Pregnancy And Helping Patients With Smoking Cessation, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long 2019 Ohio Northern University

A Pharmacist's Role In Educating On The Health Risks Of Smoking During Pregnancy And Helping Patients With Smoking Cessation, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Brian Heilbronner, Brittany L. Long

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

While many people know smoking causes cancer, heart disease and other major health problems, smoking during pregnancy causes additional fetal health complications including birth defects, premature birth and infant death. Cigarettes contain carbon monoxide and nicotine, both of which can cause a decrease in oxygen delivery to the fetus' developing tissues causing organs like the brain, lungs, kidneys and ears not to develop properly. If children are exposed to these toxins through secondhand smoke after birth, they are more likely to experience severe health problems such as ear infections, cataracts, lung cancer and heart disease. It is also known that ...


Latest Trends In The Heroin Epidemic And The Responsibility Of The Pharmacist In Controlling Heroin Abuse, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Sabrina Hamman, Manoranjan D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Latest Trends In The Heroin Epidemic And The Responsibility Of The Pharmacist In Controlling Heroin Abuse, Alexandra Herman, Cassandra Hacker, Emily Wells, Sabrina Hamman, Manoranjan D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Over the last few years, there has been an exponential increase in morbidity and mortality associated with heroin abuse. The current rise in heroin abuse and overdose is attributed to widespread use and abuse of prescription opioids, which can produce significant euphoric effects in humans. In fact, reports suggest that heroin abusers initially become addicted to prescription opioids but subsequently switch to heroin because it is cheaper and more easily available than prescription opioids. Over the years, the purity of heroin available for illicit use has been on the decline. Smugglers and heroin vendors have started mixing heroin with other ...


Medication Overdoses In The Emergency Department: Oral Hypoglycemic Agents, Atypical Antipsychotic Agents, Beta-Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, And Digoxin, Brooke Marlowe, Tara Tokar, Kayti Kintner, Kelsey Fink, Grant Walliser 2019 Ohio Northern University

Medication Overdoses In The Emergency Department: Oral Hypoglycemic Agents, Atypical Antipsychotic Agents, Beta-Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, And Digoxin, Brooke Marlowe, Tara Tokar, Kayti Kintner, Kelsey Fink, Grant Walliser

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

The number of medication toxicities has been steadily increasing with more patients presenting to the emergency department for both intentional and unintentional overdoses. Oral hypoglycemics, atypical antipsychotics, betablockers, calcium channel blockers and digoxin overdoses are some of the more common medication toxicities health care professionals may see in practice. Toxic doses of oral hypoglycemic agents, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers and digoxin have more definitive options for treatment, while atypical antipsychotic overdoses are managed with supportive care. Pharmacists in particular play a pivotal role in identifying presenting symptoms and recommending appropriate treatment options in toxicological emergencies.


Drugs Of Abuse: A Review Of Tramadol Abuse, Brittany Crowe, Tiffany Kneuss, Benjamin Finley, Kelsey Fink, Manoranjan S. D'Souza 2019 Ohio Northern University

Drugs Of Abuse: A Review Of Tramadol Abuse, Brittany Crowe, Tiffany Kneuss, Benjamin Finley, Kelsey Fink, Manoranjan S. D'Souza

Pharmacy and Wellness Review

Prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing drug problem in America. Among the different prescription drugs being abused, analgesics are the most commonly abused group of drugs. In the last few years, there is increasing evidence of abuse of tramadol, which is an atypical, centrally acting opioid analgesic. The increasing abuse of tramadol has prompted regulatory authorities to strengthen the product labeling of tramadol with respect to its abuse potential. Furthermore, several states have added tramadol to their controlled substances list. In this article, we will review the pharmacology of tramadol and some of the preclinical and clinical studies that ...


Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry For Prediction Of Mouse Lung Deposition Of Nanoaerosol Particles, Mohammed Ali 2019 The University of Texas at Tyler

Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry For Prediction Of Mouse Lung Deposition Of Nanoaerosol Particles, Mohammed Ali

Mohammed Ali

Nanoaerosolized particle (dia.<200 >nm) antibiotic inhalation therapy was tested to treat pneumonic tularemia in mice caused by Francisella novicida infection. Very limited experimental techniques are available to properly estimate inhaled doses and distribution of the drug inside the mouse lungs. To overcome this problem, computational simulation of particle deposition based on the Multiple Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model was employed to simulate in vivo experimental conditions which included nasal breathing with whole body exposure to the antibiotic in the form of nano-aerosolized medicine. The deposition results were compared with several in vivo experimental data reported in literature; and satisfactory agreements ...


Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Macrophage Activation: An Insight Into The Mechanism Of Thioredoxin-Mediated Immune Activation, Chontida Yarana, Hannah Thompson, Luksana Chaiswing, D. Allan Butterfield, Heidi L. Weiss, Subbarao Bondada, Sara S. Alhakeem, Suriyan Sukati, Daret K. St. Clair 2019 Mahidol University, Thailand

Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Macrophage Activation: An Insight Into The Mechanism Of Thioredoxin-Mediated Immune Activation, Chontida Yarana, Hannah Thompson, Luksana Chaiswing, D. Allan Butterfield, Heidi L. Weiss, Subbarao Bondada, Sara S. Alhakeem, Suriyan Sukati, Daret K. St. Clair

Toxicology and Cancer Biology Faculty Publications

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) generated from redox active anticancer drugs are released into the extracellular environment. These EVs contain oxidized molecules and trigger inflammatory responses by macrophages. Using a mouse model of doxorubicin (DOX)-induced tissue injury, we previously found that the major sources of circulating EVs are from heart and liver, organs that are differentially affected by DOX. Here, we investigated the effects of EVs from cardiomyocytes and those from hepatocytes on macrophage activation. EVs from H9c2 rat cardiomyocytes (H9c2 EVs) and EVs from FL83b mouse hepatocytes (FL83 b EVs) have different levels of protein-bound 4-hydroxynonenal and thus different immunostimulatory ...


Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior As A Predictor Of Radiologic Technologists' Use Of Patient Radiation Protection Best Practices: A Regional Study, Brenda L. Boyd 2019 Andrews University

Using The Theory Of Planned Behavior As A Predictor Of Radiologic Technologists' Use Of Patient Radiation Protection Best Practices: A Regional Study, Brenda L. Boyd

Brenda Boyd, PhD

Problem. A growing concern exists that patients are receiving an increase in radiation exposure while undergoing medical imaging exams. According to a March 2009 report by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), the U.S. population's total exposure to ionizing radiation has nearly doubled over the past two decades. With the introduction of new digital radiology equipment, patient dose is on the rise. Possible reasons for a radiologic technologist's behavior include: influence by availability or lack of equipment, policies, social pressure, attitudes, and a safety culture. Little research has been done in this area, specifically ...


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